Monthly Archives: September 2015

MATTHEW 7/LUKE 13 WE ARE KNOWN BY OUR FRUITS/SEEDS

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TANYA NAME MEANING

Fairy Queen

For other uses, see Fairy Queen (disambiguation).

Prince Arthur and the Fairy Queen by Johann Heinrich Füssli, c. 1788.

The Fairy Queen or Queen of the Fairies was a figure from folklore who was believed to rule the fairies. Based on Shakespeare’s influence, in English-speaking cultures she is often named Titania or Mab.

In Irish folklore, the last High Queen of the Daoine Sidhe – and wife of the High King Finvarra – was named Oona (or Oonagh, or Una, or Uonaidh etc.). In the ballad tradition of Northern England and Lowland Scotland, she was called the Queen of Elphame.

The character is also associated with the name Morgan (as with the Arthurian character of Morgan Le Fey, or Morgan of the Fairies), Meave, and L’annawnshee (literally, Underworld Fairy). In the Child Ballads Tam Lin (Child 39) and Thomas the Rhymer (Child 37), she is represented as both beautiful and seductive, and also as terrible and deadly. The Fairy Queen is said to pay a tithe to Hell every seven years, and her mortal lovers often provide this sacrifice. In Tam Lin, the title character tells his mortal lover:

At the end of seven years She pays a tithe to Hell I so fair and full of flesh

I fear it be myself

Both Edmund Spenser and William Shakespeare used folklore concerning the Fairy Queen to create characters and poetry, Spenser in The Faerie Queene and Shakespeare most notably in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. In The Faerie Queene, Spencer’s fairy queen is named Gloriana, and is also referred to as Tanaquill, which “appears to be an epithet for Gloriana, Queen of Faeries” derived from the name of the wife of Tarquinius Priscus. [1] She is the daughter of Oberon, who in Shakespeare’s later play is married to Titania, a name derived from Ovid as an epithet of the Roman goddess Diana. Diana was regularly portrayed as the ruler of the fairy kingdom in demonological literature, such as king James VI of Scotland’s Daemonologie, which says that she belongs to “the fourth kind of spirits, which by the Gentiles [non-Jews] was called Diana and her wandering court, and amongst us is called Fairy (as I told you) or our good neighbours”. [2]

In one of the earliest of the Peter Pan novels, The Little White Bird, author J.M. Barrie also identifies Queen Mab as the name of the fairy queen, although the character is entirely benign and helpful. In Disney’s series of films based on Tinker Bell, a fairy character originating in Barrie’s novels, the fairies are shown to be ruled by a Queen Clarion.

The concept of a Dianic queen of spirits influenced the neopagan cultures developed from Charles Godfrey Leland’s concept of Aradia “Queen of the Witches” . [3] The Faerie faith developed into the McFarland Dianic tradition.

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Tanya is the Russian hypocoristic of Tatiana. It is now quite commonly used as an independent given name in the English-speaking world. [1]

Its popularity grew in many respects thanks to Pushkin’s poem Eugene Onegin whose main character was Tatiana Larina, beloved by Onegin.

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The Seven Churches of Revelation, also known as The Seven Churches of the Apocalypse and The Seven Churches of Asia (referring to the Roman province of Asia, not the entire continent), are seven major churches of Early Christianity, as mentioned in the New Testament Book of Revelation. In Revelation, on the Greek island of Patmos, Jesus Christ instructs his servant John of Patmos, through an angelic intermediary, to: “Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamos, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.” [1]

“Churches” in this context refers to the community or local congregations of Christians living in each city, and not merely to the building or buildings in which they gathered for worship. [2][3]

The seven churches are located in:

Ephesus (Metropolis of Ephesus)

Smyrna (Metropolis of Smyrna)

Pergamon (Metropolis of Pergamon)

Thyatira

Sardis (See of Sardis)

Philadelphia (Metropolis of Philadelphia)

and Laodicea, near Denizli (see Laodicean Church

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REVELATION 1: 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:1:2 Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.1:3 Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand.1:4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;1:5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,1:6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.1:9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.1:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.1:14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;1:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.1:17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:1:18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.1:19 Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;1:20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches. Revelation

BIG BEAR/MAZZAROTH/BIG DIPPER/7 Stars/PLEIADES

RUSSIA… BEAR

REVELATION 4: 4:1 After this I looked, and, behold, a door was opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.4:2 And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne.4:3 And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald.4:4 And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold.4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.4:6 And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were four beasts full of eyes before and behind.4:7 And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle.4:8 And the four beasts had each of them six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, LORD God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come.4:9 And when those beasts give glory and honour and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever, Revelation

JOHN 17

ISN’T JESUS THE MATERIAL FLESH EMBODIMENT OF GOD? SO, WHO IS JESUS PRAYING TO? WHY IS HE PRAYING TO HIMSELF? WHO IS JESUS PRAYING FOR?

MATTHEW 13 SEED OF THE SOWER/WE UNDERSTAND THE PARABLES..DO YOU?
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PARABLES IN THE BIBLE

CAN U HEAR ME NOW?

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A LEADER WILL FALTER BUT A STONE WILL ENDURE..

REVELATION 2:17

BABYLON FALL

ISAIAH 4:1

NO MORE SEA?

PARABLE DECODED: NO MORE PISCE, JESUS SYMBOL OF THE FISH

ANGELS AND DEMONS MOVIE: RING OF THE FISHERMEN

PISCES HOOVER DAM

WHAT DOES A DAM DO? Pours out/binds waters to create energy…as in 7 stars energy

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MY VID AMOS 5 8 PREACHER

1 KINGS 18:10 As the LORD thy God liveth, there is no nation or kingdom, whither my lord hath not sent to seek thee: and when they said, He is not there; he took an oath of the kingdom and nation, that they found thee not.18:11 And now thou sayest, Go, tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here.18:12 And it shall come to pass, as soon as I am gone from thee, that the Spirit of the LORD shall carry thee whither I know not; and so when I come and tell Ahab, and he cannot find thee, he shall slay me: but I thy servant fear the LORD from my youth.18:13 Was it not told my lord what I did when Jezebel slew the prophets of the LORD, how I hid an hundred men of the LORD’s prophets by fifty in a cave, and fed them with bread and water?18:14 And now thou sayest, Go, tell thy lord, Behold, Elijah is here: and he shall slay me.18:15 And Elijah said, As the LORD of hosts liveth, before whom I stand, I will surely shew myself unto him to day.18:16 So Obadiah went to meet Ahab, and told him: and Ahab went to meet Elijah.18:17 And it came to pass, when Ahab saw Elijah, that Ahab said unto him, Art thou he that troubleth Israel?18:18 And he answered, I have not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy father’s house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the LORD, and thou hast followed Baalim.18:19 Now therefore send, and gather to me all Israel unto mount Carmel, and the prophets of Baal four hundred and fifty, and the prophets of the groves four hundred, which eat at Jezebel’s table.18:20 So Ahab sent unto all the children of Israel, and gathered the prophets together unto mount Carmel.18:21 And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD be God, follow him: but if Baal, then follow him. And the people answered him not a word.18:22 Then said Elijah unto the people, I, even I only, remain a prophet of the LORD; but Baal’s prophets are four hundred and fifty men.18:23 Let them therefore give us two bullocks; and let them choose one bullock for themselves, and cut it in pieces, and lay it on wood, and put no fire under: and I will dress the other bullock, and lay it on wood, and put no fire under:18:24 And call ye on the name of your gods, and I will call on the name of the LORD: and the God that answereth by fire, let him be God. And all the people answered and said, It is well spoken.18:25 And Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal, Choose you one bullock for yourselves, and dress it first; for ye are many; and call on the name of your gods, but put no fire under.18:26 And they took the bullock which was given them, and they dressed it, and called on the name of Baal from morning even until noon, saying, O Baal, hear us. But there was no voice, nor any that answered. And they leaped upon the altar which was made.18:27 And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud: for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked.18:28 And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their manner with knives and lancets, till the blood gushed out upon them.18:29 And it came to pass, when midday was past, and they prophesied until the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that there was neither voice, nor any to answer, nor any that regarded.18:30 And Elijah said unto all the people, Come near unto me. And all the people came near unto him. And he repaired the altar of the LORD that was broken down.18:31 And Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, unto whom the word of the LORD came, saying, Israel shall be thy name:18:32 And with the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD: and he made a trench about the altar, as great as would contain two measures of seed.18:33 And he put the wood in order, and cut the bullock in pieces, and laid him on the wood, and said, Fill four barrels with water, and pour it on the burnt sacrifice, and on the wood.18:34 And he said, Do it the second time. And they did it the second time. And he said, Do it the third time. And they did it the third time.18:35 And the water ran round about the altar; and he filled the trench also with water.18:36 And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said, LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that thou art God in Israel, and that I am thy servant, and that I have done all these things at thy word.18:37 Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that thou art the LORD God, and that thou hast turned their heart back again.18:38 Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.18:39 And when all the people saw it, they fell on their faces: and they said, The LORD, he is the God; the LORD, he is the God.18:40 And Elijah said unto them, Take the prophets of Baal; let not one of them escape. And they took them: and Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon, and slew them there.18:41 And Elijah said unto Ahab, Get thee up, eat and drink; for there is a sound of abundance of rain.18:42 So Ahab went up to eat and to drink. And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; and he cast himself down upon the earth, and put his face between his knees,18:43 And said to his servant, Go up now, look toward the sea. And he went up, and looked, and said, There is nothing. And he said, Go again seven times.18:44 And it came to pass at the seventh time, that he said, Behold, there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea, like a man’s hand. And he said, Go up, say unto Ahab, Prepare thy chariot, and get thee down that the rain stop thee not.18:45 And it came to pass in the mean while, that the heaven was black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain. And Ahab rode, and went to Jezreel.18:46 And the hand of the LORD was on Elijah; and he girded up his loins, and ran before Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel. 1 Kings

LUKE 13

LUKE 13: 13:5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.

13:6 He spake also this parable; A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.

13:7 Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig tree, and find none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?

13:8 And he answering said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it:

13:9 And if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down.

13:10 And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.

13:11 And, behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself.

13:12 And when Jesus saw her, he called her to him, and said unto her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity.

13:13 And he laid his hands on her: and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God.

13:14 And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath day.

13:15 The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him away to watering?

13:16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath day?

13:17 And when he had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.

13:18 Then said he, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and whereunto shall I resemble it?

13:19 It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and cast into his garden; and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.

13:20 And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?

13:24 Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able.

13:25 When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are:

13:26 Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets.

13:28 There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out.

13:29 And they shall come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God. Luke

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MATTHEW 7 BEAM IN YOUR EYE

Aliearia

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WORLD PEACEMAKERS/AMERICAN SNIPER/PASHTUNWALI

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AMERICAN SNIPER..A TRUE STORY
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3 CODES…PASHTUNWALI

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LES AND ETHNIC GROUPS –PASHTUNWALI: THE CODE

Pashtunwali literally means ‘the way of the Pashtuns’, and is a tribal honor code that has governed the Pashtun way of life for centuries. Pashtunwali is practiced by Pashtuns in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and by Pashtun refugees around the world. Although it pre-dates Islam the two have become inseparable for many Pashtuns, even though in practice Pashtunwali codes often contradict the Qur’an. Such is the case with the Pashtun practice of dividing inheritances equally among sons, even though the Qur’an clearly states that women are to receive an equal share. There are many primary and secondary codes that govern every aspect of Pashtun life, but key codes are:

Melmastia – is hospitality, but not in the sense that Americans understand it. This hospitality requires that any person be afforded the host’s protection. While in the care and company of a host, a guest should neither be harmed nor surrendered to an enemy. Hospitality and protection must be offered to all visitors without expectation of favor. Any Pashtun who can gain access to the house of another Pashtun can claim asylum there, regardless of the previous relationship between the two parties. Badal –may be understood as vengeance, revenge or justice. It requires violent reaction to a death, injury or insult. Advances on one’s zan, [ZAHN] zar [ZAHR] or zamin [ZAH-meen] (“women,” “wealth,” or “land”) are the most common offenses requiring revenge. The only acceptable defense of honor is revenge, equal to but not exceeding the original insult. Avenging an insult to a woman’s sexual purity is particularly important. Zamaka – involves the protection of one’s land or property. Nanawatay – asylum, mercy. Derived from the verb meaning “to go in”, this is used to describe protection extended to a person who requests protection against his/her enemies even if the request for asylum and protection is sought AMONG the enemy. The person seeking peace is expected to ritually humiliate himself in some way. The act of self-humiliation is supposed to elicit a magnanimous gesture of forgiveness and leniency from the foe-turned-protector. Once nanawatay is requested and granted, the requestor is protected at all costs. This principle may also be used when a vanquished party is prepared to enter the house of the victor and ask for their forgiveness.

Question: “Why did Lot offer up his daughters to be gang raped? Why did God allow Lot’s daughters to later have sex with their father?”

Answer: The first incident involving Lot’s daughters appears in Genesis 19:1–11. Two men who were really angels appeared in Sodom where Lot lived with his family. The wicked men of the city surrounded Lot’s house seeking to have homosexual relations with the angels. Lot begged the men of the city not to do this evil thing, and he offered up his two virgin daughters to them instead.

The second incident (Genesis 19:30–38) occurs after Lot and his daughters had fled Sodom just before its destruction. Lot’s wife was destroyed for her disobedience during the journey, and Lot and his two daughters fled to live in a cave in a mountain. Afraid they would never have husbands or children in their hideout, Lot’s daughters plotted to make their father drunk so they could sleep with him and thereby assure that they would have children.

To our modern sensibilities, it’s hard to understand why God would allow these two terrible incidents to occur. We are told in 1 Corinthians 10:11 that the record of the Old Testament is for an “example” to us. In other words, God gives us the whole truth about biblical characters, their sin, their failures, their victories and good deeds, and we are to learn from their example, what to do and what not to do. In fact, this is one of the ways God teaches us what we need to know in order to make good choices as believers. We can learn the easy way by knowing and obeying God’s Word, we can learn the hard way by suffering the consequences of our mistakes, or we can learn by watching others and “taking heed” from their experiences.

Scripture does not reveal Lot’s reasoning for offering up his daughters. Whatever his thought process was, it was wrong and indefensible. Based on what is revealed about Lot’s life, one might wonder if he was righteous. However, there is no doubt that God had declared him to be positionally righteous, even during his time in Sodom. “And if God rescued righteous Lot, oppressed by the sensual conduct of unprincipled men (for by what he saw and heard that righteous man, while living among them, felt his righteous soul tormented day after day with their lawless deeds)” (2 Peter 2:7–8). At some point Lot had believed in the coming Messiah, and that faith resulted in a righteous standing before God. It is likely that Lot’s uncle, Abraham, had passed this truth down to him.

What we have in the story of Lot is an illustration of a man who once lived close to his godly relatives and had backslidden and was living according to his sin nature. Lot had moved to Sodom, even though he knew what it was, and he “sat in the gate” (Genesis 19:1). That sounds quite simple, but, in fact, sitting in the gate meant that Lot had so entered into the society of Sodom that he was a judge there (Genesis 19:9). In spite of his position, the men of Sodom had no respect for him because they knew he was a hypocrite.

We may sit in judgment of the culture of that day, but protecting one’s guests required great sacrifice. Was Lot right to offer his own daughters in place of the men the Sodomites wanted? No. We can see in the story that the Lord’s messengers protected Lot and his daughters in spite of Lot’s lack of character and worldly viewpoint. Lot meant to appease the men of Sodom so that the hospitality of his house would not be damaged, but he makes the wrong choice in offering his own daughters, and God’s messengers overruled him.

Genesis 19:31–32 tells us that Lot’s daughters believed there would be no man for them and no children. This may be because they saw the destruction of Sodom and believed they were the only people left on earth. They were trying to preserve the family line. Why did Lot have sex with his own daughters? He got drunk. Yes, his daughters conspired to get him drunk, but Lot willingly drank and, when he was drunk, he lost what little control and common sense he had (Genesis 19:30–38), and this is the final step in Lot’s backsliding. The lesson can we learn from this is, when a person has too much to drink, he does not make good choices and loses control of his morals and operates out of the sinful, carnal nature. As a result of the incest, two children were born, and those two children are the fathers of two nations that have been at odds with and the source of much suffering to Israel down through history.

Why did God allow Lot to offer his daughters, and why did He allow them to commit incest? Sometimes God gives us His reasons for doing something but not very often. The more we get to know God, the more we understand Him and His reasons for doing things. But, again, this doesn’t always happen. We must be very careful when we ask why God does something and be sure we are not calling into question God Himself, His judgment, His character, and His very nature.

The psalmist tells us, “As for God, His way is perfect” (Psalm 18:30). If God’s ways are “perfect,” then we can trust that whatever He does—and the reason for whatever He allows—is also perfect. This may not seem possible to us, but our minds are not God’s mind. It is true that we can’t expect to understand His mind perfectly, as He reminds us, “For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, says the LORD. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts” (Isaiah 55:8–9). Nevertheless, our responsibility to God is to obey Him, to trust Him, and to submit to His will, whether we understand it or not.

Lot did the things he did because he chose to live in his old sin nature and do what was easy, and he made choices to flirt with evil instead of living to honor God. As a result, there was suffering for Lot, his wife and daughters, and, by association, the nation of Israel for years to come. The lesson for us is that we need to make choices that do not conform to the world and to submit to the Word of God, which will guide us into living lives that are pleasing to God.

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You are here: Home » Afghanistan What Everybody Should Know About the Pashtunwali and Torah

By Yasmin Eliaz, Bar Ilan University Location Afghanistan January 8, 2014 10:29 pm ·

Pashtunwali, the unwritten code of conduct for the Pashtun people, and the Jewish Torah surprisingly contain many striking similarities.

The code of honor of the

Pashtun people, known as the “Pashtunwali,” is a set of rules and laws to live which includes many similarities to the holy Jewish Torah, the book of the lost tribes (Bnei Israel). Since my native language is Hebrew, I’d like to take the opportunity to prove this argument from the book by comparing it to the Pashtunwali:

1. Melmastia (hospitality) one of the most important rules of the Pashtunwali, is to be hospitable to every person who comes to your home. At the beginning of the Torah there is a story about 3 foreigners coming to Abraham’s house. Within a few minutes, he is letting them in, serving them with cakes, butter, milk and meat [Genesis (“Bereshit”), 10: 1-8]. 2. Badal (revenge) principle of honor, to revenge. In the Torah, there is a privilege to revenge the death of a person by his family [Deuteronomy (“Dvarim”), chapter 19: 2], under the rule of “eye under eye” – if a person killed your animal, you’re allowed to kill his animal, and so on [Leviticus (“Vayikra”), 24: 17-20]. In other Bibles and traditions we find similar stories [For example, book “Shmuel”]. 3. Nanawatei (asylum) a person may seek a refuge and shelter against his enemy. The Torah lists 6 refuge cities in case a person killed someone and needs protection [Numbers (BaMidbar), 35+ Deuteronomy 19]. 4. Turah (bravery) the protection over the land and family. We see in the Torah that a man must defend his tribe, and not only that but to make sure that his kids are married with partners from the same tribe. A special position is mentioned for widows, in which the man has to protect her [Deuteronomy 25:. 5-10]. 5. Sabat (loyalty) to your tribe and family. In the Torah we find the loyalty mostly for God in the Ten Commandments which refers to being loyal to God by keeping the Sabbath [Exodus (Shmot), 20:8]. 6. Lmandari (righteousness) – behaving in a respectful and decent way. The Torah’s Commandments describe it as “not commit adultery/false witness against neighbor/not covet/not steal/not murder/and etc [Ibid, 20: 2-14]. 7. Isteqamat (Believe/trust in God) in Torah – “I am God.. no other gods before me”[Ibid, 20: 2]. 8. Ghayrat (courage) demonstration of respect. Yaakov’s daughter, Dina, is being raped in the Torah by a foreigner. Her brothers, Shimon (Shinwari) and Levi, in response, murder not only the rapist but his father and all of his town’s residents [Genesis, 34]. 9. Naamus (woman’s respect) the Torah refers to the woman as a mom “Honor your mother” (Commandments) and obligates a man to provide his wife food, cloth and intercourse [Numbers, 35: 10] in the case of a man raping a girl, he must marry her in order to protect her honor and pay her father compensation [Deuteronomy, 22: 28-29]. 10. Nang – “defend the weak” – this is a key rule in the Torah: the widow and orphan are most vulnerable and the protection over them must be taken under consideration [Exodus, 22: 20-23, as well Deuteronomy 14: 28-29, 17: 9-14 and 14: 17-22].

Yasmin Eliaz is a Master’s student in Political Science at Bar Ilan University. She specializes in Afghanistan and works as a research assistant at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Read other articles by Yasmin.

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⚑ − Ezra 2 years ago I am a Bukhari Jew/Levite, born in Tajikistan, borders with Afghanistan. I am now in Australia, grew up with Ashkenazi Jews, whose fear of Muslims, I understood but never accepted. Always in my heart I felt Mulsims were my brothers and really felt more connected to the Middle Eastern way of life, Islamic culture and way of life/wisdom, which I find much closer to ancient Israelites than anything I have found with the European Jews. Who seem to be stuck in fear and separative mentality. When the 10 Tribes unite and true Jews and Muslims unite all that which is false will crumble. Hence, why they are conditioned to hate each other and fear each other but it is really those who are behind it that fear the real Israelites and real Muslims the most.

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⚑ − khan 2 years ago the reality is Pashtoon army is going to fight dajjal lol you cannot avoid it has been said lol this is in short lol try to undistand before I expose .if you ant to see Rise of dajjal watch this lol on youtube .

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⚑ − YasminTheJewish . … 2 years ago > k

ammmmmmmmmmm… what?

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⚑ − NLK3 9 months ago > khan

Too much “lol”. And aren’t fights based on just doing what they are told, not that it’ll just happen? Usually, people are going to instigate a reason for things to happen.

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⚑ − Shoshana 3 months ago CORRECTIONS!

#2: An ‘eye for an eye’ refers to compensation not literal retaliation. Please do not misrepresent Jewish Law!

The verse you are referring to, discussing a fight between two Jews, says the following: “…an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot; a burn for a burn, a wound for a wound, a bruise for a bruise.” (Exodus 21:24-25).

This verse, taken literally, truly sounds like one must be punished in the way you said, to put out the eye or the tooth, to chop off the hand, etc. I, however, respectfully take strong issue with the

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⚑ − Muzamil Panezai 6 months ago interesting to read, I can vouch this article by recounting the time I ( Pashtoon) spent with Jews in USA, I found they were hospitable in the same way as Pashtoons are, interestingly what was the real difference between Jews and other in USA, whenever we went to dine somewhere, we had to pay for our meal, but whenever I went with Jews, they never allowed to pay, I insisted its the system here, I should pay else I will not come to join you people onwards, but they said you are our guest you can not pay, in the same way they were more generous in inviting me home and showing me their culture, also after coming back to my home country I always shared that story that this was the significant difference I found in Jews, Pashtoons would reply “yes its because we are of same descent.

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⚑ − Jonah Lissner … 5 months ago > Muzami

Shalom Aleichem Muzamil,

I found that common ground very true you know instantly you are talking to some kindred. I also have seen that with Nigerians, Amhara/Ethiopians, Kurds, and random people probably have Hebrew-Israel ancestry.

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⚑ − m haleem khan arian 6 months ago Hospitality, sheltering the oppressed and protect assume it count, loyalty, honor and respect other women, not surrender to the invading enemy to the last drop of blood, defending the oppressed and feeding the poor

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⚑ − m haleem khan arian 6 months ago Pshtvnvly a culture that traditionally Bshtvn the laws that regulate the internal issues of their ethnic

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⚑ − YasminTheJewish . … 8 months ago > Af

Ok

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⚑ − NLK3 9 months ago The courage one disturbs me. Kill the rapist, sure. Kill the father, um… I don’t know about that one (nobody hypnotizes their kids, so don’t adults make their own choices, whether for or against the will of the parents?). Kill the innocents that just happen to live in the same town as the rapist… REALLY?!

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⚑ − Ken 9 months ago Is Melmastia the principle that was employed in Genesis 19 the story of Lot protecting the strangers in his home?

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⚑ − afgprincess kitty 10 months ago as pashtun i do believe we are related to ancient Israelite but i don’t think we are related to jew

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⚑ − Jonah Lissner … 5 months ago > afgprin

Shalom Aleichem Afghan Princess,

What is a Jew? You mean Hebrews or Israelis some of whom are Afghans, some Kurds, Amhara, Nigerians etc., and modern Jewish people. We can tell where our roots are from I met people from India/Pak region or Romany-Gypsy people can see the Hebrew-Israelite bond there.

You are right in that Pashtun are related to ancient Israel but mostly related to modern Jews in lesser amount but still so related!

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⚑ − Tex_Ed 5 months ago > afgprincess kitty

Tell me more of how the Pashto (code) affects you each day Afgprincess kitty -please!

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⚑ − afgprincess kitty … 4 months ago > T

https://www.google.co.uk/url?s…

we pashtuns are a mix people

isn’t the real Israelite were black?

https://www.google.co.uk/url?s…

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⚑ − YasminTheJewish . … 2 months ago Thank you for the lovely photos!!!!!!!!!

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⚑ − Ahmed haqiquat … 16 days ago > Ya

Hi Yasmin

I have been living in UK for the past 15 yrs and me and my brother were stopped by Jews inviting us to the synagogue and when we told them that we weren’t Jew they were surprised. I have encountered something very interesting about Jewish people they look at me a lot and when I look back they look again.

I feel some deep connections with them. I’m Alhamdullellah a Muslim and I believe in my religion firmly but never hate any race or colour.

Two weeks ago this Jewish guy was

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⚑ − afgprincess kitty … 4 months ago > T

Pashtunwali literally means ‘the way of the Pashtuns’, and is a tribal honor code that has governed the Pashtun way of life for centuries.Pashtunwali is practiced by Pashtuns in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and by Pashtun refugees around the world. Pashtunwali is an ancient “code of honor” that is practiced by the native Pashtuns of Afghanistan in Pakistan, includingthe Pashtun communities around the world. It is a set of rules guiding both individual and communal conduct. Pashtunwali is socially practiced by the majority. Pashtuns embrace an ancient

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Aliearia

ARCHANGELS, MICHAEL IS JESUS?

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DOOMSDAY 1 THESSALONIANS 4

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1 THES 4:15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep.4:16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:4:17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.4:18 Wherefore comfort one another with these words. 1 Thessalonians
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MAZZAROTH APPOINTED TIMES
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FOUR BLLOD MOON TETRADS 2014-2015

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19:1 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.19:2 Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.19:3 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

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19:4 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,19:5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.19:6 His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.
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DAVINCI CODE ROSE/LEY LINE

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DAVINCI CODE JOB 38:11/REVELATION 2:17
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DAVINCI CODE JOB 38:11 Silas
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DAVINCI CODE ROSE/BLOODLINE KNEEL BEFORE HER
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19:8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes.19:10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb. Psalms

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PYRAMID ENERGY.. WE R PLEIADIAN STARSEED STUFF
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ACTS 2:17-21
WE ARE PROPHECYING..DREAMING DREAMS, HAVING VISIONS..R U LISTENING TOYOUR SONS & DAUGHTERS?

INDESCRIBABLE GOD TOUR=PLEIADES 7 STARS & ORION NEBULA

ALIEN VERSES IN THE BIBLE:
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EZEKIEL 1

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Ezekiel 1:1-28 – Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth [month], in the fifth [day] of the month, as I [was] among the captives by the river of Chebar, [that] the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God. (Read More…)

Ezekiel 1:4 – And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness [was] about it, and out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire.

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Revelation 9:7-11 – And the shapes of the locusts [were] like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads [were] as it were crowns like gold, and their faces [were] as the faces of men. (Read More…)

Isaiah 13:5 – They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, [even] the LORD, and the weapons of his indignation, to destroy the whole land.

Colossians 1:16 – For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether [they be] thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:

Ephesians 6:12 – For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high [places].

Genesis 6:1-22 – And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, (Read More…)

Deuteronomy 17:3 – And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;

Isaiah 45:12 – I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, [even] my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

1 Corinthians 15:40 – [There are] also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial [is] one, and the [glory] of the terrestrial [is] another.

Deuteronomy 30:4 – If [any] of thine be driven out unto the outmost [parts] of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee:

Psalms 97:6 – The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the people see his glory.

JOHN 17 KJV BIBLE

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SEED OF THE SOWER: MATTHEW 13
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1 THESSALONIANS 4:1 Furthermore then we beseech you, brethren, and exhort you by the Lord Jesus, that as ye have received of us how ye ought to walk and to please God, so ye would abound more and more.

4:2 For ye know what commandments we gave you by the Lord Jesus.

4:3 For this is the will of God, even your sanctification, that ye should abstain from fornication:

4:4 That every one of you should know how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour;

4:5 Not in the lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles which know not God:

4:8 He therefore that despiseth, despiseth not man, but God, who hath also given unto us his holy Spirit.

4:11 And that ye study to be quiet, and to do your own business, and to work with your own hands, as we commanded you;

4:12 That ye may walk honestly toward them that are without, and that ye may have lack of nothing.

4:13 But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.

4:14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.

4:15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep.

4:16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:

4:17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.

4:18 Wherefore comfort one another with these words. 1 Thessalonians
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DOOMSDAY 1 THESSALONIANS 4

ORION IS A CLOUD NEBULA AND A MAN. ORION AKA NIMROD=GIANT/HUNTER

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1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

1:2 Who bare record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw.

1:3 Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand.

1:4 John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

1:5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

1:7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.

1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

1:9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,

1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

1:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

1:14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;

1:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength

.1:17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:

1:18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

1:19 Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;

1:20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches. Revelation

ORION IS A CLOUD NEBULA AND A MAN, ORION AKA NIMROD=GIANT, HUNTER

GENESIS 10:8-12

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In other words, only Jesus Christ will call the dead, so he is the archangel in 1st Thessalonians 4:16, 17 and He is Michael who calls Moses to life in Jude. And He is Michael who, with His angels, cast Satan out of heaven! Compare Song 5:10 which harmonizes with our seeing Him as head of the angels. In Joshua 5:15, Christ identifies Himself as the captain of the Lord’s host. He was the captain of the angels of heaven. They are the Lord’s army (Rev. 19:14). Furthermore, He would not have accepted Joshua’s worship if He had been an ordinary angel (see Joshua 5). Thus again He is the archangel, Michael.

Michael the Archangel Revelation 12:7 r1207

12:7a War in heaven?

“And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.” (Rev. 12:7, 8) .

THUBAN=DRACO=THE DRAGON (Hoover Dam star chart)
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We tend to think of heaven as a place where nothing ever goes wrong and we ask, how can a good God allow such things? People are quick to conclude that either God wasn’t really good or that He can’t help what happens when evil comes. The fact is that, throughout the Scriptures, we see Him as one who stands at the door and knocks (Rev. 3:20). He never pushes His way in. We let Him in only if we want to. We can choose to disobey. This means that when we choose to be loyal, it is really our free choice. God has arranged for us to have something to give. He made us and everything around us and he gives us every breath and heartbeat. In spite of total ownership, He decided to let us choose to love Him or choose not to. Our choice to give Him our loyalty is a real gift and one He treasures immensely. God is not the author of evil de3204, ps09215. The universe and world he created came perfect from His hand, ge0131. That choice was also given to the angels He created. We do not know how many centuries or millennia passed before rebellion broke out in heaven. They loved their leader and enjoyed their relationship of total cooperation. But one day a cloud began to roll in and heaven was not the same.

12:7b Who is Michael?

“And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.” (Rev. 12:7, 8)

Michael is not mentioned often the Bible but, by comparing texts, we can learn his more common identity. We begin with the little book of Jude: “Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst [dared] not bring against him a railing [slanderous, 1306a2] accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.” (Jude 9). Jude’s purpose in this verse is to condemn those who teach grace as license jude04 and who criticize authority jude08. He takes the dispute with the devil as an example, revealing other information that is of particular interest to us. So Michael is also the archangel. The prefix “arch-” means to be “first” or “reigning over.” This agrees with verse 7 where Michael is commander of the angels re1207. (Also 1pe0321f) Next let’s look at a verse describing the archangel. “For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout [command], with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:” (1 Thess. 4:16) So the archangel, whom we saw in Jude as also Michael, calls the dead to life. Only one person has been given that authority. “Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live. For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself; And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man. Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.” (Matt. 5:25-29) “Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:” (John 11:25) “I [Jesus] am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell [the grave] and of death.” (Rev. 1:18)

In other words, only Jesus Christ will call the dead, so he is the archangel in 1st Thessalonians 4:16, 17 and He is Michael who calls Moses to life in Jude. And He is Michael who, with His angels, cast Satan out of heaven! Compare Song 5:10 which harmonizes with our seeing Him as head of the angels. In Joshua 5:15, Christ identifies Himself as the captain of the Lord’s host. He was the captain of the angels of heaven. They are the Lord’s army (Rev. 19:14). Furthermore, He would not have accepted Joshua’s worship if He had been an ordinary angel (see Joshua 5). Thus again He is the archangel, Michael.

But angels are created. How is Christ an angel? Without considering the explanation above, this is a logical argument. Christ was with the Father from the beginning (John 1:1). He is the Creator, with the Father, not the created. Beyond these concepts, which God has revealed, we have not been told and could not understand correctly. Speculation is not only fruitless because we must guess but it is not for us to indulge in. “The secret things belong unto the LORD our God: but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law.” (Deut. 29:29). We do know the simple concepts we have just discussed and can accept them. Christ is a human because He took on humanity to save us. This does not prevent Him from also being divine. We do not know very much about His relation to the angels, but He was one with them and he was their commander. We cannot rule out the possibility that He also took their nature as He has ours. Lucifer wanted Christ’s job as he tried to work his way up to higher positions in the government of the universe (Isa. 14:13). The word for angel in Greek and Hebrew also means messenger. So Christ, the messenger of the covenant in Mal. 3, is also the angel of the covenant. We see Him as an angel in Rev. 10:1, too, but that’s beyond the scope of our study. See a summary explanation of Michael on another page.

12:7c Sidelight on death and the resurrection

First here is the verse we are discussing: “Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst [dared] not bring against him a railing [slanderous] accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.” (Jude 9)

Why would Michael dispute with the devil over the body of Moses? Satan doesn’t want anyone resurrected. How he must have trembled when our Lord arose from the tomb! The Jewish leaders who sent Jesus to the cross were clearly inspired by Satan. Their idea of sealing the tomb (Matt. 27:64) was likewise inspired by him. He claimed victory and wanted it secure. Their excuse that the disciples, who were hiding from them, might steal the body is hardly convincing. (John 20:19). Many who read these lines assume that the inner person escapes the body at death and goes, in spirit form, to heaven or hell. Although we find no support for this idea in Scripture 1411g, I respect those who have not understood. Seeing the faithful ones sleeping in their graves and not going to heaven before we all do helps us realize that Christ was asserting authority over His sleeping saints which Satan naturally opposes he1139. This authority would be confirmed by Christ at Calvary and by breaking the seals as the worthy Lamb 0501.

Connection with the story of Moses Jude tells us that Michael the archangel, whom we recognized above as Christ 1207b, contended with the devil over the body of Moses. We also know that Christ was the Lord of the Exodus. He identified Himself to the Jews as the I AM that was before Abraham (John 8:58). We can see that they understood this as His claim to divinity because they were ready to stone Him. This claim would have, in their minds, justified stoning because they did not accept His divine mission. (See Matt. 26:63-65) At the burning bush, He had told Moses, “I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.” (Ex. 3:14). This same I AM later gave them the commandments. “And God spake all these words, saying, I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.” (Ex. 20:1, 2). At the end of his term of service 1402a, Moses went to “the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah” across the Jordan Valley from Jericho. There the Lord showed him the promised land. “So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD. And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day.” (Deut. 34:1-6) Connecting this with what we learned from Jude, we see that the same Lord who buried him raised him to life again and took him to heaven. Thus we find Moses with Elijah in the transfiguration (Mark 9:1-7). Satan would keep his victims eternally in the grave if he could. Praise God for the One who is our life-giver, too. Moses’ resurrection was based on the coming victory on the cross (Rev. 1:18).

A challenge to the popular theory If Moses’ spirit had gone to heaven at death and would get reconnected with his body at the resurrection, Michael would have had no special interest in his body at an earlier time. Or even if He were doing something to make sure the later connection would take place, why was Moses the one involved? The matter should have been settled with Abel or Adam. Still supposing that a conscious part of good people goes to heaven at death, we must ask why Michael would not have been interested in Moses’ “spirit.” If the devil were going to block the process after death, he would have opposed the spirit’s going to heaven, not what happened to the body. The simple fact is that the the popular idea is contrary to what God has told us in His Word 1411g. Death is an unconscious “sleep.” For more on the topic of death click the image (© Corel):

Because Christ was raised, we may have that hope, too. At His return, those who have committed their lives to Him and have passed to their rest in the grave “shall all be made alive.”

12:8 Eviction

“And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.” (Rev. 12:7, 8)

Now that we understand Michael a little better, we notice that the dragon “prevailed not.” He and his followers didn’t succeed in overthrowing the kingdom of heaven (Praise God). Notice that “their place” was no longer in heaven. It became this earth Rev. 2:4a. But their place is here only temporarily. The time is short as we will see. Jesus described their final new home. “Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels:” (Matt. 25:41) But on a cheerful note, where is our place? See Eph. 1:3-5. Of course it’s our place if we choose it and accept God’s work of preparing us for it. Rev. 13:8c

Next we will see something interesting about the dragon.

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Aliearia

ESCLEPIUS, DREAMS,

(Above image of the Gospel of Thomas courtesy of the Institute for Antiquity and Christianity, Claremont Graduate University)

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The Nag Hammadi Library

Asclepius 21-29

Translated by James Brashler, Peter A. Dirkse, and Douglas M. Parrott

“And if you (Asclepius) wish to see the reality of this mystery, then you should see the wonderful representation of the intercourse that takes place between the male and the female. For when the semen reaches the climax, it leaps forth. In that moment, the female receives the strength of the male; the male, for his part, receives the strength of the female, while the semen does this.

“Therefore, the mystery of intercourse is performed in secret, in order that the two sexes might not disgrace themselves in front of many who do not experience that reality. For each of them (the sexes) contributes its (own part in) begetting. For if it happens in the presence of those who do not understand the reality, (it is) laughable and unbelievable. And, moreover, they are holy mysteries, of both words and deeds, because not only are they not heard, but also they are not seen.

“Therefore, such people (the unbelievers) are blasphemers. They are atheistic and impious. But the others are not many; rather, the pious who are counted are few. Therefore, wickedness remains among (the) many, since learning concerning the things which are ordained does not exist among them. For the knowledge of the things which are ordained is truly the healing of the passions of the matter. Therefore, learning is something derived from knowledge.

“But if there is ignorance, and learning does not exist in the soul of man, (then) the incurable passions persist in it (the soul). And additional evil comes with them (the passions), in the form of an incurable sore. And the sore constantly gnaws at the soul, and through it the soul produces worms from the evil, and stinks. But God is not the cause of these things, since he sent to men knowledge and learning.

“Trismegistus, did he send them to men alone?” “Yes, Asclepius, he sent them to them alone. And it is fitting that we tell you why to men alone he granted knowledge and learning, the allotment of his good.

“And now listen! God and the Father, even the Lord, created man subsequent to the gods, and he took him from the region of matter. Since matter is involved in the creation of man, of […], the passions are in it. Therefore, they continually flow over his body, for this living creature would not have existed in any other way except that he had taken this food, since he is mortal. It is also inevitable that inopportune desires, which are harmful, dwell in him. For the gods, since they came into being out of a pure matter, do not need learning and knowledge. For the immortality of the gods is learning and knowledge, since they came into being out of pure matter. It (immortality) assumed for them the position of knowledge and learning. By necessity, he (God) set a boundary for man; he placed him in learning and knowledge.

“Concerning these things (learning and knowledge) which we have mentioned from the beginning, he (God) perfected them in order that by means of these things he might restrain passions and evils, according to his will. He brought his (man’s) mortal existence into immortality; he (man) became good (and) immortal, just as I have said. For he (God) created (a) two-fold nature for him: the immortal and the mortal.

“And it happened this way because of the will of God that men be better than the gods, since, indeed, the gods are immortal, but men alone are both immortal and mortal. Therefore, man has become akin to the gods, and they know the affairs of each other with certainty. The gods know the things of men, and men know the things of the gods. And I am speaking about men, Asclepius, who have attained learning and knowledge. But (about) those who are more vain than these, it is not fitting that we say anything base, since we are divine and are introducing holy matters.

“Since we have entered the matter of the communion between the gods and men, know, Asclepius, that in which man can be strong! For just as the Father, the Lord of the universe, creates gods, in this very way man too, this mortal, earthly, living creature, the one who is not like God, also himself creates gods. Not only does he strengthen, but he is also strengthened. Not only is he god, but he also creates gods. Are you astonished, Asclepius? Are you yourself another disbeliever like the many?”

“Trismegistus, I agree with the words (spoken) to me. And I believe you as you speak. But I have also been astonished at the discourse about this. And I have decided that man is blessed, since he has enjoyed this great power.”

“And that which is greater than all these things, Asclepius, is worthy of admiration. Now it is clear to us concerning the race of the gods, and we confess it along with everyone else, that it (the race of the gods) has come into being out of a pure matter. And their bodies are heads only. But that which men create is the likeness of the gods. They (the gods) are from the farthest part of the matter, and it (the object created by men) is from the outer (part) of the being of men. Not only are they (what men created) heads, but (they are) also all the other members of the body, and according to their likeness. Just as God has willed that the inner man be created according to his image, in the very same way, man on earth creates gods according to his likeness.”

“Trismegistus, you are not talking about idols, are you?” “Asclepius, you yourself are talking about idols. You see that again, you yourself, Asclepius, are also a disbeliever of the discourse. You say about those who have soul and breadth, that they are idols -these who bring about these great events. You are saying about these who give prophecies that they are idols – these who give men sickness and healing that […] them.

“Or are you ignorant, Asclepius, that Egypt is (the) image of heaven? Moreover, it is the dwelling place of heaven and all the forces that are in heaven. If it is proper for us to speak the truth, our land is (the) temple of the world. And it is proper for you not to be ignorant that a time will come in it (our land, when) Egyptians will seem to have served the divinity in vain, and all their activity in their religion will be despised. For all divinity will leave Egypt, and will flee upward to heaven. And Egypt will be widowed; it will be abandoned by the gods. For foreigners will come into Egypt, and they will rule it. Egypt! Moreover, Egyptians will be prohibited from worshipping God. Furthermore, they will come into the ultimate punishment, especially whoever among them is found worshipping (and) honoring God.

“And in that day, the country that was more pious than all countries will become impious. No longer will it be full of temples, but it will be full of tombs. Neither will it be full of gods, but (it will be full of) corpses. Egypt! Egypt will become like the fables. And your religious objects will be […] the marvelous things, and […], and if your words are stones and are wonderful. And the barbarian will be better than you, Egyptian, in his religion, whether (he is) a Scythian, or the Hindus, or some other of this sort.

“And what is this that I say about the Egyptian? For they (the Egyptians) will not abandon Egypt. For (in) the time (when) the gods have abandoned the land of Egypt, and have fled upward to heaven, then all Egyptians will die. And Egypt will be made a desert by the gods and the Egyptians. And as for you, River, there will be a day when you will flow with blood more than water. And dead bodies will be (stacked) higher than the dams. And he who is dead will not be mourned as much as he who is alive. Indeed, the latter will be known as an Egyptian on account of his language in the second period (of time). – Asclepius, why are you weeping? – He will seem like (a) foreigner in regard to his customs. Divine Egypt will suffer evils greater than these. Egypt – lover of God, and the dwelling place of the gods, school of religion – will become an example of impiousness.

“And in that day, the world will not be marveled at, […] and immortality, nor will it be worshiped […], since we say that it is not good […]. It has become neither a single thing nor a vision. But it is in danger of becoming a burden to all men. Therefore, it will be despised – the beautiful world of God, the incomparable work, the energy that possesses goodness, the man-formed vision. Darkness will be preferred to light, and death will be preferred to life. No one will gaze into heaven. And the pious man will be counted as insane, and the impious man will be honored as wise. The man who is afraid will be considered as strong. And the good man will be punished like a criminal.

“And concerning the soul, and the things of the soul, and the things of immortality, along with the rest of what I have said to you, Tat, Asclepius, and Ammon – not only will they be considered ridiculous, but they will also be thought of as vanity. But believe me (when I say) that people of this kind will be endangered by the ultimate danger to their soul. And a new law will be established … (2 lines missing) … they will … (line missing) … good. The wicked angels will remain among men, (and) be with them, (and) lead them into wicked things recklessly, as well as into atheism, wars, and plunderings, by teaching them things contrary to nature.

“In those days, the earth will not be stable, and men will not sail the sea, nor will they know the stars in heaven. Every sacred voice of the word of God will be silenced, and the air will be diseased. Such is the senility of the world: atheism, dishonor, and the disregard of noble words.

“And when these things had happened, Asclepius, then the Lord, the Father and god from the only first god, the creator, when he looked upon the things that happened, established his design, which is good, against the disorder. He took away error, and cut off evil. Sometimes, he submerged it in a great flood; at other times, he burned it in a searing fire; and at still other times, he crushed it in wars and plagues, until he brought … (4 lines missing) … of the work. And this is the birth of the world.

“The restoration of the nature of the pious ones who are good will take place in a period of time that never had a beginning. For the will of God has no beginning, even as his nature, which is his will (has no beginning). For the nature of God is will. And his will is the good.”

“Trismegistus, is purpose, then, (the same as) will?” “Yes, Asclepius, since will is (included) in counsel. For (God) does not will what he has from deficiency. Since he is complete in every part, he wills what he (already) fully has. And he has every good. And what he wills, he wills. And he has the good that he wills. Therefore, he has everything. And God wills what he wills. And the good world is an image of the Good One.”

“Trismegistus, is the world good?” “Asclepius, it is good, as I shall teach you. For just as … (2 lines missing) … of soul and life […] of the world […] come forth in matter, those that are good, the change of the climate, and beauty, and the ripening of the fruits, and the things similar to all these. Because of this, God has control over the heights of heaven. He is in every place, and he looks out over every place. And (in) his place there is neither heaven nor star. And he is free from (the) body.

“Now the creator has control in the place that is between the earth and heaven. He is called ‘Zeus’, that is, ‘Life’. Plutonius Zeus is lord over the earth and sea. And he does not possess the nourishment for all mortal living creatures, for (it is) Kore who bears the fruit. These forces always are powerful in the circle of the earth, but those of others are always from Him-who-is.

“And the lords of the earth will withdraw themselves. And they will establish themselves in a city that is in a corner of Egypt and that will be built toward the setting of the sun. Every man will go into it, whether they come on the sea or on the shore.”

“Trismegistus, where will these be settled now?” “Asclepius, in the great city that is on the Libyan mountain … (2 lines missing) … it frightens […] as a great evil, in ignorance of the matter. For death occurs, which is the dissolution of the labors of the body, and the number (of the body), when it (death) completes the number of the body. For the number is the union of the body. Now the body dies when it is not able to support the man. And this is death: the dissolution of the body and the destruction of the sensation of the body. And it is not necessary to be afraid of this, nor because of this, but because of what is not known, and is disbelieved (is one afraid).”

“But what is not known, or is disbelieved?” “Listen, Asclepius! There is a great demon. The great God has appointed him to be overseer or judge over the souls of men. And God has placed him in the middle of the air, between earth and heaven. Now when the soul comes forth from (the) body, it is necessary that it meet this daimon. Immediately, he (the daimon) will surround this one (masc.), and he will examine him in regard to the character that he has developed in his life. And if he finds that he piously performed all of his actions for which he came into the world, this (daimon) will allow him … (1 line missing) … turn him […]. But if he sees […] in this one […] he brought his life into evil deeds, he grasps him, as he flees upward, and throws him down, so that he is suspended between heaven and earth, and is punished with a great punishment. And he will be deprived of his hope, and will be in great pain.

“And that soul has been put neither on the earth nor in heaven, but it has come into the open sea of the air of the world, the place where there is a great fire, and crystal water, and furrows of fire, and a great upheaval. The bodies are tormented (in) various (ways). Sometimes they are cast down into the fire, in order that it may destroy them. Now, I will not say that this is the death of the soul, for it has been delivered from evil, but it is a death sentence.

“Asclepius, it is necessary to believe these things and to fear them, in order that we might not encounter them. For unbelievers are impious, and commit sin. Afterwards, they will be compelled to believe, and they will not hear by word of mouth only, but will experience the reality itself. For they kept believing that they would not endure these things. Nor only … (1 line missing). First, Asclepius, all those of the earth die, and those who are of the body cease […] of evil […] with these of this sort. For those who are here are not like those who are there. So with the daimons who […] men, they despite […] there. Thus, it is not the same. But truly, the gods who are here will punish more whoever has hidden it here every day.”

“Trismegistus, what is the character of the iniquity that is there?” “Now you think, Asclepius, that when one takes something in a temple, he is impious. For that kind of a person is a thief and a bandit. And this matter concerns gods and men. But do not compare those here with those of the other place. Now I want to speak this discourse to you confidentially; no part of it will be believed. For the souls that are filled with much evil will not come and go in the air, but they will be put in the places of the daimons, which are filled with pain, (and) which are always filled with blood and slaughter, and their food, which is weeping, mourning, and groaning.”

“Trismegistus, who are these (daimons)?” “Asclepius, they are the ones who are called ‘stranglers’, and those who roll souls down on the dirt, and those who scourge them, and those who cast into the water, and those who cast into the fire, and those who bring about the pains and calamities of men. For such as these are not from a divine soul, nor from a rational soul of man. Rather, they are from the terrible evil.”

Original translation of this text was prepared by members of the Coptic Gnostic Library Project of the Institute for Antiquity and Christianity, Claremont Graduate School. The Coptic Gnostic Library Project was funded by UNESCO, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and other Institutions. E. J. Brill has asserted copyright on texts published by the Coptic Gnostic Library Project.

The translation presented here has been edited, modified and formatted for use in the Gnostic Society Library. For academic citation, please refer to published editions of this text.

| Nag Hammadi Library | Gnostic Society Library | Gnosis Archive |

Aliearia

GREEN ALIENS

MAYANS
PACAL THE GREAT

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PACAL WAS DEPICTED IN SEVERAL FORMS OF ARTISTIC WAYS. HE WAS A FAIR COMPLECTED MAN, YET WAS ALSO SYMBOLIZED AS BEING GREEN, EXPRESSIONLESS & GIVEN A MAYAN APPEARANCE IN ORIGIN AS WELL AS BEING A CAUCASION APPEARANCE.
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PACAL IS DEPICTED AS HAVING WATERS POURING OUT ON BOTH SIDES:
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FOR THOSE WHO HAVE VISITED HOOVER DAM, YOU HAVE ALSO SEEN THIS MEMORIAL WALL W THE SAME SYMBOL OF WATERS POURING OUT
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What does a dam do? Pours out/binds waters to produce ENERGY. Like the 7 stars

THE HOOVER DAM ANGELS ARE ALSO GREEN IN COLOR DUE TO THE MATERIALS/ELEMENTS THEY ARE MADE OF. THEIR FACIAL EXPRESSIONS ARE ALSO WITHOUT ANY SMILES, FROWNS, LIKE PACALS EXPRESSION
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The Statue of Liberty is also green and expressionless
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So does the symbol for the Esclepius
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MITHRA:

GENESIS 1:26

STARGATES

STARGATE: THE ARK OF THE COVENANT

STARGATE FOUND IN EGYPT CLIP

WHO BUILT THE PYRAMIDS?
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AMOS 5:8
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PLEIADES & ORION (align w/the sacred temples)

REVELATIONS 1:20

7 stars (Pleiades)
7 churches
7 angels pouring out
7 bowls (waters)
7 women

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ISAIAH 4:1

IN THESE END OF DAYS, IT IS WRITTEN:

7 women shall take hold of 1 man…
MEET THESE MYSTERIOUS 7 …

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WHAT IS A TETRAD AND HOW DO WE KNOW THESE ARE THE 7 ANGELIC WOMEN ANGEL MESSENGERS FROM PLEIADES? HOW DOES THE PYRAMIDS ALIGNING W PLEIADES 7 STAR MYSTERY PLAYING A PART IN TODAY’S PROPHECIES BEING FULFILLED?

THIS IS A TETRAD
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FOUR BLOOD MOON TETRADS
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Davinci

DAVINCI CODE BLADE & CHALICE

Waters poured out (7 bowls, 7 angels)
VS
waters bound (1 man)= OPPOSITES/MARRIAGE when brought together:
Masculine VS feminine
Groom (1 man) VS (7 women) Bride
Penis VS womb
Material SEEN W 2 EYES (Nimrod/Orion:1 man) VS Spirit UNSEEN , LIGHT, STARSTUFF (7 stars/7 women)
Heaven (above/unseen) VS EARTH (below/seen)

DOOMSDAY 1 THESSALONIANS 4 (orion, cloud, we are caught up w him in the cloud)
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ISN’T ORION A CLOUD? AND A MATERIAL BUILDING GIANT MAN/ANGEL NIMROD ON EARTH? THE HUNTER…FOR SOULS/spirit= 7 stars/7 women/ 7 angel messengers=starseed stuff, light=opposites
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DAVINCI CODE (The decoder kneels @ the pyramids while looking at the Pleiades, tetrad at Louvre)

He earned Virtruvian man Merkabah orb chariot, like all ascended enlightened masters with abundant knowledge others cannot access or decode themselves. Hence, bringing heaven to Earth
Above/below

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VIRTRUVIAN MAN SYMBOLISM

Aliearia

PLEIADES=TAURUS/Green faced man MAYAN’S PACAL

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GENESIS 11 THE TOWER OF BABEL AKA ZIGGURAT OF UR

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DID YOU KNOW THE ZIGGURAT HAS BEEN FOUND, YET OBVIOUSLY KEPT A SECRET?
KEEPING THE TRUTH HIDDEN IS AN OBAMA-NATION OR SHOULD WE SAY…
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USA MILITARY & THE ZIGGURAT OF UR
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WHY KEEP ONLY AMERICANS IN THE DARK?

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MAYAN SARCOPHAGUS
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THE MAYANS WERE INSTRUCTED TO BUILD THE TEMPLES BY PACAL’S DESIGNERS. THE TEMPLES WERE CONSTRUCTED BY MAN YET DESIGNED BY THE SAME BEINGS WE SEE HONORED THROUGH THE SAME LAYOUT DESIGNS WORLDWIDE
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THIS BEGAN WITH THE FIRST CITY OF GENESIS 11 AND THE SACRED PLACES BUILT BEFORE THE ZIGGURAT
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VATICAN SARCOPHAGUS W GREEN PINEAL PINECONE
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The pinecone is the symbol for the 3rd eye Pineal gland. The “enlightened ones” have the small brown ripened pinecones symbolizing the fully awake 3rd eye (having the knowledge) while the huge green pinecone, accessible & towering over the rest of humanity, symbolizes the majority who are still sleeping.
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The sarcophagus symbolizes the ascension/descension of consciousness, spirit, knowledge.
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Look closely at the waters pouring out (mayans)
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We find all of the same symbolism in the Bible and at the Hoover Dam
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Don’t forget, Mayan temples align w Orion & Pleiades,
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The Hoover Dam binds waters n pours out waters to create ENERGY. Like the Stars

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HOOVER DAM ILLUMINATI

DAVINCI CODE BLADE & CHALICE
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DAVINCI CODE ROSE/LEY LINE
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DAVINCI CODE : IT HIDES BENEATH THE ROSE

REVELATION 2:17

DAVINCI CODE JOB 38:11

JOB 38:11

TRANSFORMERS WAKE UP, ITS ORION/TETRAD
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Isnt Orion/Nimrod a GIANT?

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TRANSFORMERS PETRA

HOOVER DAM GEOMANCY

K’inich Janaab’ Pacal

“Pakal” and “Pacal” redirect here. For other uses, see Pakal (disambiguation).

K’inich Janaab’ Pakal (Mayan pronunciation: [k’ihniʧ xanaːɓ pakal]; March 603 – August 683) [1] was ruler of the Maya polity of Palenque in the Late Classic period of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican chronology. During a long reign of some 68 years — the longest known regnal period in Western Hemisphere history, and the 28th longest worldwide — Pakal was responsible for the construction or extension of some of Palenque’s most notable surviving inscriptions and monumental architecture.

Before his name was securely deciphered from extant Maya inscriptions, this ruler had been known by an assortment of nicknames and approximations, including Pakal [pronunciation?] (or Pacal), “Sun Shield”, “8 Ahau”, and (familiarly) as Pacal the Great. The word pakal means “shield” in the Classic Maya language.

In modern sources his name is also sometimes appended with a regnal number, [2] to distinguish him from other Janaab’ Pakals that either preceded or followed him in the dynastic lineage of Palenque. Confusingly, he has at times been referred to as either “Pakal I” or “Pakal II”. Reference to him as Pakal II alludes to his maternal grandfather (who died in 612) also being named Janaab’ Pakal. However, although his grandfather was a personage of ajaw ranking, he does not himself appear to have been a king. When instead the name Pakal I is used, this serves to distinguish him from two later known successors to the Palenque rulership, Upakal K’inich Janaab’ Pakal (ruled c. 742, aka “[K’inich Janaab’] Pakal II”) and Wak Kimi Janaab’ Pakal (aka [Janaab’] Pakal III), the last-known Palenque ruler, who acceded in 799.

K’inich Janaab’ Pakal I

Pakal ascended the throne at age 12 in July of 615 (Long Count 9.9.2.4.8, Calendar Round 5 Lamat 1 Mol, [3] ) and lived to the age of 80. He expanded Palenque’s power in the western part of the Maya states and initiated a building program at his capital that produced some of Maya civilization’s finest art and architecture. He was preceded as ruler of Palenque by his mother, Lady Sak K’uk’. As the Palenque dynasty seems to have had Queens only when there was no eligible male heir, Sak K’uk’ transferred rulership to her son upon his official maturity.

Early life

K’inich Janaab’ Pakal was born on 9.8.9.13.0, March of 603. [4] He was born at a particularly violent time in the history of Palenque. Two years later, in 605, Palenque was attacked by Kaan, and a new ruler was instated. Then again when he was eight and nine in 610 and 611 Palenque was sacked by Kaan. In October of 612 Pakal’s mother, Ix Sak K’uk’, was installed as Ajaw of Palenque. 9.9.0.0.0. in the Maya calendar, was a day that should have been celebrated as a period ending. Instead of celebration “Satay k’uhul ixik, satay ajaw” “Lost is the divine lady, lost is the lord” was recorded in the history of Palenque. [5] The meaning of this text is disputed. K’inich Janaab’ Pakal acceded to the throne of Palenque on 9.9.2.4.8 5 Lamat 1 Mol, July, 615, at the age of twelve.

In 626 Pakal married Ix Tz’akbu Ajaw who was born in Uxte’k’uh. Tz’akbu Ajaw was a descendant of the Toktahn dynasty, the original dynasty of Palenque.

In 628, one of Pakal’s officials, was captured by Piedras Negras. Six days later Nuun Ujol Chaak, ajaw of Santa Elena, was captured and taken to Palenque. Santa Elena became a tributary of Palenque.

Later life

Having been appointed ajaw at the age of twelve, Pakal’s mother was a Regent to him, over the years she slowly lost power. By the time Sak K’uk’ died in September 640 she had lost all her power.

In 659 Pakal captured six prisoners, One of them, Ahiin Chan Ahk, was from Pipa’. Pipa’ is generally associated with Pomona, Tabasco. In 663 another lord of Pipa’ was killed by Pakal. At this time he also captured six people from Santa Elena.

Construction projects

The Palace of Palenque

In 647 K’inich Janaab’ Pakal began his first construction project (he was 44 at the time). The first project was a temple called El Olvidado, sometimes called the forgotten temple because it’s far away from Lakamha’.

Of all Pakal’s construction projects, perhaps the most accomplished is the Palace of Palenque. The building was already in existence, but Pakal made it much larger than it was. Pakal started his construction by adding monument rooms onto the old level of the building. He then built sak nuk naah which translates to “White Skin House”, also called building E, it was the only building in the palace painted white and not red. The east court of the palace is a ceremonial area marking military triumphs. Houses B and C were built in 661 and house A in 668. House A is covered with frescos of prisoners captured in 662. [6]

A reconstruction of Pakal’s tomb in the Museo Nacional de Antropología

After his death, Pakal was succeeded by his son K’inich Kan B’alam II. A younger son, K’inich K’an Joy Chitam II, succeeded his brother K’inich Kan B’alam II. After his death, Pakal was deified and was said to communicate with his descendants; he was buried within the Temple of Inscriptions. Though Palenque had been examined by archaeologists before, the secret to opening his tomb — closed off by a stone slab with stone plugs in the holes, which had until then escaped the attention of archaeologists—was discovered by Mexican archaeologist Alberto Ruz Lhuillier in 1948. It took four years to clear the rubble from the stairway leading down to Pakal’s tomb, but it was finally uncovered in 1952. [7]

His skeletal remains were still lying in his coffin, wearing a jade mask and bead necklaces, surrounded by sculptures and stucco reliefs depicting the ruler’s transition to divinity and figures from Maya mythology. Traces of pigment show that these were once colorfully painted, common of much Maya sculpture at the time. [8]

The Temple of the Inscriptions

Whether the bones in the tomb are really those of Pakal is under debate because analysis of the wear on the skeleton’s teeth places the age of the owner at death as 40 years younger than Pakal would have been at his death. Epigraphers insist that the inscriptions on the tomb indicate that it is indeed K’inich Janaab’ Pakal entombed within, and that he died at the age of 80 after ruling for around 70 years. Some contest that the glyphs refer to two people with the same name or that an unusual method for recording time was used, but other experts in the field say that allowing for such possibilities would go against everything else that is known about the Maya calendar and records of events. The most commonly accepted explanation for the irregularity is that Pakal, being an aristocrat, had access to softer, less abrasive food than the average person so that his teeth naturally acquired less wear. [9] Despite the controversy, it remains one of the most spectacular finds of Maya archeology. A replica of his tomb is found at the National Museum of Anthropology and History in Mexico City.

Carved lid of the tomb of K’inich Janaab’ Pakal in the Temple of the Inscriptions.

The large carved stone sarcophagus lid in the Temple of Inscriptions is a unique piece of Classic Maya art. Iconographically, however, it is closely related to the large wall panels of the temples of the Cross and the Foliated Cross centered on world trees. Around the edges of the lid is a band with cosmological signs, including those for sun, moon, and star, as well as the heads of six named noblemen of varying rank. [10] The central image is that of a cruciform world tree. Beneath Pakal is one of the heads of a celestial two-headed serpent viewed frontally. Both the king and the serpent head on which he seems to rest are framed by the open jaws of a funerary serpent, a common iconographic device for signalling entrance into, or residence in, the realm(s) of the dead. The king himself wears the attributes of the Tonsured maize god – in particular a turtle ornament on the breast – and is shown in a peculiar posture that may denote rebirth. [11] Interpretation of the lid has raised controversy. Linda Schele saw Pakal falling down the Milky Way into the southern horizon, [12] a view that would not appear to have found general acceptance among scholars.

Erich von Däniken’s “Maya Astronaut”

Pakal’s tomb has been the focus of attention of some “ancient astronaut” enthusiasts since its appearance in Erich von Däniken’s 1968 best seller, Chariots of the Gods?. Von Däniken reproduced a drawing of the sarcophagus lid, incorrectly labeling it as being from “Copán” and comparing Pacal’s pose [13] to that of Project Mercury astronauts in the 1960s, interpreting drawings underneath him as rockets, and offering it as possible evidence of an extraterrestrial influence on the ancient Maya.

José Argüelles’ “Pacal Votan”

See also: Votan

Another example of this carving’s manifestation in pseudoarchaeology is the identification by José Argüelles of “Pacal Votan” as an incarnation named “Valum Votan,” who will act as a “closer of the cycle” in 2012 (an event that is also significant on Argüelles’ “13 Moon” calendar). Daniel Pinchbeck, in his book 2012: The Return of Quetzalcoatl (2006), also uses the name “Votan” in reference to Pakal. However, this name is not used for Pakal by Mayanist researchers such as academic archaeologists, epigraphers, and iconographers. [15] Argüelles offers a connection between Pakal and the semi-historical Toltec figure Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, but this is not supported by archaeological or epigraphic evidence. New Age interpretations of Pakal’s tomb are a cornerstone of contemporary Mayanism. [citation needed]

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PLEIADES=TAURUS & QUATZCOTL

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Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis

Quetzalcoatl in feathered serpent form as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis

Quetzalcoatl /ˌkɛtsɑːlˈkoʊɑːtəl/; (Spanish pronunciation: [ketsalˈkoatɬ]) (Classical Nahuatl: Quetzalcohuātl [ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ]) is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means “feathered serpent”. [1] The worship of a feathered serpent is first known documented in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. [2] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology, and veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic (600–900 AD). [3]

In the Postclassic period (900–1519 AD), the worship of the feathered serpent deity was based in the primary Mexican religious center of Cholula. It is in this period that the deity is known to have been named “Quetzalcoatl” by his Nahua followers. In the Maya area he was approximately equivalent to Kukulcan and Gukumatz, names that also roughly translate as “feathered serpent” in different Mayan languages.

A prominent symbol of the priests of Quetzalcoatl was a symbol known in Nahuatl as a “ehecacozcatl” which translates in to English as a “wind jewel.” This talisman was a conch shell cut at the cross-section and was likely worn as a necklace by religious rulers as they have been discovered in burials in archaeological sites throughout Mesoamerica and potentially symbolized patterns witnessed in hurricanes, dust devils, seashells, and whirlpools which were elemental forces that had meaning in the Aztec religious mythology. [citation needed] In codex illustrations depicting Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl they are both depicted wearing an ehecaicozcatl around each of their necks. [4] There has also been at least one major cache of offerings with knives and idols adorned with the symbols of multiple gods, some of which were adorned with wind jewels. [5]

In the era following the 16th-century Spanish Conquest, a number of sources were written that conflate Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. It is a matter of much debate among historians to which degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. [6] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or St. Thomas—an identification which is also a source of diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl. [7]

Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. He was also the patron god of the Aztec priesthood, of learning and knowledge. [8] Quetzalcoatl was one of several important gods in the Aztec pantheon, along with the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl’s ally Tlaloc who is the god of rain, and Quetzalcoatl’s twin and psychopomp who is named Xolotl.

Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning serpent in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. In his form as Ehecatl he is the wind, and is represented by spider monkeys, ducks, and the wind itself. [9]

In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle. [10]

In Mazatec legends, the astrologer deity Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, who is also represented by Venus, bears a close relationship with Quetzalcoatl. [11]

Main article: Feathered Serpent (deity)

A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures.

Iconographic depictions

Feathered Serpent head at the Ciudadela complex in Teotihuacan

The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Mayan Vision Serpent shown below.

Vision Serpent depicted on lintel 15 from Yaxchilan.

The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. At temples such as the aptly named “Quetzalcoatl temple” in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya the deity began acquiring human features.

In the iconography of the classic period Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld.

The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. [3]

Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period.

During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at cites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as “Feathered Serpent”; it has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epi-classic and early post-classic periods. [3]

In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico (Aztec), the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous. The most important center was Cholula where the world’s largest pyramid was dedicated to his worship. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Quetzalcoatl was associated with the windgod Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask.

Interpretations

Temple of the Feathered Serpent at Xochicalco, adorned with a fully zoomorphic feathered Serpent.

On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. [12] Historian Enrique Florescano also analysing Teotihuacan iconography argues that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet’s importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season. To both Teotihuacan and Mayan cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare. [13]

While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Mayan Young Maize god was also connected to Venus.

In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures.

On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was as the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. [14]

Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus.

To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called “Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui”. In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl was tied to the year Ce Acatl (One Reed), which correlates to the year 1519. [15]

Attributes

Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Magliabechiano.

The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. There are several stories about the birth of Quetzalcoatl. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream. [16] In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl swallowing an emerald. [17] A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. [18] A fourth story narrates that Quetzalcoatl was born from Coatlicue, who already had four hundred children who formed the stars of the Milky Way. [19]

According to another version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl is one of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, the four Tezcatlipocas, each of whom presides over one of the four cardinal directions. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and Spring time. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. [20]

Quetzalcoatl was often considered the god of the morning star, and his twin brother Xolotl was the evening star (Venus). As the morning star, he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning “lord of the star of the dawn.” He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec high priests. Some legends describe him as opposed to human sacrifice [21]

while others describe him practicing it. [22][23]

Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. Usually our current time was considered the fifth sun, [citation needed] the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life.

It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. [citation needed]

One Aztec story claims that Quetzalcoatl was tricked by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk and sleeping with a celibate priestess (in some accounts, his sister Quetzalpetlatl) and then burned himself to death out of remorse. [citation needed]

His heart became the morning star (see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli). [citation needed]

Quetzalcoatl in human form, using the symbols of Ehecatl, from the Codex Borgia.

Since the sixteenth century, it has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl’s return. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl’s return. [24][25][26][27][28]

Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés’s letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico.

Much of the idea of Cortés’ being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. In the Codex’s description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorial Nahuatl, a speech which, as described in the codex written by the Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún and his Tlatelolcan informants, included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as:

and:

Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma’s politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl.

Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. [29] Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs [30] and some of them believed that Cortés’ coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. Franciscans such as Toribio de Benavente “Motolinia” saw elements of Christianity in the precolumbian religions and therefore believed that Mesoamerica had been evangelized before, possibly by St. Thomas whom legend had it had “gone to preach beyond the Ganges”. Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with St. Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long awaited his return to take part once again in God’s kingdom. Historian Matthew Restall concludes that:

Some scholarship still maintains the view that the Aztec Empire’s fall may be attributed in part to the belief in Cortés as the returning Quetzalcoatl, notably in works by David Carrasco (1982) and H. B. Nicholson (2001 (1957)). However, a majority of modern Mesoamericanist scholars such as Matthew Restall (2003), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2001) among others, consider the “Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth” as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period.

Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the post-Conquest Tovar Codex.

While there is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in colonial period accounts of the conquest, a 2012 exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the Dallas Museum of Art and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, “The Children of the Plumed Serpent: the Legacy of Quetzalcoatl in Ancient Mexico” conceived by John Pohl and curated with Virginia Fields and Victoria Lyall demonstrated the existence of a powerful confederacy of Eastern Nahuas, Mixtecs and Zapotecs, along with the peoples they dominated throughout southern Mexico between 1200-1600 (Pohl, Fields, and Lyall 2012, Harvey 2012, Pohl 2003). They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés at which time a number of factions throughout Tlaxcala,Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first re-claimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). The Tlaxcalteca along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day.

Quetzalcoatl Mural in Acapulco by Diego Rivera

Mormonism

See also: Archaeology and the Book of Mormon, Proposed Book of Mormon geographical setting and Mormon folklore

Some Mormons believe that Quetzalcoatl was actually Jesus Christ. According to the Book of Mormon, Jesus visited the American continent after his resurrection. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Mormon faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine. [31] LDS Church President John Taylor wrote: [32]

Latter-day Saint scholar Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. [33] In a 1986 paper for Sunstone, he noted that during the Spanish Conquest, the Native Americans and the Catholic priests who sympathized with them felt pressure to link Native American beliefs with Christianity, thus making the Native Americans seem more human and less savage. Over time, Quetzalcoatl’s appearance, clothing, malevolent nature, and status among the gods were reshaped to fit a more Christian framework. [34]

New Age

Various theories about Quetzalcoatl are popular in the New Age movement, especially since the publication of Tony Shearer’s 1971 book Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl and the Tree of Life republished also under the title Lord of the dawn: Quetzalcoatl, the plumed serpent of Mexico.

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PLEIADES=TAURUS & Egyptian GREEN FACED god= PTAH

THE GREEN FACED GODS

In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (/pəˈtɑː/; [1]

Egyptian: pt , probably vocalized as Pita in ancient Egyptian) [2] is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the spouse of Sekhmet and the father of Nefertum. He was also regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep.

Statue of Ptah – Egyptian Museum of Turin.

Ptah is the Creator god par excellence: He is considered the demiurge who existed before all other things, and by his willfulness, thought the world. It was first conceived by Thought, and realized by the Word: Ptah conceives the world by the thought of his heart and gives life through the magic of his Word. That which Ptah commanded was created, with which the constituents of nature, fauna, and flora, are contained. He also plays a role in the preservation of the world and the permanence of the royal function.

In the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, the Nubian pharaoh Shabaka would transcribe on a stela known as the Shabaka Stone, an old theological document found in the archives of the library of the temple of the god at Memphis. This document has been known as the Memphite Theology, and shows the god Ptah, the god responsible for the creation of the universe by thought and by the word.

Ptah is the patron of craftsmanship, metalworking, carpenters, shipbuilders, and sculpture. From the Middle Kingdom onwards, he was one of five major Egyptian gods with Ra, Isis, Osiris and Amun.

He wears many epithets that describe his role in ancient Egyptian religion and its importance in society at the time:

Ptah the beautiful face

Ptah lord of truth

Ptah master of justice

Ptah who listens to prayers

Ptah master of ceremonies

Ptah lord of eternity

Like many deities of ancient Egypt he takes many forms, through one of his particular aspects or through syncretism of ancient deities of the Memphite region. He is sometimes represented as a dwarf, naked and deformed, whose popularity would continue to grow during the Late Period. Frequently associated with the god Bes, his worship then exceeded the borders of the country and was exported throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Thanks to the Phoenicians, we find figures of Ptah in Carthage.

Ptah is generally represented in the guise of a man with green skin, contained in a shroud sticking to the skin, wearing the divine beard, and holding a sceptre combining three powerful symbols of ancient Egyptian religion:

The Was sceptre

The sign of life, Ankh

The Djed pillar

These three combined symbols indicate the three creative powers of the god: power (was), life (ankh) and stability (djed).

Stucco relief of Ptah holding a staff that bears the combined ankh and djed symbols. Late Period or Ptolemaic Dynasty, 4th to 3rd century BC.

From the Old Kingdom, he quickly absorbs the appearance of Sokar and Tatenen, ancient deities of the Memphite region. His form of Sokar is found contained in its white shroud wearing the Atef crown, an attribute of Osiris. In this capacity, he represents the god of the necropolis of Saqqara and other famous sites where the royal pyramids were built. Gradually he formed with Osiris a new deity called Ptah-Sokar-Osiris. Statuettes representing the human form, half-human, half-hawk, or simply in its falcon form will be systematically placed in tombs to accompany and protect the dead on their journey to the West.

His Tatenen form is represented by a young and vigorous man wearing a crown with two tall plumes that surround the solar disk. He thus embodies the underground fire that rumbles and raises the earth. As such, he was particularly revered by metalworkers and blacksmiths, but he was equally feared because it was he who caused earthquakes and tremors of the earth’s crust. In this form also, Ptah is the master of ceremonies for Heb Sed, a ceremony traditionally attesting to the first thirty years of the Pharaoh’s reign.

The god Ptah could be corresponding with the sun god Re, or Aten during the Amarna period, where he embodied the divine essence with which the sun god was fed to come into existence, that is to say to be born, according to the Memphite mythological/theological texts. In the holy of holies of his temple in Memphis, as well as in his great sacred boat, he drove in procession to regularly visit the region during major holidays. Ptah was also symbolized by two birds with human heads adorned with solar disks, symbols of the souls of the god Re: the Ba. The two Ba are also identified as the twin gods Shu and Tefnut and are associated with the djed pillar of Memphis. [3]

Finally, Ptah is embodied in the sacred bull, Apis. Frequently referred to as a herald of Re, the sacred animal is the link with the god Re from the New Kingdom. He even received worship in Memphis, probably at the heart of the great temple of Ptah, and its death was buried with all the honours due to a living god in the Serapeum of Saqqara.

Pooh, Phoh, Loh (Lunus, le dieu-Lune, Sélène), N372.2, Brooklyn Museum

Colossal statue of the god Ptah-Tatenen holding hands with Ramses II found at Memphis – Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

As god of craftsmen, the cult of the god Ptah quickly spread throughout Egypt. With the major royal projects of the Old Kingdom, the High Priests of Ptah were particularly sought after and worked in concert with the Vizier, somehow filling the role of chief architect and master craftsman, responsible for the decoration of the royal funerary complexes.

In the New Kingdom, the cult of the god would develop in different ways, especially in Memphis, his homeland, but also in Thebes, where the workers of the royal tomb honoured him as patron of craftsmen. For this reason, the oratory of Ptah who listens to prayers was built near the site of Deir el-Medina, the village where the workers and craftsmen were confined. At Memphis, the role of intercessor with men was particularly visible in the appearance of the enclosure that protected the sanctuary of the god. Large ears were carved on the walls, symbolizing his role as god who listens to prayers.

With the Nineteenth Dynasty, his cult grew and he became one of the four great gods of the empire of Ramses. He was worshipped at Pi-Ramesses as master of ceremonies and coronations.

With the Third Intermediate Period, Ptah returned to the centre of the monarchy where the coronation of the Pharaoh was held again in his temple. The Ptolemies continued this tradition, and the high priests of Ptah were then increasingly associated with the royal family, with some even marrying princesses of blood, clearly indicating the prominent role they played in the Ptolemaic court.

Temple dedicated to Location

Ptah Pi-Ramses

Ptah Memphis

Ptah who listens to prayers Memphis

Ptah who is south of his Wall Memphis

Ptah-Sokar Abydos

Ptah-Sokar Kom el-Hettan (Thebes)

Ptah who listens to prayers Deir el-Medina (Thebes)

Ptah Karnak (Thebes)

Ptah Gerf Hussein (Nubia)

Ptah lord of truth Abu Simbel (Nubia)

Profile of the god Ptah – Relief of the small temple of Hathor at Memphis

Colossal triad representing Ptah-Ramses II-Sekhmet – Gardens of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo

Pectoral of Tutankhamun representing the young king between the goddess Sekhmet and Ptah – Egyptian Museum of Cairo

Statuette of Ptah-Sokar-Osiris – The Louvre

Votive stele dedicated to the god Ptah in the temple of Deir el-Medina. New Kingdom, XX Dynasty, c. 1150 B.C.

The English name Egypt derives from an ancient Egyptian name for Memphis, Hikuptah, which means “Home of the Soul of Ptah”. This entered Ancient Greek as Α γυπτος (Aiguptos), which entered Latin as Ægyptus, which developed into English as Egypt.

Battiscombe G. Gunn, Instruction of Ptah-Hotep and the Instruction of Ke’Gemni: The Oldest Books in the World. 1998 Google books

Benedikt Rothöhler, Neue Gedanken zum Denkmal memphitischer Theologie. Heidelberg, 2006 http://www.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/archiv/7030

Maj Sandman Holmberg, The God Ptah. Lund, 1946.

Dorothy J. Thompson, Memphis Under the Ptolemies, Second Edition. Princeton, 2012.

Alain-Pierre Zivie, Memphis et ses nécropoles au Nouvel Empire. Éditions du CNRS, 1988

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PLEIADES=TAURUS THE BULL & RA

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Ra (/rɑː/; [1] Egyptian: , Rˤ) or Re (/reɪ/;

Coptic: , Rē) is the ancient Egyptian sun god. By the Fifth Dynasty in the 25th & 24th centuries BC, he had become a major god in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon sun.

In later Egyptian dynastic times, Ra was merged with the god Horus, as Ra-Horakhty (“Ra, who is Horus of the Two Horizons”). He was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the earth, and the underworld. [2] He was associated with the falcon or hawk. When in the New Kingdom the god Amun rose to prominence he was fused with Ra as Amun-Ra. During the Amarna Period, Akhenaten suppressed the cult of Ra in favor of another solar deity, the Aten, the deified solar disc, but after the death of Akhenaten the cult of Ra was restored.

The cult of the Mnevis bull, an embodiment of Ra, had its center in Heliopolis and there was a formal burial ground for the sacrificed bulls north of the city.

All forms of life were believed to have been created by Ra, who called each of them into existence by speaking their secret names. Alternatively humans were created from Ra’s tears and sweat, hence the Egyptians call themselves the “Cattle of Ra.” In the myth of the Celestial Cow it is recounted how mankind plotted against Ra and how he sent his eye as the goddess Sekhmet to punish them. When she became bloodthirsty she was pacified by drinking beer mixed with red dye.

Ra and the sun

To the Egyptians, the sun represented light, warmth, and growth. This made the sun deity very important, as the sun was seen as the ruler of all that he created. The sun disk was either seen as the body or eye of Ra. Ra was the father of Shu and Tefnut, whom he created. Shu was the god of the wind, and Tefnut was the goddess of the rain. Sekhmet was the Eye of Ra and was created by the fire in Ra’s eye. She was a violent lioness.

Ra in the underworld

Ra was thought to travel on two solar boats called the Mandjet (the Boat of Millions of Years), or morning boat and the Mesektet, or evening boat. [3] These boats took him on his journey through the sky and the Duat, the literal underworld of Egypt. While Ra was on the Mesektet, he was in his ram-headed form. [3] When Ra traveled in his sun boat he was accompanied by various other deities including Sia (perception) and Hu (command) as well as Heka (magic power). Sometimes members of the Ennead helped him on his journey, including Set, who overcame the serpent Apophis, and Mehen, who defended against the monsters of the underworld. When Ra was in the underworld, he would visit all of his various forms. [3]

Apophis, the god of chaos, was an enormous serpent who attempted to stop the sun boat’s journey every night by consuming it or by stopping it in its tracks with a hypnotic stare. During the evening, the Egyptians believed that Ra set as Atum or in the form of a ram. The Mesektet, or the Night boat, would carry him through the underworld and back towards the east in preparation for his rebirth. These myths of Ra represented the sun rising as the rebirth of the sun by the sky goddess Nut; thus attributing the concept of rebirth and renewal to Ra and strengthening his role as a creator god as well.

When Ra was in the underworld, he merged with Osiris, the god of the dead, and through it became the god of the dead as well. [3]

Ra as creator

Ra was worshipped as the Creator god among some Ancient Egyptians, specifically followers of his cult at Heliopolis. [3] It was believed that Ra wept, and from his tears came man. [3]

These cult-followers believed that Ra was self-created, while followers of Ptah believed that Ra was created by Ptah. [4] In a passage of the Book of the Dead, Ra cuts himself, and his blood transforms into two intellectual personifications: Hu, or authority, and Sia, or mind. [3] Ra is also accredited with the creation of the seasons, months, plants, and animals. [5]

Figure of Ra-Horakhty, 3rd century BC

Ra was represented in a variety of forms. The most usual form was a man with the head of a hawk and a solar disk on top and a coiled serpent around the disk. [3] Other common forms are a man with the head of a beetle (in his form as Khepri), or a man with the head of a ram. Ra was also pictured as a full-bodied ram, beetle, phoenix, heron, serpent, bull, cat, or lion, among others. [6]

He was most commonly featured with a ram’s head in the Underworld. [3] In this form, Ra is described as being the “ram of the west” or “ram in charge of his harem. [3]

In some literature, Ra is described as an aging king with golden flesh, silver bones, and hair of lapis lazuli. [3]

The chief cult center of Ra was Iunu, the “Place of Pillars” later known to the Greeks as Heliopolis (lit. “Sun City”) [2]

and today located in the suburbs of Cairo. He was identified with the local sun god Atum. As Atum or Atum-Ra, he was reckoned the first being and the originator of the Ennead (“The Nine”), consisting of Shu and Tefnut, Geb and Nut, Osiris, Set, Isis and Nephthys. The holiday of ‘The Receiving of Ra’ was celebrated on May 26 in the Gregorian calendar. [citation needed]

His local cult began to grow from roughly the second dynasty, establishing Ra as a sun deity. By the fourth dynasty the pharaohs were seen as Ra’s manifestations on earth, referred to as “Sons of Ra”. His worship increased massively in the fifth dynasty, when Ra became a state deity and pharaohs had specially aligned Pyramids, Obelisks, and solar temples built in his honor. The rulers of the fifth dynasty told their followers that they were sons of Ra himself and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis. [3] These pharaohs spent most of Egypt’s money on sun temples. [3] The first Pyramid Texts began to arise, giving Ra more and more significance in the journey of the pharaoh through the Underworld. [3]

During the Middle Kingdom era, Ra was increasingly affiliated and combined with other chief deities, especially Amun and Osiris.

Ra on the Solar boat.

At the time of the New Kingdom, the worship of Ra had become more complicated and grander. The walls of tombs were dedicated to extremely detailed texts that depicted Ra’s journey through the underworld. Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat. The idea that Ra aged with the sun became more popular during the rise of the New Kingdom.

Many acts of worship included hymns, prayers, and spells to help Ra and the sun boat overcome Apep.

The rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire put an end to the worship of Ra by the citizens of Egypt, [7] and as Ra’s popularity suddenly died out, the study of Ra became of purely academic interest even among the Egyptian priests. [8]

Gods merged with Ra

Ra and Amun, from the tomb of Ramses IV.

As with most widely worshiped Egyptian deities, Ra’s identity was often combined with other gods, forming an interconnection between deities.

Amun and Amun-Ra Amun was a member of the Ogdoad, representing creation energies with Amaunet, a very early patron of Thebes. He was believed to create via breath, and thus was identified with the wind rather than the sun. As the cults of Amun and Ra became increasingly popular in Upper and Lower Egypt respectively they were combined to create Amun-Ra, a solar creator god. It is hard to distinguish exactly when this combination happened, but references to Amun-Ra appeared in pyramid texts as early as the fifth dynasty. The most common belief is that Amun-Ra was invented as a new state deity by the Theban rulers of the New Kingdom to unite worshipers of Amun with the older cult of Ra around the 18th dynasty. [9]

Amun-Ra was given the official title “king of the gods” by worshippers, and images show the combined deity as a red-eyed man with a lion’s head that had a surrounding solar disk. [9]

Atum and Atum-Ra Atum-Ra (or Ra-Atum) was another composite deity formed from two completely separate deities, however Ra shared more similarities with Atum than with Amun. Atum was more closely linked with the sun, and was also a creator god of the Ennead. Both Ra and Atum were regarded as the father of the deities and pharaohs, and were widely worshiped. In older myths, Atum was the creator of Tefnut and Shu, and he was born from ocean Nun.

Imentet and Ra from the tomb of Nefertari, 13th century BC

Ra-Horakhty In later Egyptian mythology, Ra-Horakhty was more of a title or manifestation than a composite deity. It translates as “Ra (who is) Horus of the Horizons”. It was intended to link Horakhty (as a sunrise-oriented aspect of Horus) to Ra. It has been suggested that Ra-Horakhty simply refers to the sun’s journey from horizon to horizon as Ra, or that it means to show Ra as a symbolic deity of hope and rebirth. (See earlier section: Ra and the sun). Khepri and Khnum Khepri was a scarab beetle who rolled up the sun in the mornings, and was sometimes seen as the morning manifestation of Ra. Similarly, the ram-headed god Khnum was also seen as the evening manifestation of Ra. The idea of different deities (or different aspects of Ra) ruling over different times of the day was fairly common, but variable. With Khepri and Khnum taking precedence over sunrise and sunset, Ra often was the representation of midday when the sun reached its peak at noon. Sometimes different aspects of Horus were used instead of Ra’s aspects. Raet-Tawy Raet or Raet-Tawy was a female aspect of Ra; she did not have much of importance independently of him. In some myths she was considered to be either Ra’s wife or his daughter. [10]

Gods created by Ra

Bastet Bastet (also called Bast) is sometimes known as the “cat of Ra”. [11] She is also his daughter and is associated with Ra’s instrument of vengeance, the sun-god’s eye. [11]

Bastet is known for decapitating the serpent Apophis (Ra’s sworn enemy and the “God” of Chaos) to protect Ra. [11] In one myth, Ra sent Bastet as a lioness to Nubia. [11]

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Sekhmet Sekhmet is another daughter of Ra. [12]

Sekhmet was depicted as a lioness or large cat, and was an “eye of Ra”, or an instrument of the sun god’s vengeance.

[12] In one myth, Sekhmet was so filled with rage that Ra was forced to turn her into a cow so that she would not cause unnecessary harm. [12] In another myth, Ra fears that mankind is plotting against him and sends Hathor (another daughter of Ra) to exterminate the human race. [12] In the morning Sekhmet goes to finish the job and drinks what appears to be blood. [12] It turns out to be red beer, and she is too intoxicated to finish the slaughter. [12]

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Hathor Hathor is another daughter of Ra. [13]

When Ra feared that mankind was plotting against him, he sent Hathor as an “eye of Ra” to exterminate the human race, later sending Sekhmet to finish the job. [12] In one myth, Hathor danced naked in front of Ra until he laughed to cure him of a fit of sulking. [13] When Ra was without Hathor, he fell into a state of deep depression. [14]

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Rival gods

Neith, Brooklyn Museum

Ptah Ptah is rarely mentioned in the literature of Old Kingdom pyramids. [4]

This is believed by some to be a result of the Ra-worshipping people of Heliopolis being the main writers of these inscriptions. [4] Followers of Ra were known to be jealous of Ptah. [4]

While some believed that Ra is self-created, others believed that Ptah created him. [15]

Isis Isis frequently schemed against Ra, as she wanted her son Horus to have the power. [16] In one myth, Isis created a serpent to poison Ra and only gave him the antidote when he revealed his true name to her. [16] Ra now feared Isis, as with his secret name revealed she could use all her power against him and have Horus take over the throne. [16]

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Apep Apep, also called Apophis, was the god of chaos and Ra’s greatest enemy. He was said to lie just below the horizon line, trying to devour Ra as Ra descended into the underworld. As he swallowed Ra, this led to the setting of the sun and when he had completely swallowed Ra this led to nighttime. He never succeeded in completely swallowing Ra however as he eventually spit Ra back out, causing the sun to rise.

Main article: Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture

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