The Tanya (תניא) Likkutei Amarim (ליקוטי אמרים,






uguri comes from the verb augurare which means ‘to wish’. Auguri literally means ‘well wishes’ and can be used:

– to say happy birthday, in fact the song ‘happy birthday to you’ in Italian is tanti auguri a te!

– as an equivalent of ‘congratulations’, for successes in life such as new job, baby, house, anniversary

– during general celebrations e.g. Christmas, New Year, Mothers’ Day, Easter. It is possible a fuller expression may be used such as: Auguri di Buon Natale or Auguri di Buona Pasqua

– to offer best wishes, in advance of something difficult, when you may say ‘good luck’

– to wish someone ‘all the best’

Auguri is a plural noun, and will often be accompanied by tanti, to mean ‘many well wishes’.

Fare gli auguri means ‘to shout good wishes’ / ‘to cheer’ / ‘to congratulate’ and a biglietto di auguri is a ‘greeting card’. uguri comes from the verb augurare which means ‘to wish’. Auguri literally means ‘well wishes’ and can be used:

– to say happy birthday, in fact the song ‘happy birthday to you’ in Italian is tanti auguri a te!

– as an equivalent of ‘congratulations’, for successes in life such as new job, baby, house, anniversary

– during general celebrations e.g. Christmas, New Year, Mothers’ Day, Easter. It is possible a fuller expression may be used such as: Auguri di Buon Natale or Auguri di Buona Pasqua

– to offer best wishes, in advance of something difficult, when you may say ‘good luck’

– to wish someone ‘all the best’

Auguri is a plural noun, and will often be accompanied by tanti, to mean ‘many well wishes’.

Fare gli auguri means ‘to shout good wishes’ / ‘to cheer’ / ‘to congratulate’ and a biglietto di auguri is a ‘greeting card’.










Likkutei Amarim (ליקוטי אמרים,

Edition of the Tanya printed in Faid from 1974. The 7th leader of Chabad encouraged new printings to be made in remote places. The Tanya (תניא) is an early work of Hasidic philosophy, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of Chabad Hasidism, first published in 1797. Its formal title is Likkutei Amarim (ליקוטי אמרים, Hebrew, “collection of statements”), but is more commonly known by its opening word, Tanya, which means “it was taught in a beraita”. It is composed of five sections that define Hasidic mystical psychology and theology as a handbook for daily spiritual life in Jewish observance.

The Tanya, written by Shneur Zalman of Liadi, is the main work of the Chabad philosophy and the Chabad approach to Hasidic mysticism, as it defines its general interpretation and method. The subsequent extensive library of the Chabad school, authored by successive leaders, builds upon the approach of the Tanya. Chabad differed from “Mainstream Hasidism” in its search for philosophical investigation and intellectual analysis of Hasidic Torah exegesis. This emphasised the mind as the route to internalising Hasidic mystical dveikus (emotional fervour), in contrast to general Hasidism’s creative enthusiasm in faith. As a consequence, Chabad Hasidic writings are typically characterised by their systematic intellectual structure, while other classic texts of general Hasidic mysticism are usually more compiled or anecdotal in nature.

As one of the founding figures of Hasidic mysticism, Schneur Zalman and his approach in the Tanya are venerated by other Hasidic schools, although they tend to avoid its meditative methods. In Chabad, it is called “the Written Torah of Hasidus”, with the many subsequent Chabad writings being relatively “Oral Torah” explanation. In it, Schneur Zalman brings the new interpretations of Jewish mysticism by the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism, into philosophical articulation and definition. This intellectual form synthesises Hasidic Divine Omnipresence and Jewish soulfulness with other historical components of Rabbinic literature, embodied in the Talmud, Medieval philosophy, Musar (ethical) literature and Lurianic Kabbalah. The Tanya has therefore been seen in Chabad as the defining Hasidic text, and a subsequent stage of Jewish mystical evolution.


The Tanya deals with Jewish spirituality, psychology and theology from the point of view of Hasidic philosophy and its inner explanations of Kabbalah (Jewish mysticism). It offers advice for each individual on how to serve God in their daily life.

Early Hasidic movement

The first few generations of the Hasidic movement established the various approaches of its different schools. The third generation great students of Dov Ber of Mezeritch, who spread out across Eastern Europe, became the leaders of Hasidism in Ukraine, Poland, Hungary and Russia. Among them, Schneur Zalman articulated a different approach to Hasidic Philosophy from general Hasidism. The founding Hasidic mysticism of the Baal Shem Tov, and subsequent Hasidic Masters, emphasised the emotions of dveikus to cleave to the Omnipresent Divine. The intellectual (“Chabad”) approach of Schneur Zalman, continued by successive Lubavitch Rebbes, emphasised the mind as the route to the inner heart. The Chabad school requires knowledge of Godliness, drawn from Hasidic Philosophy, to establish Hasidic mystical faith. This enabled Schneur Zalman to take Hasidus to Lithuanian Jews from nearby White Russia, and aroused the opposition of their early leaders. In this, Chabad is a separate offshoot of general Hasidism, and to its students is the profound fulfillment of systematically articulating its inner depths. Therefore, in Chabad, the Baal Shem Tov and Schneur Zalman, who share the same birthday, are called the “two great luminaries” (after Genesis 1:16, according to the Midrashic account, before the moon was diminished), representing heart and mind.

Kabbalah and Hasidism

The historical development of Kabbalah, from the 12th century, and its new formulations in the 16th century, explained the subtle aspects and categories of the traditional system of Jewish metaphysics. Hasidic spirituality left aside the abstract focus of Kabbalah on the Spiritual Realms, to look at its inner meaning and soul as it relates to man in this World. [2] The founder of Hasidism, the Baal Shem Tov, brought the Kabbalistic idea of Omnipresent Divine immanence in Creation into daily Jewish worship of the common folk. This enabled the popularisation of Kabbalah by relating it to the natural psychological perception and emotional dveikus (fervour) of man. The mystical dimension of Judaism became accessible and tangible to the whole community. Outwardly this was expressed in new veneration of sincerity, emphasis on prayer and deeds of loving-kindness. The unlettered Jewish folk were cherished and encouraged in their sincere simplicity, while the elite scholars sought to emulate their negation of ego through study of Hasidic exegetical thought. Hagiographic storytelling about Hasidic Masters captured the mystical charisma of the tzaddik. The inner dimension of this mystical revival of Judaism was expressed by the profound new depth of interpretation of Jewish mysticism in Hasidic philosophy. Great scholars also followed the Baal Shem Tov as they saw the profound meanings of his new teachings. The Baal Shem Tov’s successor Dov Ber of Mezeritch became the architect of the Hasidic movement, and explained to his close circle of disciples the underlying meanings of the Baal Shem Tov’s explanations, parables and stories.


Mind versus heart. Among Dov Ber’s disciples, Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi formed Hasidic Philosophy into a profound intellectual system, called “Chabad” after the Kabbalistic terms for the intellect, that differs from mainstream Hasidic emotional approaches to mystical faith. This seeks inward Jewish observance, while downplaying charismatic Hasidic enthusiasm, that it sees as external. The mysticism of Schneur Zalman did not seek cold intellectual investigation. In common with all of Hasidism, it awakens joy and negation of self-awareness, from the Jew’s perception of the Divine in all things. But in Chabad, later to be called after its Russian village of Lubavitch, external emotional expression is seen as superficial if devoid of inner contemplation. In this vein, it is related that the second Lubavitch Rebbe, Dov Ber Schneuri, would pray motionless for hours. Emotional expression was replaced with inner, hidden emotional ecstasy from his intellectual contemplation of Hasidic Philosophy during prayer. At the end of praying, his hat and clothing would be soaked in perspiration. Typically, he wrote one of the most personal mystical accounts in Judaism, his “Tract on Ecstasy”, that instructs the Chabad follower in the levels of contemplation. This explains his father’s concept of the Chabad articulation of Hasidism. While the Baal Shem Tov stressed the heart, Schneur Zalman stressed the mind, but it was a warm, fiery mystical intellectualism.

Intellect versus faith. By giving Hasidus philosophical investigation, the Chabad school explained the inner meanings of the “Torah of the Baal Shem Tov”. Its systematic investigation enables the mind to grasp and internalize the transcendent spirituality of mainstream Hasidism. If the mind can bring the soul of Hasidism into understanding and knowledge through logic, then its effects on the person can be more inward. The classic writings of other Hasidic schools also relate the inner mysticism of Hasidic Philosophy to the perception of each person. The aim of the Hasidic movement is to offer the Jewish mystical tradition in a new, internal form that speaks to every person. This would awaken spiritual awareness and feeling of God, through understanding of its mystical thought. Mainstream Hasidism relates this mystical revival through charismatic leadership and understanding based faith. The path of Schneur Zalman differs from other Hasidism, as it seeks to approach the heart through the development of the mind. Chabad writings of each generation of its dynasty, develop this intellectual explanation of Hasidic mystical ideas, into successively greater and more accessible reach. In recent times the last two Rebbes expressed the spiritual warmth of Chabad in terms of daily reality, language and relevance, in the Yiddish translations and memoires of Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, and especially the Likkutei Sichos of Menachem Mendel Schneerson.

Chabad Hasidus and other dimensions of Jewish thought. Because the approach of Chabad explains Hasidus in intellectual form, it can incorporate into its explanation the other aspects of historical Jewish thought. Complimentary or initially contradictory explanations of Jewish thought from Rabbinic Judaism, Jewish Philosophy and Kabbalah can become synthesised into one unity. It can connect the different disciplines of mysticism (Kabbalah) and Jewish philosophy (Hakira), by relating to a higher, essential unity in Divinity, that harmonises diverse ideas. This approaches classic questions of theology from a different route than Hakira. The Jewish philosophers of the Middle Ages, such as Maimonides, reconciled Judaism with Greek philosophy. Their explanations of the nature of the Divine, are related from man’s independent understanding from first principles. Hasidic thought looks to the inner meaning of Kabbalah, a conceptual system of metaphysics from mystical encounters with revelation. The insights it brings to theological questions, brought out in its Chabad explanation, are related from a mystical, higher reality “from above”. When Hasidic thought addresses traditional questions, such as Divine Providence, immanence and transcendence, it offers “Inner Torah” explanations of spirituality, that can also be harmonised with the explanations of the “Revealed Torah”. It is the ability of Hasidic thought to bring the abstract, esoteric systems of Kabbalah into conscious perception and mystical faith, by relating them to man’s inner psychological awareness. The ideal of the Chabad approach is to articulate this spiritual perception in terms of man’s understanding and knowledge. [



Hasidus called the “Torah of the Baal Shem Tov” and his “Wellsprings”, after his account in a letter to Gershon of Kitov about the elevation of his soul to the Heavenly Realms on Rosh Hashanah 1746. Repeating the Talmudic question, he asked the Messiah, “When is the Master coming?” The reply was, “When your Wellsprings spread forth to the furthest extremes” [1]

Hasidic philosophy or Hasidus (Hebrew: חסידות), alternatively transliterated as Hassidism, Chassidism, Chassidut etc. is the teachings, interpretations, and practice of Judaism as articulated by the Hasidic movement. Thus, Hasidus is a framing term for the teachings of the Hasidic masters, expressed in its range from Torah (the Five books of Moses) to Kabbalah (Jewish mysticisim). Hasidus deals with a range of spiritual concepts such as God, the soul, and the Torah, and gives them understandable, applicable and practical expressions. [2][3] It also discusses the charismatic religious elements of the movement, but mainly Hasidus describes the structured thought and philosophy of Hasidim. In other words, it speaks of the “soul of Torah”, as Hasidus is often referred to by that very name. [4]

“Hasidus” (piousness) and “Hasid” (a pious person) are terms used in Jewish literature of all ages, and are not limited to adherents of the Hasidic movement, whose philosophy is discussed in this article.


Four levels of Torah interpretation (Pardes)

Classic Jewish teachings interpret each verse of the Torah (and often, other Jewish Scriptures from the Tanach-the Hebrew Bible, that are held to be revealed by “Nevuah”-Prophecy or the lower level of “Ruach Hakodesh”-Divine Spirit, also occasionally applied to the Oral Tradition, liturgy, etc.) on four levels. They are:

Pshat: Meaning “Simple”-the plain meaning of the text. Can be ingenious

Remez: A “Hinted” meaning, another concept concealed within the wording, that may be alluded to in a variety of ways

Drash: A homiletic interpretation of the words, from the word “Doresh”-to expound. Gives a tangential meaning that is often imaginative or ethical, sometimes derived from comparing similar wording from different Scriptural verses. Stories in the Midrash can movingly personalise God’s relationship with His people, and their response, and are held by commentators to contain deeper secrets

Sod: The “Secret” interpretation of the text found in Kabbalah that involves deep, spiritual meanings of the Torah, derived from the Scriptural words using esoteric rules of hermeneutics. Describes the metaphysical order of Creation, with the systems of the Jewish mystical tradition. While the Kabbalah was rooted in prophetic and visionary experiences of the Divine, over time it gained greater conceptualisation, so that it became an intellectual system, based on the Biblical text, taught to initiates. It relates its abstract descriptions of emanations, souls etc. to the descending levels of spiritual “Worlds” between the Infinite and our finite physical Universe. Specific and subtle categories of Divine manifestations are described. In this way the concern of Kabbalah is with the Heavenly realms, and man’s impact on them.

The first letters of these 4 words spell the word Pardes-“Orchard”. Each successive level of exegesis gives a more esoteric and spiritual explanation of the Biblical text. The first 3 methods are used in the part of Judaism described as “Nigleh”-“Revealed”, comprising many classic Bible commentaries, the Talmudic literature, Halachic works, Medieval Philosophy etc., that frames Jewish thought from man’s perspective and intellectual terms. This was historically the main part of Jewish study. The 4th level is involved in the “Nistar”-“Hidden” aspect of Judaism, that is found in the books of Kabbalah and some other classic Bible commentators. This is a spiritually orientated study, explaining Judaism in metaphysical terms, “God’s intellect” drawn progressively down into human comprehension. “Toras haHasidus”, the teachings of Hasidus, are also considered part of Nistar, and often also utilise Kabbalistic terminology, but what is the true nature of Hasidic thought? Is it part of Sod, as is commonly thought? What is the difference between Kabbalah and Hasidus? Is it hidden in the way that Kabbalah can only truly be sensed by the most advanced student? Does not Hasidic thought have multiple forms of expression, from the principles inherent in legendary spiritual stories, to the analytical texts that speak to the soul? If a Hasidic parable or short explanation can avoid all words of Kabbalah, does Hasidus not also relate to Pshat, Remez and Drush?

Origin of the Jewish mystical tradition

After Biblical references to esoteric descriptions of the Divine, texts devoted to mysticism in Judaism first emerge in the “Merkavah” vision by the prophet Ezekiel found in the Book of Ezekiel chapter 1 , [12] in the literature of the Second Temple period [13] and the “Heichalot (or Hekalot)” literature from the geonic period. [14] The distinctive works of the Kabbalah first appear in 13th Century Spain and France. Kabbalists differ with the general view of secular scholarship, by holding that the source of the main Kabbalistic work, the Zohar, lies over a thousand years earlier with Shimon bar Yochai, and they believe the hidden transmission to continue further back to Mount Sinai, and beyond. The Medieval flowering of Kabbalah gained greater momentum after the expulsion from Spain in 1492, which encouraged greater mystical endeavour in response to the tragedy. With the 16th Century school of Safed, the Kabbalah reached its complete structure, with the successive Kabbalistic systems of Moses Cordovero and Isaac Luria. While reserved for the scholarly elite, it became mainstream to Jewish thought and religious life. It replaced the earlier Aristotelian school of Philosophy, as the authoritative and complete Jewish theology. Its concepts infused the prayerbook and folklore. In the Ashkenazi world of European Jewry, the distorted mysticism and apostasy of Shabbetai Zvi in 1665-6, brought about restrictions to the spread of Kabbalah, and its popularisers were looked on with suspicion. It was such concern that later informed the opposition from the Mitnagdim(“Opposers”), to the mystical revivalism and revolution of Hasidism, that for a few generations split the world of Eastern European Jewry. More recently, after Hasidus had replaced Kabbalah as the predominant European Jewish mystical expression, the spread of the Haskalah(“Intellectualism”, reframing Judaism from the perspective of the secular Enlightenment) from Western Europe eastwards, became the second influence that restricted the mystical in Judaism. However, the new academic study of Jewish mysticism, and a new interest in Hasidism and Kabbalah across the spectrum of Jewish denominations in the 20th Century, have reversed the legacy of these trends today. The Sephardi world of Oriental Jewry was more remote from these challenges to mysticism, and so maintained on the whole, its tradition of Kabbalah in its mainstream life, even without the European input of Hasidism. Nonetheless, in the last two generations some Sephardi communities have come under the influence of Hasidism, especially the outreach movements of Habad and Breslav.

Significance of the Kabbalistic system to mainstream Jewish tradition

The hidden dimension of Judaism described in the Kabbalah is not separate from the revealed dimension of mainstream tradition, but accompanies and explains it on a deeper and spiritual level. Looking at the reasons given in Judaism for the commandments of Jewish observance, and the purpose of Creation in general, can illustrate the significance of Nistar to the rest of Jewish thought. The Torah outlines the commandments of Jewish observance with occasional explanations, later Scriptures movingly encourage their observance in Prophetic admonishment and transfigured poetry, the Talmud codifies the law, and the Midrash imaginatively describes how Jewish observance affects God in human psychological terms. The Commentators, Philosophers, and Masters of Musar give explanations for the commandments on various symbolic, psychological, and ethical levels as to their particular significances and reasons. With all this, the commandments are given many meanings, and the spiritual path of mainstream tradition awakens in the individual psychology, feelings of sensitivity and responsibility to their fellow man and to their Heavenly Father. Philosophically, however, for the person who only studies the revealed dimension of Judaism, ultimately the commandments are observed because they are Divine decrees, and the reasons given are not absolute. It is clear that this applies to the ritual commandments, where God could have asked for different practices, and reasons given for them in Nigleh are symbolic. But the ethical commandments encouraging caring behaviour, and forbidding cruel behaviour, would seem to have reason why God would instruct them. However, since God is infinite and has no needs, according to human intellect, then the purpose of the commandments is for the improvement and benefit of man. This is the usual view of Jewish Philosophy within the revealed part of Judaism, without the influence of Kabbalah. The hidden dimension of Nistar in Judaism, is a Divine aspect of intellect, and is not limited to boundaries of human logic. The Torah of Nistar is able to approach the limitless mystery of infinitude that is expressed in Divine paradox. In the mainstream philosophical view, the ethical commandments are given for man’s benefit, to encourage him to resemble the goodness of God and rise in holiness. True goodness for man only lies in the superior life of the soul, rather than the temporary life of physicality. The ultimate attainment of this is the eternal reward of the hereafter, and Messianic era. So the greatest purpose of the commandments is their gift of a chance to earn this reward. As will be explained later, one of the characteristic qualities of Hasidic thought is that it brings the Hasid to a selfless nullification in serving God, where the idea of looking for reward is felt to be impure and repulsive. However, according to Nigleh without Kabbalistic thought, the greatest purpose why God commanded even the ethical laws is to give man a test, through which he can receive eternal reward. Nonetheless, according to this human perspective, where God has no needs, why should it inherently matter if man is good or not? It therefore seems that also the ethical precepts of Judaism depend on Divine decree.

The complete mystical system depicted in Lurianic Kabbalah introduces new teachings (new revelations from the perspective of Jewish belief) that transform Jewish mysticism and its power of explanation. In the “Kabbalah of the Ari” (Isaac Luria), metaphysical reasons for the commandments are given that describe how the revelations in the upper, spiritual Worlds, and the messianic work of redemption in all levels of Creation, depends upon the sanctifying conduct of each individual in this World. The introduction of the cosmic event of the “Breaking of the Vessels” in the primordial World of “Tohu”(Chaos), before our order of Creation, gives rise to fallen sparks of holiness that infuse all matter. The spiritual service of separating and elevating the fallen sparks, through the present Worlds of “Tikkun”(Fixing), is accomplished by observance of the Jewish precepts that are taught in the revealed dimension of Judaism. Particular explanations of each commandment’s metaphysical function are given, that are seen as deriving from the Scriptural words of their source. Where the Talmud interprets the verses of the Torah, according to its rules, to learn out details of law – in this study the same words are seen as offering spiritual explanations, derived by applying the esoteric textual rules of Kabbalah. This idea of the redemption of the fallen sparks of holiness, gives innovative sanctity to mundane reality, and yet is also traditionally conformative – the effect of redemption is achieved whether one is aware of it or not. This radical doctrine depends on, and is inseparable from the revealed dimension of Judaism, and the observance of daily Halacha (Jewish law). For the student of Kabbalah, the “soul” of the observance, its “kavanah” (intention) can be different. It remains a matter of opinion whether one’s intention can be directed to achieving the Kabbalistic rectification of the commandment, the redemption of Divine manifestations throughout the levels of existence. Alternatively, the Kabbalistic scheme can open the door to greater “dveikus”(cleaving) to God Himself, the Divine essence. As this illustrates, the intricate explanations of Kabbalah, which describe the effect of man on the systems of Divine manifestation in the spiritual Worlds, are inseparable from the revealed aspects of Judaism.

To the Medieval school of Jewish Philosophy, that framed Judaism in light of Greek thought and human intellect, God the Infinite has no needs. As the student of Torah ascends through the thought of the Pardes system, as the interpretations become more inward and spiritual, it becomes progressively understood that God desires man’s observance of the Jewish precepts, so to speak. With the hidden dimension of “Penimiut haTorah”(the “Inner” mystical level of Nistar) the thought describes how, in the purpose of Creation that God chose to take upon Himself, man is needed to fulfil the redemption. So why ultimately, would God have set up such a system? Surely He had no needs to be met. Judaism gives various answers, and Nistar gives its own reasons and explanations. Explanations range from “it is in the nature of the good to do good”, to Creation being a process of God knowing Himself, each answer reflecting a different aspect of Divinity. Hasidus focuses on the most essential reason, that most describes the infinite ability and unknowability of Divine paradox, beyond human grasp, reflected in the description of Nistar(“hidden”) for the mystical levels of Judaism. In this explanation the purpose of Creation is that “God desired a dwelling place in the lower realms” – it is man who transforms the mundane, lowest World into an abode for God’s essence. In Jewish belief, its fulfilment will be revealed in the cumulation of Creation, in the era of resurrection, in the physical World. The word “desire”, best summarises the essential wish, because in Kabbalistic explanation this is desire rooted in God’s essence, above rationality.

Imaginative aspects of Hasidism: Nachman of Breslov articulated the most poetic interpretation of Hasidic thought. His autobiographical accounts shaped a path of creative faith. The 13 Sippurei Ma’asiyot Wonder-Tales of Royalty and Sages, animals and forests give artistic literary personification to Hasidic thought and are studied for Kabbalistic allusions and devotion [16]

Hasidism, the most recent expression of the Jewish mystical tradition, is founded upon the earlier Kabbalah. In the 18th century the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of the Hasidic movement, reframed Jewish spirituality in a new paradigm, which described the Kabbalah in relation to man. This represented a profound change in the expression of Jewish mysticism, because it left aside the Heavenly focus of Kabbalistic understanding, which had required enormous intricacy and subtle esoteric categorisation, that had only been accessible to great scholars. The new path of the Baal Shem Tov related Kabbalistic ideas to human psychological experience, that was accessible to every person. The follower of the Baal Shem Tov, and later Hasidic Masters, was given the ability to perceive the Divine here in this world, through the sensitivity of their heart, and grasp of their mind to Godliness. Biblical and Rabbinic thought describes the two feelings of love and fear(awe) of God, as the basis of Jewish observance and the experience of holiness. In this quest of the spirit, various levels of both are described, and paths to develop them are given. The variety of Scriptural, practical and spiritual texts in the Jewish tradition can awaken in a sympathetic reader many responses, from poetical delight to intellectual reverence. If the reader feels through them an encounter with Divinity, they can inspire personal shades of love and awe, in proportion to each individual’s understanding. To the Medieval school of intellectual Philosophy, additionally, considering the wonders of Creation offered another path to seeing Divine Providence.


The spiritual teachings of the Hasidic Masters, that brought mysticism into tangible grasp, awakened soulful, innermost levels of the two main feelings of love and awe of God, and their derivatives. The teachings of Kabbalah include discussion of the Divine spark in the soul of man, and the unique embrace of God inherent in the commandments of the Torah. By referring the whole mystical tradition around this Godly essence, higher than the Heavenly emanations, the Hasidic path uncovered the inner simple essence of the Kabbalah. Because this approach was rooted in the essential unity of God rather than the elaborate Divine manifestations, it could be conveyed to the whole community of Israel, great and small alike. The teachings, stories and conduct of the Baal Shem Tov uncovered this essential holiness in sincerity to God and one’s fellow man, which came naturally to the unlearned, who had previously been looked down to, by those more spiritually adept, and who now could learn from them lessons in serving God. The Baal Shem Tov reached out to two groups of people: the simple unlearned masses whom he encouraged and invigorated, and the great Torah scholars who formed a close circle of saintly mystics around him. He would teach both groups with short, mystical Torah explanations, parables and stories that alluded to the inner meaning of Kabbalistic ideas. To the simple masses this was the first time Jewish mysticism had been conveyed in a way they could grasp, while his close circle understood the profound nature of the ideas alluded to. This “Holy Society” of saintly followers would later go on to become Hasidic Masters themselves, in the second generation under the leadership of Dov Ber of Mezeritch, and in the third generation diversifying into many branches across Eastern Europe.

Systematic articulation



– Beinoni, The: (lit. “intermediate one”); an individual whose spiritual labors have brought him to a level of perfection in thought, word and deed, despite his still-active evil inclination; see Tanya, ch. 12. The Kabbalah of Imperfection



Nostradamus C06 Q57: The right to claim foreigners property is passed into religious law. Copyright: Allan Webber, December 2015

The anagrams that provide the first focal point for this occur in the first line where two sequence saying it quotesaubaine ( qu’e$to – it – bien au) and lands regence ( dans l – e regne Ce)point to France in Nostradamus time when the king held the right to inherit the property of any foreign-born person who died in his realm. However this device refers to a future time when a person in the Roman Church in England will comply with the request of an Islamic ally and declare that right of kings for the chief of the European invaders.

Some of the anagrams that will determine this verse’s meaning include:

Tractarian, chapelgoer, futhoerc, reactant, biotite, niobite, preascertained, forechant, hierarchal, prorogue, succeed, fleets, recuperates, aubaine, regence, Englanders, treescape, recaptures, romance, fetch, cameras, hail, harmonic, quotes, cruelest keys, regroup, anchor, Tanya, quest, purge, Roman Caesar, generals, respect, creed, enlarges, fetes.

Centuries.6 Quatrain.57

He who was well forward in the realm, Having a red chief close to the hierarchy, Harsh and cruel, and he will make himself much feared He will succeed to the sacred monarchy


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