BULL LICET ECCLESIA CATHOLICA (ISAIAH 4:/ACTS 2:17-19)

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ISAIAH 4: 1-3 And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, We will eat our own bread, and wear our own apparel: only let us be called by thy name, to take away our reproach.

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In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel.

And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem:

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TAURUS, THE BULL:

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THE GRAND UNION PROMULGATED

The bull Licet Ecclesiae Catholicae issued byPope Alexander IV on 9 th April 1256 is the most important singledocument in thehistory of theOrder of SaintAugustine. In that it promulgated the Grand Union of the Augustinian Order, it is just asimportantto theOrder as is the Magna Carta to thehistory of England or the Declaration of Independenceto thehistory of theU.S.A.

Thisdocument established the Order in its modern form, and marks the time ofitsofficial birth.

It isalso a singular document in thehistory of Church Law because it established principles for which itsauthorshad no precedent. For thefirsttime, it legitimised the imposition of a certain rule of lifeupon different religious communitygroupings, bringing them over from previous rules theyhad variously been adopting.

It made its changes with some sensitivity, because it recognised the strugglebetween old and new forms ofcommunitylife, and also the balancing actof the Roman Curia in clinging to the establishing formsof monasticism withoutquashing the new vigour evident in themore loosely-structured mendicant movement.

Licet Ecclesiaedid not precede the GreatUnion (the first Augustinian General Chapter) of 1256, but followed it. It is theonly official reportof the Grand Union that is extant. Itgives the reasons whythe Popewanted the Grand Union, and the waysand means that the Grand Union successfully achieved the papal intentions. Most of all, Licet Ecclesiae confirmed the decisions of theGrand Union and gave them the binding force of Church Law.

The Pope’s reasons for desiring theGrand Union form the unusually-lengthypreamble of Licet Ecclesiae. The reasonsfor issuing such a papal bull are not usually provided within the document. The bull justified the Grand Union as an initiative to eliminate the fear (whose fear?) of “confusion” expressed bythe Fourth Lateran Council about the greatproliferation ofnew non-monastic religious groups.

The bull states that theintegrityof thebody ofthe Church is not handicapped bythe diversityofits members as long asthe various parts fitharmoniouslyinto thewhole; each part, however, mustbe easilydistinguishable from the others, and must have an orderly arrangementof its own.

It continues by noting that, somewhat contrary to the aboveideal, the religious groups bearing the name of Hermits follow substantiallythe sameway oflife yet, even so, are called by many different names and wear manydifferent religious habits. The Pope meansto provide for the better adornment of Christ’s spouse (i.e., the Church – for whom each Order is likea beautiful garment), as well as for thegreater spiritual power of theHermitsthemselves.

ISAIAH 4:1-3

ACTS 2:17-18

The original copyofLicetEcclesiae still exists in the possession of the Augustinian Curia of the Order in Rome. Its parchment is 480 mm by 640 mm in size. Thependantlead bull has been cut off, but its red and yellow silken threads remain attached to the parchment.

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ATS 2:17-18

ISAIAH 4:1-3

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ACTS 2:17-19

ISAIAH 4:1

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Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio, in Greek μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, the change of substance by which the bread and the wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the physical Body and Blood of Jesus the Christ. [1][2]

The Catholic Church teaches that the substance, or reality, of the Eucharistic offering (either bread alone, or bread and wine) is changed into both the Body and Blood of Christ. [3]

Catholics believe that, in the offering of the Eucharist, the whole presence of Christ exists in:

Transubstantiated bread, even in small fragments, and

Transubstantiated wine, even in a single drop

All that is accessible to the senses (the outward appearances – species [4][5][6] in Latin) remains unchanged. [7]:1413[8]

What remains unaltered is also referred to as the “accidents” of the bread and wine, [9] but the term “accidents” is not used in the official definition of the doctrine by the Council of Trent. [10] The manner in which the change occurs, the Catholic Church teaches, is a mystery: “The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ.” [7]:1333

The Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodox Church, and Church of the East have sometimes used the term “transubstantiation” (metousiosis); however, terms such as “divine mystery”, “trans-elementation” (μεταστοιχείωσις metastoicheiosis), “re-ordination” (μεταρρύθμισις metarrhythmisis), or simply “change” (μεταβολή) are more common among them, and they consider the Eucharist with its change from bread and wine to the body and blood of Christ a “Mystery”. Eastern Catholic Churches in communion with the Holy See likewise prefer such terms and see them alongside the teaching expressed by the term “transubstantiation”, which likewise denotes an actual change, a “becoming”, as opposed to the mere addition of a new symbolic significance expressed in “to be for us the body and[1

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The ninth Augustinian International Encounter for Young Adults took placein Sydney, Australia on 21st – 27th July 2008. Atotal of 290 young adultsand maleand femaleAugustinians participated.

The general themeof the Encounter was taken from Chapter 2 of the Acts of theApostles, “sharing all things in common.”

On the day immediatelyafter the completion of World Youth Day, St Augustine’s College at Brookvale (Sydney) became the venue for the opening ceremony and banquet ofthe Augustinian Encounter. On the following day, everyonemoved fivekilometres to the Collaroy Conference centre for the remaining daysof the Encounter.

Auniquefeature ofDay3 ofthe Encounter was a dayof reflection in a national parkthatcontained Australian “bush” (light forest). Guides from among the Aboriginal people of Australia explained their culture, their respect for theEarth, and their spirituality to the participantsof theEncounter. The day ended with a Eucharist in the natural surroundings.

Later days ofthe Encounter dwelt on the topics of St Augustine, social justice and community. Sunseton Day5 featured a candlelightVia Lucis liturgy at theCollaroy Centre.

On each dayof the Encounter various national groupsmade group presentations, sometimes in song, dance and humour, and atother times in thoughtful contribution to the themes of theevent.

During freetimein the evenings, young adults had an Encounter coffeeshop where they could relaxand meet. Oneofthe evenings featured a traditional Australian Bush Dance.

On the final evening of the Encounter, the theme ofBody of Christ wasbrought to a conclusion bya Eucharist, which wasled by the Augustinian Prior General. It was celebrateld on a grassed area immediately beside CollaroyBeach and the PacificOcean.

Thiswas the first Augustinian International Encounter held outside of Europe, and an Asian presence was much more visible than it had been atpreviousEncounters. This was assisted by44 participantsfrom Augustinian ministries in the Philippinesand 11 from Korea. Therewere also 3 young Augustinians present from India.

As well, three other Asia-Pacific nations were represented at an Augustinian Encounter for the first time: theycamefrom Augustinian ministries in Indonesia (2 male and 1 female religious), Vietnam (6 young adults) and Thailand (2 young adults from ministries involving theOrder).

The Encounter involved 236 young adults, 47 male and 7 female Augustinian religious. Thesepeople came from 16 nations where Augustinian ministry occurs. All continents ofthe world were represented.

Some photographstaken by theyoung adult participants can be found at http://picasaweb.google.com/mbb949/AugustinianYouthEncounter08Sydney

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Aliearia

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