Monthly Archives: June 2016

SERPENTS, PETS & THE BIBLE

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SERPENTS, THE BIBLE AND PETS

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CIRCE, THE GREEK GODDESS

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KIRKE (Circe) was a goddess of sorcery (pharmakeia) who was skilled in the magic of transmutation, illusion, and necromancy. She lived on the mythical island of Aiaia (Aeaea) with her nymph companions.

When Odysseus came to her island she transformed his men into beasts but, with the help of the god Hermes, he overcame her and forced her to end the spell.

Kirke’s name is derived from the Greek verb kirkoô meaning “to secure with rings” or “hoop around”–a reference to the binding power of magic.

Kirke’s island of Aiaia (Aeaea) was located in the far west, near the earth-encircling River Okeanos (Oceanus). Her brother Aeetes’ realm in the far east was similarly named Aia (Aea).

FAMILY OF CIRCE

PARENTS

[1.1] HELIOS & PERSEIS (Homer Odyssey10.135,

Hesiod Theogony 956, Apollodorus 1.80, Apollonius Rhodius

4.584) [1.2] HELIOS (Homer’s Epigrams XIV, HyginusFabulae

199, Ovid Metamorphoses 13.898, ValeriusFlaccus 7.210) [1.3] AEETES & HEKATE (Diodorus Siculus4.45.1)

OFFSPRING

[1.1] AGRIOS, LATINOS (by Odysseus) (Hesiod

Theogony 1011) [1.2] TELEGONOS (by Odysseus) (Homerica

Returns Frag 4, Homerica TelegonyFrag 1, Plutarch Greek

Roman Parallel Stories 41, Hyginus Fabulae 127, Oppian

Halieutica 2.497) [1.3] NAUSITHOUS, TELEGONOS (by Odysseus) (Hyginus Fabulae 125) [2.1] LATINOS (by Telemakhos) (Hyginus Fabulae

127) [3.1] PHAUNOS (by Poseidon) (NonnusDionysiaca

13.327 & 37.10)

ENCYCLOPEDIA

CIRCE (Kirkê), a mythical sorceress, whom Homer calls a fair-locked goddess, a daughter of Helios by the Oceanid Perse, and a sister of Aeëtes. (Od. x. 135.) She lived in the island of Aeaea; and when Odysseus on his wanderings came to her island, Circe, after having changed several of his companions into pigs, became so much attached to the unfortunate hero, that he was induced to remain a whole year with her. At length, when he wished to leave her, she prevailed upon him to descend into the lower world to consult the seer Teiresias. After his return from thence, she explained to him the dangers which he would yet have to encounter, and then dismissed him. (Od. lib. x.–xii.; comp. Hygin. Fab. 125.) Her descent is differently described by the poets, for some call her a daughter of Hyperion and Aerope (Orph. Argon. 1215), and others a daughter of Aeëtes and Hecate. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iii. 200.) According to Hesiod (Theog. 1011) she became by Odysseus the mother of Agrius. The Latin poets too make great use of the story of Circe, the sorceress, who metamorphosed Scylla and Picus, king of the Ausonians. (Ov. Met. xiv. 9, &c.)

AEAEA (Aiaia). A surname of Circe, the sister of Aeëtes. (Hom. Od. ix. 32; Apollon. Rhod. iv. 559; Virg. Aen. iii. 386.) Her son Telegonus is likewise mentioned with this surname. (Acaeus, Propert. ii. 23. § 42.)

Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

CLASSICAL LITERATURE QUOTES

PARENTAGE OF CIRCE

Homer, Odyssey 10. 135 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Kirke (Circe), a goddess with braided hair, with human speech and with strange powers; baleful Aeetes was her brother, and both were radiant Helios the sun-god’s children; their mother was Perse, Okeanos’ (Oceanus’) daughter.”

Hesiod, Theogony 956 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “And Perseis, the daughter of Okeanos (Oceanus), bare to unwearying Helios (the Sun) Kirke (Circe) and Aeetes the king.”

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 80 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “The Kholkhians (Colchians) who were ruled by Aeetes, the son of Helios and Perseis, and brother of Kirke (Circe) and Minos’ wife Pasiphae.”

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 584 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “Kirke (Circe), daughter of Perse and Helios.”

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 45. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “[A late rationalisation of the myth of Kirke (Circe) :] She [Hekate (Hecate), daughter of Perses the brother of Aeetes] married Aeetes and bore two daughters, Kirke (Circe) and Medea, and a son Aigialeus.”

CIRCE SETTLES ON THE ISLE OF AEAEA (AIAIA)

Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 46 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius 3. 311) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “Apollonios (Apollonius), following Hesiod, says that Kirke (Circe) came to the island over against Tyrrhenia on the chariot of Helios. And he called it Hesperian, because it lies towards the west.”

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 311 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “[Aeetes addresses the Argonauts :] ‘I myself was whirled along it in the chariot of my father Helios (the Sun), when he took my sister Kirke (Circe) to the Western Land and we reached the coast of Tyrrhenia, where she lives, far, far indeed from Kolkhis (Colchis).’”

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 7. 120 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Circe was borne away [from the land of Kolkhis (Colchis)] by winged Dracones (Dragons).”

CIRCE, THE ARGONAUTS & THE WEDDING OF MEDEA

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 584 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “It [the talking beam of the ship Argo] threatened them [the Argonauts] with endless wanderings across tempestuous seas till Kirke (Circe) should have purged them of the cruel murder of Apsyrtos (Apsyrtus) [Medea’s brother]; and it bade Polydeukes (Polydeuces) and Kastor ((Castor) beg the immortal gods to grant them access to the Italian Sea, where they would find Kirke, daughter of Perse and Helios.”

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 662 ff : “Passing swiftly over the Ausonian Sea, with the Tyrrhenian coast [of Italy] in sight, they [the Argonauts] came to the famous haven of Aia (Aea), took Argo close in, and tied up to the shore. Here they found Kirke (Circe) bathing her head in the salt water. She had been terrified by a nightmare in which she saw all the rooms and walls of her house streaming with blood, and fire devouring all the magic drugs with which she used to bewitch her visitors. But she managed to put out the red flames with the blood of a murdered man, gathering it up in her hands; and so the horror passed. When morning came she rose from bed, and now she was washing her hair and clothes in the sea. A number of creatures whose ill-assorted limbs declared them to be neither man nor beast had gathered round her like a great flock of sheep following their shepherd from the fold . . . The Argonauts were dumbfounded by the scene. But a glance at Kirke’s form and eyes convinced them all that she was the sister of Aeetes. As soon as she had dismissed the fears engendered by her dream, Kirke set out for home, but as she left she invited the young men to come with her, beckoning them on in her own seductive way. Iason Told them to take no notice, and they all stayed where they were. But he himself, bringing Medea with him, followed in Kirke’s steps till they reached her house. Kirke, at a loss to know why they had come, invited them to sit in polished chairs; but without a word they made for the hearth and sat down there after the manner of suppliants in distress. Medea hid her face in her hands, Iason fixed in the ground his great hilted sword with which he had killed Apsyrtos (Apsyrtus), and neither of them looked her in the face. So she knew at once that these were fugitives with murder on their hands and took the course laid down by Zeus, the god of suppliants, who heartily abhors the killing of a man, and yet as heartily befriends the killer. She set about the rites by which a ruthless slayer is absolved when he seeks asylum at the hearth. First, to atone for the unexpiated murder, she took a suckling pig from a sow with dugs still swollen after littering. Holding it over them she cut its throat and let the blood fall on their hands. Next she propitiated Zeus with other libations, calling on him as the Cleanser, who listens to a murderer’s prayers with friendly ears. Then the attendant Naiades (Naiads) who did her housework carried all the refuse out of doors. But she herself stayed by the hearth, burning cakes and other wineless offerings with prayers to Zeus, in the hope that she might cause the loathsome Erinyes to relent, and that he himself might once more smile upon this pair, whether the hands they lifted up to him were stained with a kinsman’s or a strangers blood. When all was done she raised them up, seated them in polished chairs and taking a seat near by, where she could watch their faces, she began by asking them to tell her what had brought them overseas, from what port they had sailed to visit her and why they had sought asylum at her hearth. Horrible memories of her dream came back to her as she wondered what was coming; and she waited eagerly to hear a kinwoman’s voice, as soon as the girl had looked up from the ground and she noticed her eyes. For all the Children of Helios were easy to recognise, even from a distance, by their flashing eyes, which shot out rays of golden light. Medea, daughter of Aeetes the black-hearted king, answered all her aunt’s questions, speaking quietly in the Kokhian (Colchian) tongue. She told her of the quest and voyage of the Argonauts, of their stern ordeal, and how she herself had been induced to sin by her unhappy sister and had fled from her father’s tyranny with Phrixos’ (Phrixus’) sons; but she said nothing of the murder of Apsyrtos. Not that Kirke was deceived. Nevertheless she felt some pity for her weeping niece. ‘Poor girl,’ she said, ‘you have indeed contrived for yourself a shameful and unhappy home0coming; for I am sure you will not long be able to escape your father’s wrath. The wrongs you have done are intolerable, and he will soon be in Hellas to avenge his son’s murder. However, since you are my suppliant and kinswoman, I will not add to your afflictions now that you are here. But I do demand that you should leave my house, you that have linked yourself to this foreigner, whoever he may be, this man of mystery whom you have chosen without your father’s consent. And do not kneel to me at my hearth, for I never will approve your conduct and your disgraceful flight.’ Medea’s grief, when she heard this, was more than she could bear. She drew her robe across her eyes and wailed till Iason took her by the hand and led her out of doors shivering with fear. Thus they left Kirke’s house.”

Strabo, Geography 5. 2. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “There is at Aithalia [in Italy] a Port Argoos, from the ship ‘Argo’, as they say; for when Iason (Jason), the story goes, was in quest of the abode of Kirke (Circe), because Medea wished to see the goddess, he sailed to this port.”

Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 7. 210 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Of a sudden Venus [Aphrodite] was sitting on her [Medea’s] bed, changed as she was from heavenly shape and counterfeiting Circe, Titan’s [Helios’] daughter, with broidered robe and magic wand. But the girl, as though mocked by the lingering image of a dream, gazes perplexed and only little by little deems her to be the sister of her mighty sire; then in tearful joy she sprang forward and of her own accord kissed the cruel goddess, and first addressed her : ‘Circe! At last, scarce at last, cruel one! Restored to thine own–why did the yoked snakes bear thee hence in flight? What sojourning was more pleasing to thee than my father’s land . . .’ Then Venus [masquerading as Circe] checks further speech and thus rejoins : ‘Thou alone art the cause of this my journey; I come knowing long since thou art no longer a child; spare thy complaints, nor blame me who have chosen a better lot; nay, that now we may bear in mind heaven’s gifts, deem rather that this world is shared by all living souls, and shared too are the gods. Call that thy country where the sun goes forth and back again; seek not, my child, with unfeeling heart to imprison me in this eternal cold. I had a right–as thou too hast–to leave the unprofitable Colchians. And now am I Ausonian Picus’ royal consort, nor are my meadows there unsightly with flame-breathing bulls: in me thou beholdest the mistress of the Tuscan Sea. But what kind of suitors are the Sauromatae for thee, poor child? . . .’ Straightway she spoke in answer, scorning the goddess’ words : ‘Not so forgetful of great Perseis [Hekate] doest thou see me as to be driven, a hapless victim, into such wedlock.’ [I.e., she has her magic to fall back to avoid such a marriage.]”

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PHILIPPE DE CHERISEY (STONE AND PAPER) AUGUST 6 LEY LINE/TRANSFIGURATION

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Philippe de Chérisey

Philippe Louis Henri Marie de Chérisey, 9th marquess de Chérisey (13 February 1923 – 17 July 1985) was a French writer, radio humorist, surrealist and supporting actor (using the stage name Amédée).

He is best known for his creation of fake parchments published in the 1967 book L’Or de Rennes by Gérard de Sède, as part of his involvement in the Priory of Sion hoax between 1962-1983.

Coming from a wealthy family in the Lorraine, de Chérisey decided to become an actor against his family’s wishes. He enrolled in the René Simon drama school in 1946 where he started his actor’s training, [1] and his most notable film appearance was in Jeux interdits in 1952. He was known as a bon viveur, regularly enjoyed wine and frequented public libraries where his natural curiosity made him follow up anything that took his fancy.

Philippe de Chérisey was a follower of the surrealist movement, who claimed acquaintance with Eugene Ionesco and was like him a member of the College of Pataphysics, although – like his membership of Oulipo – there is no evidence that he was actively involved. His desire to subvert the norms of culture, or in other words, create an alternate reality that became more real than reality itself, was done within the context of the Priory of Sion and to promote the claim that Pierre Plantard was the direct descendant of Dagobert II. He considered himself a satirist from his days in French radio, and continued this persona within the theme of the Priory of Sion calling himself a prankster. The best known example of this is his esoteric novella Circuit (originally written in 1968, but not actually deposited within the Bibliothèque nationale de France until 1971).

By the early 1960s Philippe de Chérisey met Pierre Plantard, and together they developed an interest in Rennes-le-Château. From the mid-1950s local hotelier Noël Corbu circulated a story to boost trade, that the 19th century priest Bérenger Saunière of Rennes-le-Château had discovered the treasure of Blanche of Castile. The author Robert Charroux published Corbu’s story in his 1962 book Trésors du Monde. [2] In a letter dated 2 April 1965 to his girlfriend, de Chérisey wrote: “Don’t tell anyone, but I’ll be setting out again for four days in the Pyrenees with Plantard to see if we can get any closer to Mary Magdalene.” [3] A mixture of de Chérisey’s humor and surrealism can be identified within his activities relating to the Priory of Sion hoax, Gisors and Rennes-le-Château, contained in his correspondence as well as in his documents that he deposited in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.

Parchments

During the early 1960s de Chérisey forged two parchments, photocopies of which appeared in the 1967 book L’Or de Rennes by Gérard de Sède. [4] De Sède’s book adapted Corbu’s story to fit-in with Plantard’s claims about the Priory of Sion. The parchments hinted at the survival of the line of the Frankish king Dagobert II, that Plantard claimed to be descended from, as well as attempting to verify the existence of the 1000-year-old secret society, the Priory of Sion. The two “parchments” were later used as source material for the 1982 book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, which was itself used as a primary source for the 2003 bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code. Other documents, containing fake genealogies, were planted in the French National Library, the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.

Pierre Plantard and Gérard de Sède fell out over book royalties when L’Or de Rennes was published in 1967, at the same time Philippe de Chérisey announced that he had forged the “parchments”. De Chérisey elaborated about this in his 1978 unpublished document L’Énigme de Rennes, claiming they were originally made for his friend Francis Blanche, as material for a French radio serial entitled Signé Furax. [5] A second document by de Chérisey entitled Pierre et papier (“Stone and Paper”) provides a more detailed explanation, giving the more complicated decoding technique to one of the “parchments” by using a Knight’s Tour 25-letter alphabet, omitting the letter “w”, the knowledge of which can only be known to the forger. [6] An English translation of this document, together with a reproduction of the original, was published by Jean-Luc Chaumeil in 2010. [7]

Details of the forgeries

The text of one “parchment” (parchment 1) was copied from Codex Bezae, [8] an Old Latin/Greek diglot from the 5th century CE contained in the book by Fulcran Grégoire Vigouroux, Dictionnaire De La Bible (1895). [9]

Philippe de Chérisey’s reason for copying the passage from the Codex Bezae was his interest in the phrase “In Sabbato Secundo Primo”, also found in the Gospel of Luke 6:1. Philippe de Chérisey stated: “This phrase has given headaches to the anonymous (secret) societies. It has to be said that ‘A day of Sabbath, second first’ is not really translatable. No one has ever heard of that. So, as the disciples walk through a cornfield and, being hungry, eat the corn, there and then, it must mean ‘Second Sabbath following the first day of the shewbread.’ This is the only interpretation we could find.” De Chérisey went on to provide his own interpretation: “In Sabbato Secundo Primo does not mean ‘A day of Sabbath, second first’ but rather ‘As second in command, Sabassius became first.’ What is interesting is that the witches’ meetings are called ‘Sabbaths’, not because of the Jewish celebrations, but because of Sabassius, god of the Phrygians”. [10]

This “parchment” also contained an encrypted message written in modern French: “À Dagobert II Roi et à Sion est ce trésor et il est là mort.” (translated as “To King Dagobert II and to Sion does this treasure belong, and he is there, dead”).

De Chérisey also chose to copy material from Vigouroux because he was a priest connected with the Church of St Sulpice, a location that had been exploited as part of the Priory of Sion myths as created by Plantard and de Chérisey, so de Chérisey’s utilisation of this priest fitted in nicely into these myths.

According to an investigation into the Priory of Sion hoax by the American news program 60 Minutes, the other document (parchment 2) was copied from a 19th-century version of the Latin Vulgate published by John Wordsworth and Henry J. White Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi latine secundum sancti Hieronymi (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1889–1954), [11] and the original forged “parchments” are now in the possession of Jean-Luc Chaumeil, a French writer, who states that he had their age analyzed, and it was confirmed that they were merely decades old, not centuries. Chaumeil also has letters by de Chérisey, which contain proof that De Chérisey was knowingly engaging in a fraud.

That Philippe de Chérisey was not a specialist of Latin paleography and had even a bit lost his Latin knowledge (got from high school) is demonstrated in his copying of the Latin Text from the Codex Bezae for one of his “parchments”: for instance, he made several of the most basic errors in copying the Latin uncials, which therefore garbles the spelling of multiple words. This information is frequently omitted by those who present the “parchments” as being authentic.

In an interview during the 1970s with author Jean-Luc Chaumeil, Philippe de Chérisey asserted: “the parchments of the Gospel according to Saint Luke fabricated by me and for which I pinched the uncial text from the work L’archéologie chrétienne (Christian Archaeology) by Dom Cabrol at the National Library, section C25”. [12]

Philippe de Chérisey asserted in a letter dated 29 January 1974 to French author Pierre Jarnac: “P.S. Do you know that the famous manuscripts supposedly discovered by the Abbé Saunière were composed in 1965? And that I took responsibility for being the author?” [13]

According to Henry Lincoln, one of the co-authors of Holy Blood Holy Grail, Plantard admitted to him in person that the various documents had been forged, and identified de Chérisey as their creator. [14]

Relationship with Plantard

A schism developed between Pierre Plantard and Philippe de Chérisey in 1983, when de Chérisey began collaborating with Paul Rouelle (his dentist) on a book which would have incorporated the Priory of Sion concepts. [15]

French author Pierre Jarnac reproduced part of a letter he received dated 22 May 1985 from Pierre Plantard: “You need to know only that I have no involvement whatsoever with the ‘deathless prose’ of Monsieur Philippe de Chérisey, who was the co-author with Monsieur Paul Rouelle of the book COURT-CIRCUIT, lodged with the BN in December 1984 or January 1985, which dragged my name through the mud. The Marquis de Chérisey was a good friend of mine from university days, but I very often disapprove of his books which are really quite bizarre.” [16]

Philippe de Chérisey died in Paris on the 17th of July 1985, while working to finish an encyclopedia of trema. [17] His funeral was held at the Church of the Holy Trinity in Paris and he was buried in the family vault at Rœux (Pas-de-Calais). [18]

His death was announced by Gino Sandri in number 10 of Etudes Mérovingiennes (August 1985), the journal of the association Cercle Saint Dagobert II.

Un mauvais quart d’heure à passer, ou La Vengeance de la grosse molaire (Pierre Billard et Pierre Tchernia, 1949). Bibliothèque nationale, manuscript 4-YA RAD- 4097

with Grégoire (= Roland Dubillard), Livre à vendre, Paris : Éditions de Paris (1957, new edition Paris : J.-C. Simoën, 1977).

Anacharsis à l’Exposition : Textes d’Amédée, présentés par Philippe Dasnoy, Bruxelles: Éditions Jeune Belgique (1958), 2 vols (letters read by the author during the “Étoile 58” Belgian radio-programme).

Le pied à coulisse (Radiodiffusion française, 1960). Bibliothèque nationale, manuscript 4- YA RAD- 8630.

Circuit (dated 1968, deposited in the Bibliothèque nationale 28 June 1971; EL 4-Y-413). Slightly different versions of this novel exist in the possession of private individuals

L’Or de Rennes pour un Napoléon (1975). Bibliothèque nationale, 4-LB44-2360

L’Enigme de Rennes (1978). Bibliothèque nationale, EL 4-Z PIECE-110 and EL 4-Z PIECE-111

“Jarry lecteur de Poe et de Shakespeare”, in AARevue 115 (janvier-février 1979), Liège.

“Catalogue des circonflexes communs”, “Circonflexe des propres” et “Circonflexe et Tréma”, in AARevue 123 (“Absolu 107”, sept.-oct. 1979).

Lettre ouverte à Monsieur Laurent Dailliez (1980). Bibliothèque nationale, EL 4-Y PIECE- 344

Court-circuit by Paul Rouelle, avec un feu d’artifices de Ph. de Cherisey, Liège : P. Rouelle (1983, enlarged ed. Paris : l’Oeil du sphinx, 2010).

“Jésus Christ, sa femme et les mérovingiens”, in Nostra L’Actualite Insolite (Number 584, 1983).

L’Affaire Jean-Luc Chaumeil (1984). Bibliothèque nationale, EL 4-Z PIECE-245

Un veau à cinq pattes: notes sur l’oeuvre de l’abbé H. Boudet, sur ses sources, son tempérament, son idéal et sa vie (France secret, 2008). ISBN 978-2-916797-16-8

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Chaumeil – de Cherisey – Sandri

Third and last part of the interview consecrated to his relations with Philippe de Cherisey, Gino Sandri and André Douzet. He evokes his next book too.

Gazette de Rennes-le-Château : Philippe de Cherisey occupied a particular place in the trio. Which was his role?

Pierre Plantard et Philippe de Cherisey (© Jean-Luc Chaumeil)

Jean-Luc Chaumeil : After Porthos, you have with Aramis, Marquis Philippe de Cherisey, gentleman-actor, great drunkard before the Almighty, Knight of the Round Table, member of the Cincinnati whose testament appears in the famous”Pierre et Papier” what we’ll publish in our next book, twenty years after his death, after his wishes. I admit pouring more than a tear in August 1985, he who had found the secret of Death thanks to his sword Excalibur. By the way, to him this book is dedicated as to Daniel Réju and Moreau de Valdan, the Grand Druid of the Ligurian Brotherhood. Philippe was a very elegant person, mindful of his person, great scholar and a fine swordsman in the debate. But he had a tendency to make too much, carried away by his passion and Gargantuan verve. I learned in one of his letters that I had discovered the secret in the valley of crosses or Rennes-les Bains. He called Plantard, basileus, the Greek king and had dug with him at Gisors, in the cellars of Madame Breton where they had found tons of fiente by way of Templar treasure, then in Rennes area, notably the source of la Madeleine. At my mother, he had to intervene in the context of the Priory of Sion, but Plantard refused, sensing the danger. A pity, “Sacred Enigma” maybe hadn’t appeared. Then came the first days of January 1981. Cherisey meant to go to Blois, mesmerized by the daring of his master, but in vain. Plantard had not invited him and for a reason,. Plantard hadn’t left Colombes that day, the previous day like the next days. I was stalking and my hideout, although incomfortable, was very efficient. For Cherisey, it was over, even if, next, he received some symbolic crumbs which never fooled him! As for Plantard, vexed by Philippe’s American friends, he did not attend his burial! Plantard, stolen and exploited by the English, returned grovelling after Pelat’s affair, gave up his practical jokes for a while which some well-meaning persons were to resume!

Gazette : Of the trio, Gino Sandri is alive alone still. In which circumstances did you meet him and which was his place in the priory of Sion?

Gino Sandri (© Georges Combe)

Jean-Luc Chaumeil : I knew Gino Sandri since a good quarter of century. He has not changed and I consider him the Poulidor of esoterism. In my first interview made on the site by Jean-Patrick Pourtal, I said I had met him a simple reader who wanted, at any cost, to meet Pierre Plantard. That was done during the filming for BBC at my mother, in her gallery, 10 rue du roi de Sicile. Present were Henri Lincoln, Michael Baigent, Richard Lee, Roy Davis, marquis Philippe de Cherisey, Pierre Plantard and his wife, your servant and his wife, and Gino Sandri. The latter, at this time, titled himself “secretary of Monsieur Canseliet”! He swore by “Fulcanelli” only, criticizing Julien Champagne, while Robert Amadou and many others knew this pseudonym was the work of a college of high grades working Royal Art. Therefore, Gino Sandri is lying since the first phrase with is capital. As for the rest, it’s habitual bla-bla, modelled in the Spanish pattern of Norberto where one tries to warm up well-cut pieces, see my book «La Table d’Isis». But it was more serious! Author of anonymous treatises with Plantard and Louis Vazart, slandering my person, still recently at a bookshop of Toulon! Attacking Fred-Yves Boisset in a shameful debate, he continues his act and forgets. He forgets he was my wedding witness in 1981! Like the audio cassette, during the filming at my mother! Then he tries to exist, waiting for a definite slap, after the old proverb: “Prevention is better than cure”. Last, he invents! «Le Trésor du Triangle d’or» only has a sole contract with Alain Lefeuvre in 1979 and was reprinted five times, at Veyrier and Trédaniel with «Du Premier au Dernier Templier». The same, Descadeillas must turn around in grave when Plantard and co say his book was the work of a man sentenced for abuse of confidence in 1953. Two other remarks : 1) The photo of the curious stone forms part of my book and all who use it without my permission, fall under the blow of the law! 2) The photo of abbé Boudet, criticized in his time by Ribouldingue and Filochard, belongs to me with my coauthor Jacques Rivière. Definitely, other times, other manners! The lies ensued because Gino Sandri lost in 1982 his first papa and was only left with the ashes of his last guru.

Gazette : You wish to publish a book in 2005 with André Douzet. It’s in the form of the letter which you present to the readers of la Gazette.

Jean-Luc Chaumeil in his art gallery in the village of Carennac – France (© Johan Netchacovitch)

Jean-Luc Chaumeil : Letter to André Douzet My dear André, You are more than ahead on all sites turning around; they say so themselves. For two reasons! You understand the great ritual of the Quest and exercise it on the spot masterfully. Certainly passing from Sainte-Croix-en-Jarez via Béatrice de Roussillon to the lords of the Roussillon across the ages until the discoveries of three ritous, going back to Jerusalem on Mount Sion, deserves particular attention; above all if, now, Opoul-Périllos fixes, for a precise time, our story. It’s quite obvious Saint-Patrick intoxicates “The Order of Galaad” that belongs to the Club of the Grail, but the door is manifold : Montsaunès, Bugarach, Salses and all what you know. Hence we’re left to fix “the eternity” of a disappeared capital “Reda” that opens the kingdom of Agartha. The means are the “Delta”, the square “Sator”, the letter “G”. To illustrate our purpose and refine our synopsis, I will prove on the historic level that Reda isn’t Rennes-le-château! Since then, you enter the scene with Opoul, Montsaunès and Bugarach at first. I pick up again Gisors and the lords of Flavacourt showing Sainte-Catherine chapel was built in 1522, with evidence. You counter me with the Tower of Neaufles and the story of Queen Blanche whose king was Nicolas Flamel. I answer on the chapel of Tour Saint-Jacques with its frescoes on the pilgrims of Emmaus. You enchain on Cabrières and the Diva: developments on the Martin. We see again at Saunière Béranger and Alfred who catch Bigou’s plan that I will have, which becomes the map of Edmond Boudet. Henri, the brother, gets angry, Gélis too, then Rescanières. Poison, sword and magic do the rest. At Etretat, the presidents meet, then a German commando intervenes. The needle of the beast breaks; Cagliostro’s successors try to seize the seal that is the delta of Sirius; the result: 74 deaths programmed in the thirty-six rituals of the ark of covenant. Bugarach 2004, Puivert 2004, Lastours 2004: magic delta which “The order of Galaad” tries to recover in Ireland and in the grottoes of the former estate of the Périllos. Restored as solar temple, reference to the former place Montségur and the thieves of fire from 1994, a new drama is prepared as, in the land of Galaad, Sion, hidden in Agartha, hides Roerich’s precious stone discovered by the French explorer: The Verendrye in 1744!

On the other hand, Polycarpe, with us two, becomes the hero, defender of the grail. In his annals of Avignon and his list of the bishops of Sion, as in the explanation of Constantine’s formula that is the seal of Sirius, he points to the town of _Aeria_ that is no other but Aer-reda or Agartha, key of the kingdom of the dead that was, formerly at Etretat, in Tour Talbot, then in another tower built by Elie Bot.

Jean-Luc Chaumeil in front of the castle of Taillefer (© Johan Netchacovitch)

Alcor seen by Corbu, turning the tables with Plantard, Anne and the marquis who will form the last trio of seekers of the invisible with a muse, Brigitte Bardot with whom I danced, twenty-five years ago, and who passed me the virus of the gold of the Moors that a certain Abderraman had kept by his golden goat. At this stage, I publish “Stone and Paper” where the marquis takes his revenge on the king falsely lost, as I put on the table my fifth of Corbu-Plantard interview. I develop his biography, above all when he was sacristan in Saint-Louis d’Antin parish. King Basileus doesn’t collapse but he is burned like the Cathars!! His Sandrinesque successors, belonging to “the Order of the Grail”, blood-sucking tom thumbs, try to become black adepts by inventing the kingdom of the modern woman. They have forgotten Roseline de Villeneuve whose eyes pierced by Louis XIV are still wide open. Moreau de Valdan had seen rightly: he intervenes as he passed the torch to you. We see again at Lupé, among the brotherhood of wolves, the beasts of Gévaudan, Venelles, Babaos de Prats-de-Mollo. On the seventeenth January, the Marlins Bleus set on an octave calvé; they came from Marles but have become “Marlous”. They barely escape the sacrifice of Bugarach proposed by the Solar Temple’s descendants. The twelve towers, united at Opoul, resurrect at Quermanço, near Figueras on the 14th June 2004 with a concert of Albert Blancafort and his Giant Organ of the tramontane driven by the God Aer coming from Reda. That day, two days after the conference on RLC where a new slaughter is put the finishing touches, the Ancient God emerges and redraws the land of Galaad with his Durban-Paris rebis. That is a plan sketch, thanks to the maquette whose inverse systems did not evade Orcival and André de Roussillon. Combining fiction and reality, we find a new genre on three levels as the end that is but another beginning, finishes at Notre-Dame-de-Marceille, then at the castle of watchers, Coustaussa and the discovery of an unknown society, the society of Arcadians. Let’s wait with a vivid turmoil for your reaction to this purge as obviously we shall do prophetic with two other places, Taillefer where Fairy Melusine manifests and Alet where Nostra Causa was formerly heard at once by Nicolas Pavillon, the standard of Beaucéant, and Nostradamus, the knight of Sirius.

Gazette : What will be the book’s title and its authors?

Jean-Luc Chaumeil in front of the Magdala tower of Rennes-le-Chateau (© Jean Brunelin)

Jean-Luc Chaumeil : “Opération Delta-Reda-Agartha ou le Passage des Patriarches de Monsieur Madeleine ou.”. The publication is planned after the wish of Philippe de Cherisey for 2005 and also that of éditeur Trédaniel. The authors are Jean-Luc Chaumeil, André Douzet, Daniel Réju, Moreau de Valdan and Philippe de Cherisey; our last three friends having joined the great light of the Otherworld.Gazette : What would be your last advice to learn the history of Renne-le- Château? Jean-Luc Chaumeil : Concerning the places, the history of Rennes cannot be understood without having combed through the layers of the affair of Gisors as the plot concerning the discovery of Dead Sea Scrolls and notably the famous copper scroll, recently restored in France by E.D.F, indicating the caches of the Treasure of King Solomon. Naturally these different inquiries are in the book!

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The Western Illuminati Organization Chart. Source: http://www.stevequayle.com

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Tulsa Liberty on August 4, 2011 at 3:15 am

The council of 13 is completely unconstitutional. But how do we stop it. Short of taking up arms the ones we elect to hold to the constitution are the ones screwing us. I am a bit confused right now with how this is even possible but we are facing a new era of tyranny. the ones who we elected last term that actually stood on what they said during elections and stood on what we the people wanted are now being classified as terrorists Vice President Joe Biden said Monday that fiscal conservatives “acted like terrorists” during the debt-ceiling debate. Rep. Mike Doyle, Pennsylvania Democrat, that “We have negotiated with terrorists. This small group of terrorists have made it impossible to spend any money.” what do we as citizens do to stop this madness. it seems that electing representatives is not working ad now with the institution of this ‘super congress’ it is even less effective than before.

madhatter15 on August 16, 2011 at 7:43 am

I have been studying this group for a long time, people used ot tell me I was wearing a tin foil hat because it was so unbelievable, they don’t say that anymore. I don’t know what kind of people follow this group but most of our TV newsmen and women are members of the CFR which is run by David Rockefeller with help from Henry Kissinger and they are the people that are getting thier minions into congress and the Pentagon, almost all of the top brass in the pentagon are CFR members, all of these people are just doing their bidding, I dont’ think half of them have a clue who they are joining in this group or their History.

The CFR uses the UN to do their dirty work, they have followed orders and have done everything the CFR has told them to do , they are ruining our country and that is the idea, the new world order calls for no borders and a one world bank, that is the N American Union, by what authority they do this I don’t know, I know Bush signed this document and Obama also signed it so it is coming in as soon as they can get Arizona to go along with the program, then our country will be gone and our soverignty and all of south America and Mexico will be able to come and go as they please. A group of rich people who are members of the CFR often talk about depopulation, there have been attempts made with mosquitos to wipe out as many people as possible, it is also our food supply that is tainted according to Bill Gates who thought poisoning the staples was a great idea. This proves that too much money in the hands of fools is not a good thing ,

It looks like their plan is working, I hope not, I can’t see why they are not just all thrown out of this country never to return, George Soros is a member of the CFR and he is as evil as they come but I dont’ think he is high on the pyramid , just an evil hanger on trying to curry favor by making our lives miserable and betting against America, hoping it will fail. He was kicked out of France for this hedge betting and I can’t see why we can’t kick him and the rest of the trash out of this country as well, let them go back to Europe and try it there, not here, my Moms cleaning lady was more elite than they are. How can anyone call Devil worshippers elite, they are all crazy?They may be dangerous but that’s only because they have money. We should arrest them for treason and confiscate their money then we’ll see how elite they really are, we could fix all the damage they have done with that money.

I have no idea why we don’t have a house of UnAmerican activities in our Government, or a Judicial watch, We have no representation, no protections and this is what we wind up with. The muslims came in and already have CAIR an the Muslim Brotherhood and the ACLU and all of these protective groups to speak for them, we have no one and this is our country. Obama got into office with the help of George Soros, he was also a member of the CFR before he ran for President, so we know why he is here and why our country is falling apart. I say kick them all out and stop being mr.Nice guy, its not working for us.

Aliearia

FREEMASON LODGES GO DARK

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The Masonic term “go dark” means that a lodge ceases to operate as a lodge.

When a lodge “goes dark” or is said to have “gone dark”; it either:

1. Ceases to exist as a lodge (permanently closes its doors),…or

2. “Went dark” and ceased to have Stated Meetings for an agreed upon period of time:

A. This occurs in farming communities wherein when a large number of the lodge’s members are farmers and must tend to their crops during the Summer; it is agreed that the lodge should “go dark” (no meetings) until Fall when their crops have been harvested.

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This also applies to other trades and livelihoods such as if a large number of the lodge’s members are fishermen and are at sea for periods of time or military lodges whose members are deployed.

B. Some lodges “go dark” for a period of time each year. Some lodges choose not to “go dark” during any period of time during the year. And, some lodges “go dark” (do not have Stated Meetings, especially during the Summer) and members are delegated to tend to other Masonic duties such as:

1. Large job Lodge maintenance (cleaning, polishing or stripping of the lodge’s floors, painting, etc.)

2. Clean up and or mowing or trimming at Masonic cemeteries and widow’s homes; visiting the elderly or those in nursing homes and hospitals.

3. Highway cleanup, community partnerships, charitable acts, etc.

4. If the lodge offers a Masonic scholarship, the lodge’s delegated scholarship team contacts local area high school(s) and begins the application process for the next school year. Masonic scholarships are typically education scholarships offered by the lodge to qualifying high school students in their local community who wish to attend university. Qualifications vary between lodges, but most are based on a student’s academic grades and their financial need. There are no requirements placed upon the student to become a member of the lodge in the future.

Here is what Albert Mackey, Freemason author and historian, said in his Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (1929) page 262 about “Darkness”:

Darkness

“Darkness has, in all the systems of initiation, been deemed a symbol of ignorance, and so opposed to light, which is the symbol of knowledge. Hence the rule, that the eye should not see until the heart has conceived the true nature of those beauties which constitute the mysteries of the Order.

In the Ancient Mysteries, the aspirant (candidate) was always shrouded in darkness as a preparatory step to the reception of the full light of knowledge. Among the Druids of Britain, the period was 9 days and nights; in the Grecian Mysteries, it was 3 times 9 days; while among the Persians, according to Porphyry, it was extended to the almost incredible period of 50 days of darkness, solitude and fasting.

Because, according to all the cosmogonies, (the study of the origin of the universe) accounts of the universe, darkness existed before light was created, darkness was originally worshipped as the firstborn, as the progenitor of day and the state of existence before creation.

The apostrophe of Young to Night embodies the feelings which gave origin to this debasing worship of darkness:

O majestic night! Nature’s great ancestor! Day’s elder born! And fated to survive the transient sun! By mortals and immortals seen with awe!

Freemasonry has restored darkness to its proper place as a state of preparation; the symbol of that antemundane (being or occurring before the creation of the world) chaos from whence light issued at the Divine command; of the state of nonentity before birth, and of ignorance before the reception of knowledge.

Hence, in the Ancient Mysteries, the release of the aspirant (candidate) from solitude and darkness was called the act of regeneration, and he was said to be born again, or to be raised from the dead.

And in Freemasonry, the darkness which envelops the mind of the uninitiated being removed by the bright effulgence of Masonic light, Freemasons are appropriately called the “sons of light.”

In Doctor Oliver’s Signs and Symbols, there is a lecture “On the Mysterious Darkness of the Third Degree.” This refers to the ceremony of enveloping the room in darkness when that Degree is conferred – a ceremony once always observed, but now, in this country at least, (e.g. United States), frequently but improperly omitted.

DR OLIVERS SIGNS AND SYMBOLS WEBSITE

The darkness here is a symbol of death, the lesson taught in the Degree, while the subsequent renewal of light refers to that other and subsequent lesson of eternal life.

Simon Sez: Both Dr. Oliver (1782-1867) and Dr. Albert Mackey (1807-1881) were renowned Masonic historians and authors. Dr. George Oliver lived in Lincolnshire, England. Dr. Albert Mackey lived in Charleston, South Carolina.

To “go dark” has no racial connotations, whatsoever, as it is well known that Freemasonry accepts as its members men of all different religions and races.

The term “go dark” does not have any satanic meaning of any kind as Freemasonry is based upon a belief in a Supreme Being. In different languages around the world the Supreme Being is called such names as: God, Yahweh, Jehovah, Allah, YHWH (as seen in the Torah and the Old Testament), Jehovah, Lord, King of Kings and many, many more, as found in the Holy Scriptures.

Our lifelong quest of attaining more “light” refers to attaining mental illumination and journeying toward becoming a living representation of what the Supreme Being designed us to be upon his “trestleboard”, (the Holy Scriptures.)

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FREEMASON LODGES GO DARK PT 2
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THE PHOENIX LODGE CLOSES…

MASTER MASON DEGREE

CLOSING THE LODGE

WM: *. Brother Senior Warden.

SW: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Have you anything to bring before the Lodge

before I proceed to close?

SW: Nothing in the West.

WM: And in the South, Brother Junior Warden?

JW: (S) Nothing in the South.

WM: Has any Brother anything to bring before the

Lodge before I proceed to close?

WM: *. Brother Junior Deacon.

JD: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: The last as well as the first great care of Masons

when convened?

JD: To see that they are duly tyled.

WM: Attend to that duty and inform the Tyler that I am

about to close this Lodge of Master Masons, and

direct him to tyle accordingly.

JD: * * *. Brother Tyler, I am directed to inform you

that the Worshipful Master is about to close this

Lodge of Master Masons. Take due notice

thereof and govern yourself accordingly.

JD: * * *.

Tyl: * * *.

JD: (S) Worshipful Master, we are duly tyled.

WM: How are we tyled?

JD: By a Brother Master Mason without, armed with

the proper implement of his office.

WM: His duty there?

JD: To observe the approach of cowans and

eavesdroppers, and suffer none to pass or re-pass

except such as are duly qualified and have

permission from the Worshipful Master.

WM: *. Brother Senior Warden.

SW: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Are you a Master Mason?

SW: I am.

WM: What induced you to become a Master Mason?

SW: That I might obtain the Master’s Word, travel in

foreign countries, work and receive Master’s

wages, and be thereby better enabled to support

myself and family, and contribute to the relief of

distressed worthy Master Masons, their widows

and orphans.

WM: What makes you a Master Mason?

SW: My Obligation.

WM: Where were you made a Master Mason?

SW: Within the body of a just and duly constituted

Lodge of Master Masons, assembled in a place

representing the Sanctum Sanctorum of King

Solomon’s Temple.

WM: How many compose a Master Masons Lodge?

SW: Three or more.

WM: When composed of five, of whom does it consist?

SW: The Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior

Wardens, Senior and Junior Deacons.

WM: Brother Senior Warden, the Junior Deacon’s

place in the Lodge?

SW: At my right.

WM: * *. Brother Junior Deacon.

JD: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Your duty?

JD: To carry messages from the Senior Warden in

the West to the Junior Warden in the South, and

elsewhere about the Lodge as he may direct;

attend the alarms at the outer door and report the

same to the Worshipful Master; also to see that

we are duly tyled.

WM: The Senior Deacon’s place?

JD: At the right of the Worshipful Master in the East.

WM: Brother Senior Deacon.

SD: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Your duty?

SD: To carry orders from the Worshipful Master in

the East to the Senior Warden in the West, and

elsewhere about the Lodge as he may direct;

welcome and clothe visiting Brethren, attend the

alarms at the inner door, also to receive and

conduct candidates.

WM: The Junior Warden’s station?

SD: In the South.

WM: Brother Junior Warden.

JW: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Your duty in the South?

JW: To observe the sun at meridian, which is the glory

and beauty of the day; call the Craft from labor

to refreshment, superintend them during the hours

thereof, carefully to observe that the means of

refreshment are not perverted to intemperance

or excess, and see that they return to their labor

in due season, that the Worshipful Master may

receive honor, and they pleasure and profit

thereby.

WM: The Senior Warden’s station?

JW: In the West.

WM: Brother Senior Warden.

SW: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Why in the West?

SW: As the sun is in the West at close of day, so

stands the Senior Warden in the West to assist

the Worshipful Master in opening and closing

the Lodge; paying the Craft their wages, if any

be due, that none may go away dissatisfied;

harmony being the support of all institutions,

especially this of ours.

WM: The Master’s station?

SW: In the East.

WM: Why in the East?

SW: As the sun rises in the East to open and govern

the day (WM: ***), so rises the Worshipful Master

in the East to open and govern the Lodge, setting

the Craft at work, giving them proper instruction

for their labor.

WM: Brother Senior Warden, it is my order that ____

____ Lodge No. ___ be now closed on the Third

Degree of Freemasonry, and stand closed until

its next regular communication, unless especially

convened, of which due and timely notice will be

given. This communicate to the Junior Warden

in the South, and he to the Brethren present, that

having due notice thereof, they may govern

themselves accordingly.

SW: Brother Junior Warden.

JW: Brother Senior Warden.

SW: It is the order of the Worshipful Master that ____

____ Lodge No. ___ be now closed on the Third

Degree of Freemasonry, and stand closed until

its next regular communication, unless especially

called, of which due and timely notice will be given.

This communicate to the Brethren present, that

having due notice thereof, they may govern

themselves accordingly.

JW: Brethren, it is the order of the Worshipful Master,

communicated to me through the Senior Warden

in the West, that ____ ____ Lodge No. ___ be

now closed on the Third Degree of Freemasonry,

and stand closed until its next regular

communication, unless especially called, of which

due and timely notice will be given. I

communicate the same to you, that having due

notice thereof, you will govern yourselves

accordingly.

WM: Brother Senior Warden.

SW: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Have you ever traveled as a Master Mason?

SW: I have; from West to East, and from East to West

again.

WM: Of what were you in search?

SW: Of that which was lost.

WM: To what do you allude?

SW: The secret word of a Master Mason.

WM: Did you find it?

SW: I did not; but found a substitute, which at the

opening of this Lodge was sent to the East,

accompanied with the steps, due-guards and

signs.

WM: Brother Senior Warden, I will now return the same

to the West, accompanied with the steps, due-guards

and signs, through the Senior Deacon.

Brother Senior Deacon, attend.

(At this time, the steps, due-guards and signs of the 3

degrees, as well as the substitute, are communicated

from the Worshipful Master to the Senior Deacon. The

Senior Deacon then carries them to the West and

communicates them to the Senior Warden.)

SW: (S) Worshipful Master, the substitute has come

to the West correctly.

WM: Brethren; attend to giving the signs; observe the

East.

WM: *.

SW: *.

JW: *.

WM: *.

SW: *.

JW: *.

WM: *.

SW: *.

JW: *.

WM: Brethren, give your attention to the Chaplain.

Chap: And now, Almighty Father, we ask Thy blessing

upon the proceedings of this communication, and

as we are about to separate, we ask Thee to keep

us under Thy protecting care until again we are

called together. Teach us, O God, to realize the

beauties of the principles of our time-honored

institution, not only while in the Lodge, but when

abroad in the world. Subdue every discordant

passion within us. May we love one another in

the bonds of union and friendship. Amen.

(ALL): So mote it be.

WM: Brother Senior Warden.

SW: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: How should Masons meet?

SW: On the level.

WM: And how act, Brother Junior Warden?

JW: By the plumb.

WM: And part upon the square. So should we, my

Brethren, ever meet, act, and part. May the

blessing of Heaven rest upon us and all regular

Masons. May brotherly love prevail, and every

moral and social virtue cement us. Amen.

(ALL) So mote it be.

WM: Brother Senior Deacon.

SD: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Attend at the Altar and close the Three Great

Lights in Masonry.

WM: I now declare ____ ____ Lodge No. ___ duly

closed.

WM: Brother Junior Deacon.

JD: (S) Worshipful Master.

WM: Inform the Tyler.

WM: *.

Master Mason – Examination

Museum Home Page Phoenixmasonry Home Page

Copyrighted © 1999 – 2014 Phoenixmasonry, Inc. The Fine Print

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THE PHOENIX FREEMASON MUSEUM

Welcome to the Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum

Click here to enter the Museum – Table of Contents

The first online Masonic Museum in North America!

This museum was established to bring to the Brethren and the visiting public the rich heritage of Masonic Artifacts and Collectibles that were created and produced to commemorate many special Masonic events. Lodge Dedications – Cornerstone Layings, Anniversaries, Officer Installations, State and National Conventions were all marked and remembered by these presentation pieces which were made in glass, china, porcelain, wood, metals, coins and medallions. They were given away or sold as fundraisers to those friends, family and brethren who were in attendance. These artifacts are truly symbolic of the perfection our forefathers strived to achieve in their daily lives.

Its hard to keep a good idea down and Nineteenth Century America experienced a regular renascence of fraternalism with more than three hundred new orders coming into being. Among them are the familiar Odd Fellows, Elks, and Pythians as well as the lesser known Heptasophs and Order of United American Mechanics. The stories and jewels of these and other orders are to be found here as well.

We hope that this museum becomes an inspiration to those who have visited and would like to “Thank” again the many Brethren and individuals who donated their time and artifacts to bring this project through to fruition. If you have an item that you would like to donate in your name or “In Memory” of another or a special Masonic item of interest that you might just want to share pictures of with others, please contact the curator at: curator@phoenixmasonry.org There are numerous items kindly donated by Freemasons or their relatives and it is by this means that the collection primarily continues to grow.

The Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum and Library, in concert with the policies of many museum and libraries, respectfully declines to provide appraisals or an assessment of the value of an object – in accordance with federal tax law and the American Association of Museums Code of Ethics. Phoenixmasonry also respectfully declines to recommend one appraiser over another. To find a qualified appraiser, please check your local telephone directory, go online to find local appraisers or contact:

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Aliearia

NOSTRADAMUS & THE TANYA PROPHECY

image
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My name, Tanya, was given to me by my mother. She named me after the movie actress who played in the movie AIRPLANE. IRONIC, isnt it..

Ne-“TANYA”-hu
“TANYA”
G-ardner

GARDNER “G”

Learning & Values »

Kabbalah, Chassidism and Jewish Mysticism » The Tanya » About The Book » About The Tanya

By Yisroel Cotlar

Question:

I’m beginning to study Tanya. I understand that this is a basic classic of Jewish thought for every Jew, and while I find the subject matter fascinating, it’s hard to believe Tanya is talking to a regular person. I’ve come such a long way in keeping Shabbat and eating kosher, and now I see that so much of my day is still kelipah, or in the words of yesterday’s Tanya “filthy garments.”

Can you help put all of this in perspective? How does this all fit in the basic Judaism that I have studied?

Response:

It’s beautiful to hear about your growth as a Jew. And what you’re discovering now is that this work never ends. A Jew is a work in progress. We are never “there.”

Now, about Tanya and basic Judaism: Halachah, the dos and don’ts of Judaism, is the guide for the Jew’s everyday life. It tells us good from bad, mitzvah from misconduct. From the moment we arise until we go to sleep at night, it provides us the information we need to ensure that every activity we do is in line with Torah. A food, song, book, or trip that is unkosher is off limits.

Tanya raises the bar.

The question isn’t only if it is unkosher. It is whether it is about us or about G‑d.

Tanya’s definition of good is using something in a way that reflects its G‑dly nature. Everything at its core is G‑dliness. (See section two of Tanya for more on this.) The question is only whether we sense that and use it accordingly.

If that isn’t apparent, there’s something getting in the way. That something isn’t necessarily bad. It may simply be a human/worldy/materialistic drive. But this layer obstructs our ability to see the object for what it truly is. Tanya calls that kelipah, meaning: a shell.

The pizza is delicious. Skiing is fun. The Grand Canyon is gorgeous.

Those are innocent statements. They just aren’t holy.

But when those same activities are done in mindful manner, the kelipah is peeled away, and the act becomes yet another way to serve G‑d.

How? The pizza lunch translates into energy to do a mitzvah. The skiing trip is used as a reward for a class that finished studying a Torah portion. The Grand Canyon becomes a place to appreciate the majesty of creation.

I know what you’re thinking. That sounds impossible? To find G‑d in every activity? What are we, angels? Why not just stick with the basics?

Here, there are two points to make:

1. It is indeed only the tzadik (a perfectly righteous individual) that reaches a level so selfless that every moment of the day contains a G‑dly purpose.

But that’s ok. G‑d doesn’t want a world of only tzadikim.

He wants a world of regular people like me and you who at least realize that such a dimension exists and strive to get there. A world where we never stop learning, working, and growing. A life where we study this idea, reflect upon it, and albeit once a day, act on it. This struggle is so meaningful to G‑d, in a sense, more precious to Him than perfection of the of a tzadik.

After all, Tanya was written for the average man, not the tzadik. A daily study of Tanya produces real results for the ordinary person. Change so subtle you hardly notice it happening to you, change so deep it leaves you with a new set of goals and aspirations . A materialistic pleasure that once made you content now leaves you empty, an act filled with a higher purpose that once seemed trivial now gives real and true satisfaction.

2. It may not seem so now, but Tanya makes basic Jewish life, not more difficult, but far easier.

I’ve used Photoshop for a number of years. I never bothered to learn the program, always managing to achieve my goal through trial and error. One day I was inspired to actually buy a tutorial. It took time and patience, (why do these books make things so complicated?) and I have to admit wanting to give it all up and going back to my system of pushing random buttons.

But I persisted. Today, I’m still no expert, but the difference is night and day.

Tanya does the very same thing to our Mitzvos.

To get yourself to do something, there has to be a desire. It’s hard to desire “do this, don’t do that.” There’s a struggle, a constant battle with the typical human urges with which we are all born. But instead of relying on nothing more than kicks and punches, Tanya provides a hyper-powered weapon—one that’s right at hand.

You see, the true, inner desire of every Jew is to fill the world with G‑d’s presence—by revealing G‑d’s presence within each thing and each activity. Tanya provides a strategy for bringing that inner desire out into the open. In the language of Tanya, “to reveal the hidden love.” Once out of its hiding place, this love provides such an intense energy that nothing can stand in its way. A life of Torah and mitzvahs becomes spontaneous and joyous. For more on this, see The Longer Shorter Way .

Keep learning. But learn with a teacher. We have a wide selection of classes online here at Chabad.org. Find the teacher you relate to best. Have patience, and you too will get that hyperpowered energy in your hands. At that point, no challenge will be too great.

BY YISROEL COTLAR

Rabbi Yisroel Cotlar is a Chabad rabbi in Cary, North Carolina. He is also a member of the Chabad.org Ask the Rabbi team. More from Yisroel Cotlar | RSS

© Copyright, all rights reserved. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you todistribute it further, provided that you comply with Chabad.org‘s copyright policy.

JOIN THE DISCUSSION

Add your comment

Thank you. this is just such a wonderful explanation. I never saw this before and it really helped me as well because I also felt somewhat like the person who wrote in this question.

Leah

Pressure! My emma was such a devoted student of Tanya that she gave me that name in the hope I would aspire to find G-dlyness in all aspects of life. We are always trying to develop more fully as jews…But I do feel pressure to live up to the teachings, and guilt when I fall short.

Tanya WV

not everyone can take it While Tanya may be invaluable for those who have questions, not everybody has those questions. After a lifetime of raising kids, some joys, but mostly worries and sufferings, I think most people just want to walk the dog, sip a coffee at Starbucks, watch an old movie and maybe ask the kids how this computer app works. They shouldn’t feel guilty for that.

SSG Brooklyn, NY

G-d is never over demanding. If we can fly spaceships to outer orbit and master math, calculus, science, medicine & numerates then we must not become irrational when it comes to religious studies, even when challenged by opposing views from spiritually crippled (seemingly thwarted) agnostics and atheists, whom might co-concur that their disbelief makes it appear as overly demanding & challenging.

mark alcock dbn, za

wow. Nicely written! i admit i had the same question..Tanya sets huge expectations for us…this put things in a little bit more of a perspective though, at least for me 🙂 thanks.

Anonymous brooklyn, new york

How hyperpowered your words hype us. Your inspiring words make Tanya; which is rather enigmatic; seem so easy and yet so compelling to do. It is sad that i have heard no others so eloquently explain her intimacy with intriguing deep reasons that stir up the Jew, to embark on a never ending journey; incumbent with Tanya to aim to be a holy graduate …eventually fulfilled.

mark alcock Dbn, SA

Photoshop! Love the Photoshop simile……..myself, walked the same road – finally bit the bullet and bought a tutorial – almost as if overnight, all became clear. This is what The Tanya does for us – almost like studying Torah with just a dimming candle, when someone turns on 5000W fluorescent lights of The Tanya. I, for one, could not live without it, nor its exposition through the teaching of Rabbi Ben Tzion.

Thank G-d for our teachers!

Anonymous Hangzhou, China

You need a teacher If a student tries to learn everything the first year of school they will become hopelessly lost, and burn out. One has to start with beginning topics such as reading the daily Torah portion, Psalms, Ethics of the Fathers. Later, once a foundation has been developed, then you can move on to Mussar, Tanya, Kedushat Levi, and Likutey Moharan.

You must also find a teacher, and study with him or her weekly. This will avoid misunderstanding, or going down the wrong path of false torah knowlege.

Above all else, find a good teacher! Only then will you be able to really understand and appreciate Tanya. You will never learn it all, but enjoy the journey!

Dr. Harry Hamburger Miami, Florida

a message from the animal soul this may sound crazy for some who dont understand but as some cannot live without Torah, i know i would be personally lost in this world without Tanya. we are all different but Tanya makes one realize that we are all the same but in different forms.

john smith fort lauderdale, fl

Thank You Thank you questioner and thank you Rabbi for addressing this question. I’ve had it too; for as long as I’ve been learning Tanya. I enjoyed this dicussion greatly and gained insight from it; that wit G-d’s help I can put to good use.

Chani Slurzberg Philadelphia, PA

MOREIN THIS SECTION

What is the Tanya?

Practical Spirituality: An Overview of Tanya

The Longer Shorter Way

Man as Verb

“My Name is . . . and I am a Human Being” – The Practical Guide to Perfection

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Spicy Food: How the Old Heaven Became the New Hell

Transforming the Self

An Arabic Translationof the Tanya

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“So Great a G-d in So Tiny a Book!”

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The Tanya The “one size fits all” life manual

תניא The Book of Tanya in its Hebrew Original

e Archangel Gabriel is called the Angel of the Annunciation because it was he who informed Mary that she had found favor with the Lord and that she would conceive in her womb the Son of God. The lilies Gabriel carries symbolize the purity of Mary. The Archangel Gabriel also announced to Zacharias that he would have a son born to him who would be John the Baptist. It was the Archangel Gabriel who inspired Joan of Arc to go to the aid of the King of France. There is a tradition that Gabriel is the Angel of Birth. It is said that he carefully spends the nine months of the pregnancy watching over each unborn child and instructing that child on the necessary knowledge of Heaven that is an inherent part of all people. Just before birth, though, Gabriel touches each baby on the upper lip to make the child unable to remember all of the information about Heaven until the child returns to the spiritual state at death. The sign of Gabriel’s Touch is the cleft just below the nose. Gabriel is the Governor of Eden, the ruler of the Cherubim. He is one of the two angels mentioned by name in the Old Testament, along with Michael. Gabriel is the Angel of the Resurrection and the Angel of Mercy. He rules the first heaven, which is the heaven closest to humankind. In Jewish legend, it was Gabriel who dealt death and destruction to the sinful cities of Sodom and Gommorah. According to the Talmud (Sanhedrin 95b) it was Gabriel who destroyed the armies of Sennacherib “with a sharpened scythe which had been ready since Creation.” The poet Longfellow, in his ‘The Golden Legend’, makes Gabriel the angel of the moon who brings man the gift of hope. – – -TheArchangel Gabriel Source: http://www.orderofthewhitelion.com/Archangels@/Gabriel.htm

Gabriel is the third of the 4 Great Archangels, and Master of the Powers of Love.

To visualize Him, you need to turn your minds’ eye to the West, and imagine you are facing the shimmering image of this gentle Archangel of Water. His image before you is one of magnetic intensity; passive yet undeniably compelling. The rich copper tones of sunset reflect in the sheen of his hair, as he stands in a muslin robe of gossamer blue, bedecked by a mist of sequined stars, as fragile and tenuous as an evening sky. He holds a brilliant chalice, encrusted in precious jewels, and filled to overflowing with the waters of life. Gabriel touches the heart and emotions, for he is the bringer of Love, and his chalice represents the notion of compassion amidst the sorrows of life. -as in much the same way we can find more time to rest at the end of a challenging day, sharing our feelings with those we care about, and maybe finding some forgiveness for ourselves and the wrong doing of others. The chalice represents the Holy Grail, the Cup of contentment, tenderness and joy, and reminds us that there is no need to fight for Love, for we can find it within ourselves. Great strength can be found in vulnerability. Gabriel is sometimes seen with the silhouette of an Eagle, fused in silver across his breast, which shimmers as he moves. This represents the higher side of Scorpio, the invincible bird of prey that transcends the stars, and signals Transformation, Rebirth, and the rising of the Phoenix in a blaze of new life. If you watch carefully, Gabriel will smile down at you, an all pervading softness emanating from the lunar blue of his eyes, which hold within them the shadowy whisper of a hundred memories, born from yesterday. He turns and faces outwards across the shaded skies of dusk, raising the crystal flowing nectar high above his head, and remains, with wings outspread, in a stance of unconquerable receptivity.

The cup of Gabriel is the cup of Love, and lies in the depths of our feelings and the ebb and flow of the tides. – – -ARCHANGEL GABRIEL, MESSENGEROF GOD (San Gabriel, SaintGabriel Archangel, Angel Gabriel) Source: http://www.luckymojo.com/archangelgabriel.html by: CatYronwode

The Archangel Gabriel is the exalted Messenger of God, whose name means “The Strength of God” and whose deeds are recorded in the Jewish scriptures, where the spirit aided the Prophet Daniel in the interpretation of his dream-visions. Although an important Jewish angel, Gabriel has touched the lives of those of different religions as well. In the Christian Bible, it is Gabriel who brings important news to Zachary and the Virgin Mary concerning their children-to-be, and many Christians believe that at the Last Judgment Gabriel will blow a sacred trumpet horn. Furthermore, according to Muslims, Gabriel dictated the Koran to Mohammed over a period of 23 years and also accompanied the Prophet on his Night Journey. Some people believe that Gabriel is a female spirit; others hold that angels have no gender. Because of Gabriel’s role as a communicator and mediator between Heaven and Earth, Catholics hold the Archangel to be a Patron Saint of broadcasters, telecommunications workers, diplomats, messengers, postal workers, and stamp collectors. Because Gabriel helped the prophet Daniel interpret his dreams, those seeking similar aid with their own dream work may petition the Archangel for help. Additionally, because Gabriel announced the births of both John the Baptist and Jesus Christ, women hoping for heavenly assistance in trying to conceive children have reported benefits from keeping an Angel Gabriel novena candle burning in the home. The picture of the Angel Gabriel on this page is taken from a Lucky Mojo brand Catholic novena candle label and shows the spirit appearing as an annunciator, a bringer of good news and understanding. Because of Gabriel’s eminent position, holy cards, candles, and anointing oils bearing the likeness of this archangel have long been available in the marketplace. These are used by spiritual practitioners who wish to keep the image of Gabriel before them as a simple adjunct to their prayers and devotions. It is said that those who light a novena candle to the Archangel Gabriel will receive news they have been awaiting. There are a total of seven Archangels according to ancient Jewish beliefs — of whom four are most commonly petitioned, those being Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel. In African American hoodoo folk magic or rootwork, two of them are associated with a powerful natural curio called Angelica Root or Archangel Root. Archangel Michael, the eldest, is used with Angelica Root as a defender of women. Archangel Gabriel who is concerned with the announcements of pregnancy, is allied with this root in its role as an herbal tonic for women’s reproductive health. It is my hope that the following prayer to the Archangel Gabriel will be of use to all, and will find service among those who request the intercession of this great and powerful heavenly being.

PRAYER TO ARCHANGEL GABRIEL Alleged to Help in Communication and Conception

Beloved Gabriel, Glorious Messenger of the Courtof Heaven and most excellent Saintand Archangel, firstminister of God, interpreter for Daniel theProphet, instructor ofZacharythe Priest, annunciator to our Holy Mother Mary, bringer of the word of truth:

Pleasefavor my devotionsand help me to loveand serve you, and, through you, to love and serve theLord.

O Gabriel Archangel, grantme what I most earnestlydesire and humblyaskfor with this prayer, for thehonor, glory, and fulfillment ofmysoul.

Amen.

When a divine spirit grants your wish, it is customary, to give an offering of some kind in return. Because Archangel Gabriel, the Messenger of God, is generally depicted with white lilies or a trumpet horn, it is considered appropriate to make an offering of white flowers or to play music before the altar as a thank-offering.

Rrr

,

I have some amazing news for you. It turns out that August 6th was an even better day to be born then you realized.

Because on that day, a truly spectacular set of circumstances having to do with the energy of the planets and the moon played a big role in the talents and abilities you have at your disposal today. Not only that, Tanya, you were also blessed with the ability to connect with the Archangel Gabriel, the ANGEL of ABUNDANCE.

If you know there is more to life than what you see on the surface, you’re right. Your intuition tells you there is more out there than meets the eye, and your intuition is right. You know you’re special, and you are.

People are magnetically drawn to you. Have you ever wondered why? You’re always there for your friends and family, and you even care deeply about the people you don’t know too. Have you ever questioned where these qualities came from? They are angelic qualities, and it is in your spiritual make-up.

Tanya, your kindness was heaven-sent and given to you by the Archangel Gabriel on the day you were born. This is why you are the caring, generous soul you are today.

Instead of being watched over, you have been watching over everyone else. NOW IS THE TIME to RECONNECT with the very Angel who has made you into the wonderful, caring person you are.

Maybe you’ve had the feeling that you were looking down at yourself, as if you were removed from your body. Or maybe you’ve had a bad experience, or even a near-death experience, and felt an otherworldly presence helping you through. These are examples of angel encounters. Maybe you’ve had an encounter of your own but didn’t understand it for what it was, or know how to hold on to that hallowed and glorious feeling. It always gives me pause when people say they don’t believe in Angels and think that everything happens by chance.

A powerful Angel is within your reach. Once he is properly channeled, he will bring protection, guidance, prosperity and love back into your life. But first you need to know how to re-establish your connection with him.

I Have an Instrument that Calls Out to the Angel in Charge of Abundance.

A secret shrouded in mystery for 2,000 years, that instrument is the heavenly Horn of Plenty. Maybe you’ve noticed that angels are often shown holding trumpets — especially Gabriel. Trumpets and horns are the mainstays of angels. With this Horn of Plenty, you can call out to Gabriel, the Angel of Abundance and live the life you’ve always dreamed of.

Would it make you happy to know that on a certain date in the very near future, you could begin living a carefree and spontaneous life, a life free from financial worry and filled with all the things that matter the most to you in the world?

In the year 2016, on April 13th to be specific, abundant wealth and a bountiful life can be yours.

Own your own house, one with cathedral ceilings. Prepare dinner for your loved ones on granite countertops and cook red velvet cake in your professional designer oven. Eat caviar and drink champagne. Slip into your Jacuzzi under the light of the silvery moon. Drive fast in a convertible through the Southwest with the top down and the music blasting. Shop as much as you like in any store you wish without worrying about the price of anything. Fly to Europe first-class with your family or dearest friends. All of this, Tanya, is within your reach – you’ve just got to reconnect with Archangel Gabriel and grab it!

What I want for you is a life of plenty filled with more joy than you can handle, more friends than you can keep track of, more stacks of hundred dollar bills than you can count. I want you to live like there’s no tomorrow, and seize the opportunities that life presents you with today.

The Horn of Plenty is from the Latin, cornu copiae, meaning an inexhaustible abundance of richness and plentitude. In addition to being strongly linked to angels, 2,000 years ago the Greeks believed in an enormous magical horn that overflowed with dazzling gold and silver coins. Pursued by many, envied by all, The Horn of Plenty brought great wealth to whoever possessed it.

The story of this beautiful and valuable cornucopia jewel reappears in the story of Zeus’s birth. Zeus had a father named Cronus, who had overthrown his own father, and a mother named Rhea. Cronus learned he would suffer the same destiny with one of his own children, and in order to try and prevent this prophecy from happening, he swallowed all of his children as soon as they were born. But by the sixth, Rhea devised a plan to stop him. She found a stone and wrapped it in swaddling clothes and gave it to Cronus. Cronus swallowed the stone and Rhea crept away to a crystal cave where she gave birth to Zeus.

Zeus was nursed by Amalthea, the divine goddess of nourishment, and who had the power to change from a beautiful nymph into a goat with soaring horns that curled all the way to her back.

She nursed and raised Zeus, feeding him milk and honey. One day, legend has it, one of her horns broke off so she filled it with herbs, pomegranates, grapes and other bounteous fruits. In return, Zeus bestowed upon it the magical ability to grant wishes. When the receiver made a wish, the horn would be filled with whatever the receiver wished to have.

Because of its close tie to power, wealth and good luck, the cornucopia appeared on ancient coins all over the world for centuries to come. It is the most important symbol of plenty, wealth and the fulfillment of wishes in the mythology. Now it’s your turn to let the cornucopia work its centuries-old magic for you.

Tanya, grab hold of this rare opportunity while you have the chance.

When I put everything together – this important date, the unique day you were born and what it means, the value of silver (which has never been higher by the way) and the link between the horn of plenty and the Archangel Gabriel, the Angel of Abundance, I knew I had to contact you immediately.

Tanya, this good luck amulet is so beautiful you’d wear it even if it wasn’t going to change your future, but it will! And by wearing this special emblem of power close to your heart you will have a direct connection to the Archangel Gabriel.

ochian is a name often applied to an occult or angelic language recorded in the private journals of John Dee and his colleague Edward Kelley in late 16th-century England. [1] Kelley was a spirit medium who worked with Dee in his magical investigations. The men claimed that the language was revealed to them by the Enochian angels. The language is integral to the practice of Enochian magic.

The language found in Dee and Kelley’s journals encompasses a limited textual corpus, only some of it with English translations. Several linguists, notably Donald Laycock, have studied Enochian, and argue against any extraordinary features in the language.

Dee’s journals did not describe the language as “Enochian”, instead preferring descriptors like “Angelical”, the “Celestial Speech”, the “Language of Angels”, the “First Language of God-Christ”, the “Holy Language” or “Adamical” because, according to Dee’s Angels, it was used by Adam in Paradise to name all things. The term “Enochian” comes from Dee’s assertion that the Biblical Patriarch Enoch had been the last human (before Dee and Kelley) to know the language.

Dee’s Angelic language According to Tobias Churton in his text The Golden Builders, [2] the concept of an Angelic or antediluvian language was common during Dee’s time. If one could speak with angels, it was believed one could directly interact with them.

In 1581, Dee mentioned in his personal journals that God had sent “good angels” to communicate directly with prophets. In 1582, Dee teamed up with the seer Edward Kelley, although Dee had used several other seers previously. [3] With Kelley’s help as a scryer, Dee set out to establish lasting contact with the angels. Their work resulted, among other things, in the reception of the Enochian or Angelical language.

According to Dee’s journals, [4] Angelical was supposed to have been the language God used to create the world, and which was later used by Adam to speak with God and the angels, and to name all things in existence. After his Fall from Paradise, Adam lost the language and constructed a form of proto-Hebrew based upon his vague memory of Angelical. This proto-Hebrew, then, was the universal human language until the time of the Confusion of Tongues at the Tower of Babel. After this, all the various human languages were developed, including an even more modified Hebrew (which we know as “Biblical Hebrew”). From the time of Adam to the time of Dee and Kelley, Angelical was hidden from humans with the single exception of the patriarch Enoch who, according to the angels, recorded the “Book of Loagaeth” (Speech from God) for humanity. The book was then lost again in the Deluge of Noah.

The reception of Enochian started on March 26, 1583, when Kelley reported visions in the crystal of the twenty-one lettered alphabet characteristic of the language. A few days later, Kelley started receiving what became the first corpus of texts in the purported Angelic language. This resulted in the book Liber Loagaeth (“Book [of] Speech from God”). The book consists of 49 great letter tables, or squares made of 49 by 49 letters (however, each table has a front and back side—making 98 49×49 tables in all). [5] Dee and Kelley said the angels never translated the texts in this book.

The other set of Enochian texts was received through Kelley about a year later, in Kraków. These are more important since they come with English translations, thus providing the basis for the Enochian vocabulary. The texts comprise 48 poetic verses, which in Dee’s manuscripts are called “Claves Angelicae”, or “Angelic Keys”. The Keys are assigned certain functions within the magical system. Dee was apparently intending to use these Keys to “open the 49 Gates of Wisdom/Understanding” represented by the 49 magic squares in Liber Loagaeth:

Enochian Pronunciation

Veh – C – As English ‘S’ or ‘K’ Ged – G – As English ‘J’ Gon – I / Y occassionally as ‘J’, otherwise English ‘EE’ Van – Either English ‘U’ or ‘V’ (Double Van / UU –As English ‘W’) Mals-Na – PH – As English ‘F’ Veh-Na – CH – As Greek ‘Chi’ or English ‘TCH’. Un-Van – AU – Similar to Greek ‘AF’ Ger – Q – As Semitic “Qaf” or “Qoph” (guttural) or As English ‘QU’ Ceph – Z – As Old English ‘ZOD’

Aleister Crowley suggested the following pronunciation:

All letters are sounded as in English with these exceptions: A – ah – as in “fAther” C – k – as in “Cake” E – eh – as in “grEy” I – ee – as in “fEEt” O – long o – as in “smOke” Q – k – as in “Qabalah” U – long u – as in “fOOl”

Most Enochian magicians agree that ‘correct’ pronunciation is secondary to the focus and intent of the magician.

Aliearia

MY NAME…TANYA

My name, Tanya, was given to me by my mother. She named me after the movie actress who played in the movie AIRPLANE. IRONIC, isnt it..

Ne-“TANYA”-hu
        “TANYA”
G-ardner

GARDNER “G”

Learning & Values »

Kabbalah, Chassidism and Jewish Mysticism » The Tanya » About The Book » About The Tanya

By Yisroel Cotlar

Question:

I’m beginning to study Tanya. I understand that this is a basic classic of Jewish thought for every Jew, and while I find the subject matter fascinating, it’s hard to believe Tanya is talking to a regular person. I’ve come such a long way in keeping Shabbat and eating kosher, and now I see that so much of my day is still kelipah, or in the words of yesterday’s Tanya “filthy garments.”

Can you help put all of this in perspective? How does this all fit in the basic Judaism that I have studied?

Response:

It’s beautiful to hear about your growth as a Jew. And what you’re discovering now is that this work never ends. A Jew is a work in progress. We are never “there.”

Now, about Tanya and basic Judaism: Halachah, the dos and don’ts of Judaism, is the guide for the Jew’s everyday life. It tells us good from bad, mitzvah from misconduct. From the moment we arise until we go to sleep at night, it provides us the information we need to ensure that every activity we do is in line with Torah. A food, song, book, or trip that is unkosher is off limits.

Tanya raises the bar.

The question isn’t only if it is unkosher. It is whether it is about us or about G‑d.

Tanya’s definition of good is using something in a way that reflects its G‑dly nature. Everything at its core is G‑dliness. (See section two of Tanya for more on this.) The question is only whether we sense that and use it accordingly.

If that isn’t apparent, there’s something getting in the way. That something isn’t necessarily bad. It may simply be a human/worldy/materialistic drive. But this layer obstructs our ability to see the object for what it truly is. Tanya calls that kelipah, meaning: a shell.

The pizza is delicious. Skiing is fun. The Grand Canyon is gorgeous.

Those are innocent statements. They just aren’t holy.

But when those same activities are done in mindful manner, the kelipah is peeled away, and the act becomes yet another way to serve G‑d.

How? The pizza lunch translates into energy to do a mitzvah. The skiing trip is used as a reward for a class that finished studying a Torah portion. The Grand Canyon becomes a place to appreciate the majesty of creation.

I know what you’re thinking. That sounds impossible? To find G‑d in every activity? What are we, angels? Why not just stick with the basics?

Here, there are two points to make:

1. It is indeed only the tzadik (a perfectly righteous individual) that reaches a level so selfless that every moment of the day contains a G‑dly purpose.

But that’s ok. G‑d doesn’t want a world of only tzadikim.

He wants a world of regular people like me and you who at least realize that such a dimension exists and strive to get there. A world where we never stop learning, working, and growing. A life where we study this idea, reflect upon it, and albeit once a day, act on it. This struggle is so meaningful to G‑d, in a sense, more precious to Him than perfection of the of a tzadik.

After all, Tanya was written for the average man, not the tzadik. A daily study of Tanya produces real results for the ordinary person. Change so subtle you hardly notice it happening to you, change so deep it leaves you with a new set of goals and aspirations . A materialistic pleasure that once made you content now leaves you empty, an act filled with a higher purpose that once seemed trivial now gives real and true satisfaction.

2. It may not seem so now, but Tanya makes basic Jewish life, not more difficult, but far easier.

I’ve used Photoshop for a number of years. I never bothered to learn the program, always managing to achieve my goal through trial and error. One day I was inspired to actually buy a tutorial. It took time and patience, (why do these books make things so complicated?) and I have to admit wanting to give it all up and going back to my system of pushing random buttons.

But I persisted. Today, I’m still no expert, but the difference is night and day.

Tanya does the very same thing to our Mitzvos.

To get yourself to do something, there has to be a desire. It’s hard to desire “do this, don’t do that.” There’s a struggle, a constant battle with the typical human urges with which we are all born. But instead of relying on nothing more than kicks and punches, Tanya provides a hyper-powered weapon—one that’s right at hand.

You see, the true, inner desire of every Jew is to fill the world with G‑d’s presence—by revealing G‑d’s presence within each thing and each activity. Tanya provides a strategy for bringing that inner desire out into the open. In the language of Tanya, “to reveal the hidden love.” Once out of its hiding place, this love provides such an intense energy that nothing can stand in its way. A life of Torah and mitzvahs becomes spontaneous and joyous. For more on this, see The Longer Shorter Way .

Keep learning. But learn with a teacher. We have a wide selection of classes online here at Chabad.org. Find the teacher you relate to best. Have patience, and you too will get that hyperpowered energy in your hands. At that point, no challenge will be too great.

BY YISROEL COTLAR

Rabbi Yisroel Cotlar is a Chabad rabbi in Cary, North Carolina. He is also a member of the Chabad.org Ask the Rabbi team. More from Yisroel Cotlar | RSS

© Copyright, all rights reserved. If you enjoyed this article, we encourage you todistribute it further, provided that you comply with Chabad.org‘s copyright policy.

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Add your comment

Thank you. this is just such a wonderful explanation. I never saw this before and it really helped me as well because I also felt somewhat like the person who wrote in this question.

Leah

Pressure! My emma was such a devoted student of Tanya that she gave me that name in the hope I would aspire to find G-dlyness in all aspects of life. We are always trying to develop more fully as jews…But I do feel pressure to live up to the teachings, and guilt when I fall short.

Tanya WV

not everyone can take it While Tanya may be invaluable for those who have questions, not everybody has those questions. After a lifetime of raising kids, some joys, but mostly worries and sufferings, I think most people just want to walk the dog, sip a coffee at Starbucks, watch an old movie and maybe ask the kids how this computer app works. They shouldn’t feel guilty for that.

SSG Brooklyn, NY

G-d is never over demanding. If we can fly spaceships to outer orbit and master math, calculus, science, medicine & numerates then we must not become irrational when it comes to religious studies, even when challenged by opposing views from spiritually crippled (seemingly thwarted) agnostics and atheists, whom might co-concur that their disbelief makes it appear as overly demanding & challenging.

mark alcock dbn, za

wow. Nicely written! i admit i had the same question..Tanya sets huge expectations for us…this put things in a little bit more of a perspective though, at least for me 🙂 thanks.

Anonymous brooklyn, new york

How hyperpowered your words hype us. Your inspiring words make Tanya; which is rather enigmatic; seem so easy and yet so compelling to do. It is sad that i have heard no others so eloquently explain her intimacy with intriguing deep reasons that stir up the Jew, to embark on a never ending journey; incumbent with Tanya to aim to be a holy graduate …eventually fulfilled.

mark alcock Dbn, SA

Photoshop! Love the Photoshop simile……..myself, walked the same road – finally bit the bullet and bought a tutorial – almost as if overnight, all became clear. This is what The Tanya does for us – almost like studying Torah with just a dimming candle, when someone turns on 5000W fluorescent lights of The Tanya. I, for one, could not live without it, nor its exposition through the teaching of Rabbi Ben Tzion.

Thank G-d for our teachers!

Anonymous Hangzhou, China

You need a teacher If a student tries to learn everything the first year of school they will become hopelessly lost, and burn out. One has to start with beginning topics such as reading the daily Torah portion, Psalms, Ethics of the Fathers. Later, once a foundation has been developed, then you can move on to Mussar, Tanya, Kedushat Levi, and Likutey Moharan.

You must also find a teacher, and study with him or her weekly. This will avoid misunderstanding, or going down the wrong path of false torah knowlege.

Above all else, find a good teacher! Only then will you be able to really understand and appreciate Tanya. You will never learn it all, but enjoy the journey!

Dr. Harry Hamburger Miami, Florida

a message from the animal soul this may sound crazy for some who dont understand but as some cannot live without Torah, i know i would be personally lost in this world without Tanya. we are all different but Tanya makes one realize that we are all the same but in different forms.

john smith fort lauderdale, fl

Thank You Thank you questioner and thank you Rabbi for addressing this question. I’ve had it too; for as long as I’ve been learning Tanya. I enjoyed this dicussion greatly and gained insight from it; that wit G-d’s help I can put to good use.

Chani Slurzberg Philadelphia, PA

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“My Name is . . . and I am a Human Being” – The Practical Guide to Perfection

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Spicy Food: How the Old Heaven Became the New Hell

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An Arabic Translationof the Tanya

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The Tanya The “one size fits all” life manual

תניא The Book of Tanya in its Hebrew Original

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e Archangel Gabriel is called the Angel of the Annunciation because it was he who informed Mary that she had found favor with the Lord and that she would conceive in her womb the Son of God. The lilies Gabriel carries symbolize the purity of Mary. The Archangel Gabriel also announced to Zacharias that he would have a son born to him who would be John the Baptist. It was the Archangel Gabriel who inspired Joan of Arc to go to the aid of the King of France. There is a tradition that Gabriel is the Angel of Birth. It is said that he carefully spends the nine months of the pregnancy watching over each unborn child and instructing that child on the necessary knowledge of Heaven that is an inherent part of all people. Just before birth, though, Gabriel touches each baby on the upper lip to make the child unable to remember all of the information about Heaven until the child returns to the spiritual state at death. The sign of Gabriel’s Touch is the cleft just below the nose. Gabriel is the Governor of Eden, the ruler of the Cherubim. He is one of the two angels mentioned by name in the Old Testament, along with Michael. Gabriel is the Angel of the Resurrection and the Angel of Mercy. He rules the first heaven, which is the heaven closest to humankind. In Jewish legend, it was Gabriel who dealt death and destruction to the sinful cities of Sodom and Gommorah. According to the Talmud (Sanhedrin 95b) it was Gabriel who destroyed the armies of Sennacherib “with a sharpened scythe which had been ready since Creation.” The poet Longfellow, in his ‘The Golden Legend’, makes Gabriel the angel of the moon who brings man the gift of hope. – – -TheArchangel Gabriel Source: http://www.orderofthewhitelion.com/Archangels@/Gabriel.htm

Gabriel is the third of the 4 Great Archangels, and Master of the Powers of Love.

To visualize Him, you need to turn your minds’ eye to the West, and imagine you are facing the shimmering image of this gentle Archangel of Water. His image before you is one of magnetic intensity; passive yet undeniably compelling. The rich copper tones of sunset reflect in the sheen of his hair, as he stands in a muslin robe of gossamer blue, bedecked by a mist of sequined stars, as fragile and tenuous as an evening sky. He holds a brilliant chalice, encrusted in precious jewels, and filled to overflowing with the waters of life. Gabriel touches the heart and emotions, for he is the bringer of Love, and his chalice represents the notion of compassion amidst the sorrows of life. -as in much the same way we can find more time to rest at the end of a challenging day, sharing our feelings with those we care about, and maybe finding some forgiveness for ourselves and the wrong doing of others. The chalice represents the Holy Grail, the Cup of contentment, tenderness and joy, and reminds us that there is no need to fight for Love, for we can find it within ourselves. Great strength can be found in vulnerability. Gabriel is sometimes seen with the silhouette of an Eagle, fused in silver across his breast, which shimmers as he moves. This represents the higher side of Scorpio, the invincible bird of prey that transcends the stars, and signals Transformation, Rebirth, and the rising of the Phoenix in a blaze of new life. If you watch carefully, Gabriel will smile down at you, an all pervading softness emanating from the lunar blue of his eyes, which hold within them the shadowy whisper of a hundred memories, born from yesterday. He turns and faces outwards across the shaded skies of dusk, raising the crystal flowing nectar high above his head, and remains, with wings outspread, in a stance of unconquerable receptivity.

The cup of Gabriel is the cup of Love, and lies in the depths of our feelings and the ebb and flow of the tides. – – -ARCHANGEL GABRIEL, MESSENGEROF GOD (San Gabriel, SaintGabriel Archangel, Angel Gabriel) Source: http://www.luckymojo.com/archangelgabriel.html by: CatYronwode

The Archangel Gabriel is the exalted Messenger of God, whose name means “The Strength of God” and whose deeds are recorded in the Jewish scriptures, where the spirit aided the Prophet Daniel in the interpretation of his dream-visions. Although an important Jewish angel, Gabriel has touched the lives of those of different religions as well. In the Christian Bible, it is Gabriel who brings important news to Zachary and the Virgin Mary concerning their children-to-be, and many Christians believe that at the Last Judgment Gabriel will blow a sacred trumpet horn. Furthermore, according to Muslims, Gabriel dictated the Koran to Mohammed over a period of 23 years and also accompanied the Prophet on his Night Journey. Some people believe that Gabriel is a female spirit; others hold that angels have no gender. Because of Gabriel’s role as a communicator and mediator between Heaven and Earth, Catholics hold the Archangel to be a Patron Saint of broadcasters, telecommunications workers, diplomats, messengers, postal workers, and stamp collectors. Because Gabriel helped the prophet Daniel interpret his dreams, those seeking similar aid with their own dream work may petition the Archangel for help. Additionally, because Gabriel announced the births of both John the Baptist and Jesus Christ, women hoping for heavenly assistance in trying to conceive children have reported benefits from keeping an Angel Gabriel novena candle burning in the home. The picture of the Angel Gabriel on this page is taken from a Lucky Mojo brand Catholic novena candle label and shows the spirit appearing as an annunciator, a bringer of good news and understanding. Because of Gabriel’s eminent position, holy cards, candles, and anointing oils bearing the likeness of this archangel have long been available in the marketplace. These are used by spiritual practitioners who wish to keep the image of Gabriel before them as a simple adjunct to their prayers and devotions. It is said that those who light a novena candle to the Archangel Gabriel will receive news they have been awaiting. There are a total of seven Archangels according to ancient Jewish beliefs — of whom four are most commonly petitioned, those being Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel. In African American hoodoo folk magic or rootwork, two of them are associated with a powerful natural curio called Angelica Root or Archangel Root. Archangel Michael, the eldest, is used with Angelica Root as a defender of women. Archangel Gabriel who is concerned with the announcements of pregnancy, is allied with this root in its role as an herbal tonic for women’s reproductive health. It is my hope that the following prayer to the Archangel Gabriel will be of use to all, and will find service among those who request the intercession of this great and powerful heavenly being.

PRAYER TO ARCHANGEL GABRIEL Alleged to Help in Communication and Conception

Beloved Gabriel, Glorious Messenger of the Courtof Heaven and most excellent Saintand Archangel, firstminister of God, interpreter for Daniel theProphet, instructor ofZacharythe Priest, annunciator to our Holy Mother Mary, bringer of the word of truth:

Pleasefavor my devotionsand help me to loveand serve you, and, through you, to love and serve theLord.

O Gabriel Archangel, grantme what I most earnestlydesire and humblyaskfor with this prayer, for thehonor, glory, and fulfillment ofmysoul.

Amen.

When a divine spirit grants your wish, it is customary, to give an offering of some kind in return. Because Archangel Gabriel, the Messenger of God, is generally depicted with white lilies or a trumpet horn, it is considered appropriate to make an offering of white flowers or to play music before the altar as a thank-offering.

Rrr

,

I have some amazing news for you. It turns out that August 6th was an even better day to be born then you realized.

Because on that day, a truly spectacular set of circumstances having to do with the energy of the planets and the moon played a big role in the talents and abilities you have at your disposal today. Not only that, Tanya, you were also blessed with the ability to connect with the Archangel Gabriel, the ANGEL of ABUNDANCE.

If you know there is more to life than what you see on the surface, you’re right. Your intuition tells you there is more out there than meets the eye, and your intuition is right. You know you’re special, and you are.

People are magnetically drawn to you. Have you ever wondered why? You’re always there for your friends and family, and you even care deeply about the people you don’t know too. Have you ever questioned where these qualities came from? They are angelic qualities, and it is in your spiritual make-up.

Tanya, your kindness was heaven-sent and given to you by the Archangel Gabriel on the day you were born. This is why you are the caring, generous soul you are today.

Instead of being watched over, you have been watching over everyone else. NOW IS THE TIME to RECONNECT with the very Angel who has made you into the wonderful, caring person you are.

Maybe you’ve had the feeling that you were looking down at yourself, as if you were removed from your body. Or maybe you’ve had a bad experience, or even a near-death experience, and felt an otherworldly presence helping you through. These are examples of angel encounters. Maybe you’ve had an encounter of your own but didn’t understand it for what it was, or know how to hold on to that hallowed and glorious feeling. It always gives me pause when people say they don’t believe in Angels and think that everything happens by chance.

A powerful Angel is within your reach. Once he is properly channeled, he will bring protection, guidance, prosperity and love back into your life. But first you need to know how to re-establish your connection with him.

I Have an Instrument that Calls Out to the Angel in Charge of Abundance.

A secret shrouded in mystery for 2,000 years, that instrument is the heavenly Horn of Plenty. Maybe you’ve noticed that angels are often shown holding trumpets — especially Gabriel. Trumpets and horns are the mainstays of angels. With this Horn of Plenty, you can call out to Gabriel, the Angel of Abundance and live the life you’ve always dreamed of.

Would it make you happy to know that on a certain date in the very near future, you could begin living a carefree and spontaneous life, a life free from financial worry and filled with all the things that matter the most to you in the world?

In the year 2016, on April 13th to be specific, abundant wealth and a bountiful life can be yours.

Own your own house, one with cathedral ceilings. Prepare dinner for your loved ones on granite countertops and cook red velvet cake in your professional designer oven. Eat caviar and drink champagne. Slip into your Jacuzzi under the light of the silvery moon. Drive fast in a convertible through the Southwest with the top down and the music blasting. Shop as much as you like in any store you wish without worrying about the price of anything. Fly to Europe first-class with your family or dearest friends. All of this, Tanya, is within your reach – you’ve just got to reconnect with Archangel Gabriel and grab it!

What I want for you is a life of plenty filled with more joy than you can handle, more friends than you can keep track of, more stacks of hundred dollar bills than you can count. I want you to live like there’s no tomorrow, and seize the opportunities that life presents you with today.

The Horn of Plenty is from the Latin, cornu copiae, meaning an inexhaustible abundance of richness and plentitude. In addition to being strongly linked to angels, 2,000 years ago the Greeks believed in an enormous magical horn that overflowed with dazzling gold and silver coins. Pursued by many, envied by all, The Horn of Plenty brought great wealth to whoever possessed it.

The story of this beautiful and valuable cornucopia jewel reappears in the story of Zeus’s birth. Zeus had a father named Cronus, who had overthrown his own father, and a mother named Rhea. Cronus learned he would suffer the same destiny with one of his own children, and in order to try and prevent this prophecy from happening, he swallowed all of his children as soon as they were born. But by the sixth, Rhea devised a plan to stop him. She found a stone and wrapped it in swaddling clothes and gave it to Cronus. Cronus swallowed the stone and Rhea crept away to a crystal cave where she gave birth to Zeus.

Zeus was nursed by Amalthea, the divine goddess of nourishment, and who had the power to change from a beautiful nymph into a goat with soaring horns that curled all the way to her back.

She nursed and raised Zeus, feeding him milk and honey. One day, legend has it, one of her horns broke off so she filled it with herbs, pomegranates, grapes and other bounteous fruits. In return, Zeus bestowed upon it the magical ability to grant wishes. When the receiver made a wish, the horn would be filled with whatever the receiver wished to have.

Because of its close tie to power, wealth and good luck, the cornucopia appeared on ancient coins all over the world for centuries to come. It is the most important symbol of plenty, wealth and the fulfillment of wishes in the mythology. Now it’s your turn to let the cornucopia work its centuries-old magic for you.

Tanya, grab hold of this rare opportunity while you have the chance.

When I put everything together – this important date, the unique day you were born and what it means, the value of silver (which has never been higher by the way) and the link between the horn of plenty and the Archangel Gabriel, the Angel of Abundance, I knew I had to contact you immediately.

Tanya, this good luck amulet is so beautiful you’d wear it even if it wasn’t going to change your future, but it will! And by wearing this special emblem of power close to your heart you will have a direct connection to the Archangel Gabriel.

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ochian is a name often applied to an occult or angelic language recorded in the private journals of John Dee and his colleague Edward Kelley in late 16th-century England. [1] Kelley was a spirit medium who worked with Dee in his magical investigations. The men claimed that the language was revealed to them by the Enochian angels. The language is integral to the practice of Enochian magic.

The language found in Dee and Kelley’s journals encompasses a limited textual corpus, only some of it with English translations. Several linguists, notably Donald Laycock, have studied Enochian, and argue against any extraordinary features in the language.

Dee’s journals did not describe the language as “Enochian”, instead preferring descriptors like “Angelical”, the “Celestial Speech”, the “Language of Angels”, the “First Language of God-Christ”, the “Holy Language” or “Adamical” because, according to Dee’s Angels, it was used by Adam in Paradise to name all things. The term “Enochian” comes from Dee’s assertion that the Biblical Patriarch Enoch had been the last human (before Dee and Kelley) to know the language.

Dee’s Angelic language According to Tobias Churton in his text The Golden Builders, [2] the concept of an Angelic or antediluvian language was common during Dee’s time. If one could speak with angels, it was believed one could directly interact with them.

In 1581, Dee mentioned in his personal journals that God had sent “good angels” to communicate directly with prophets. In 1582, Dee teamed up with the seer Edward Kelley, although Dee had used several other seers previously. [3] With Kelley’s help as a scryer, Dee set out to establish lasting contact with the angels. Their work resulted, among other things, in the reception of the Enochian or Angelical language.

According to Dee’s journals, [4] Angelical was supposed to have been the language God used to create the world, and which was later used by Adam to speak with God and the angels, and to name all things in existence. After his Fall from Paradise, Adam lost the language and constructed a form of proto-Hebrew based upon his vague memory of Angelical. This proto-Hebrew, then, was the universal human language until the time of the Confusion of Tongues at the Tower of Babel. After this, all the various human languages were developed, including an even more modified Hebrew (which we know as “Biblical Hebrew”). From the time of Adam to the time of Dee and Kelley, Angelical was hidden from humans with the single exception of the patriarch Enoch who, according to the angels, recorded the “Book of Loagaeth” (Speech from God) for humanity. The book was then lost again in the Deluge of Noah.

The reception of Enochian started on March 26, 1583, when Kelley reported visions in the crystal of the twenty-one lettered alphabet characteristic of the language. A few days later, Kelley started receiving what became the first corpus of texts in the purported Angelic language. This resulted in the book Liber Loagaeth (“Book [of] Speech from God”). The book consists of 49 great letter tables, or squares made of 49 by 49 letters (however, each table has a front and back side—making 98 49×49 tables in all). [5] Dee and Kelley said the angels never translated the texts in this book.

The other set of Enochian texts was received through Kelley about a year later, in Kraków. These are more important since they come with English translations, thus providing the basis for the Enochian vocabulary. The texts comprise 48 poetic verses, which in Dee’s manuscripts are called “Claves Angelicae”, or “Angelic Keys”. The Keys are assigned certain functions within the magical system. Dee was apparently intending to use these Keys to “open the 49 Gates of Wisdom/Understanding” represented by the 49 magic squares in Liber Loagaeth:

Enochian Pronunciation

Veh – C – As English ‘S’ or ‘K’ Ged – G – As English ‘J’ Gon – I / Y occassionally as ‘J’, otherwise English ‘EE’ Van – Either English ‘U’ or ‘V’ (Double Van / UU –As English ‘W’) Mals-Na – PH – As English ‘F’ Veh-Na – CH – As Greek ‘Chi’ or English ‘TCH’. Un-Van – AU – Similar to Greek ‘AF’ Ger – Q – As Semitic “Qaf” or “Qoph” (guttural) or As English ‘QU’ Ceph – Z – As Old English ‘ZOD’

Aleister Crowley suggested the following pronunciation:

All letters are sounded as in English with these exceptions: A – ah – as in “fAther” C – k – as in “Cake” E – eh – as in “grEy” I – ee – as in “fEEt” O – long o – as in “smOke” Q – k – as in “Qabalah” U – long u – as in “fOOl”

Most Enochian magicians agree that ‘correct’ pronunciation is secondary to the focus and intent of the magician.

Aliearia

ORION (FULL)

In Greek mythology, Orion (Ancient Greek: ρίων [1] or αρίων, Latin: Orion [2] ) was a giant huntsman whom Zeus placed among the stars as the constellation of Orion.

Ancient sources tell several different stories about Orion; there are two major versions of his birth and several versions of his death. The most important recorded episodes are his birth somewhere in Boeotia, his visit to Chios where he met Merope and was blinded by her father, Oenopion, the recovery of his sight at Lemnos, his hunting with Artemis on Crete, his death by the bow of Artemis or the sting of the giant scorpion which became Scorpio, and his elevation to the heavens. Most ancient sources omit some of these episodes and several tell only one. These various incidents may originally have been independent, unrelated stories and it is impossible to tell whether omissions are simple brevity or represent a real disagreement.

In Greek literature he first appears as a great hunter in Homer’s epic the Odyssey, where Odysseus sees his shade in the underworld. The bare bones of his story are told by the Hellenistic and Roman collectors of myths, but there is no extant literary version of his adventures comparable, for example, to that of Jason in Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonautica or Euripides’ Medea; the entry in Ovid’s Fasti for May 11 is a poem on the birth of Orion, but that is one version of a single story. The surviving fragments of legend have provided a fertile field for speculation about Greek prehistory and myth.

Orion served several roles in ancient Greek culture. The story of the adventures of Orion, the hunter, is the one on which we have the most evidence (and even on that not very much); he is also the personification of the constellation of the same name; he was venerated as a hero, in the Greek sense, in the region of Boeotia; and there is one etiological passage which says that Orion was responsible for the present shape of the Strait of Sicily.

Homer and Hesiod

Orion is mentioned in the oldest surviving works of Greek literature, which probably date back to the 7th or 8th century BC, but which are the products of an oral tradition with origins several centuries earlier. In Homer’s Iliad Orion is described as a constellation, and the star Sirius is mentioned as his dog. [3] In the Odyssey, Odysseus sees him hunting in the underworld with a bronze club, a great slayer of animals; he is also mentioned as a constellation, as the lover of the Goddess Dawn, as slain by Artemis, and as the most handsome of the earthborn. [4] In the Works and Days of Hesiod, Orion is also a constellation, one whose rising and setting with the sun is used to reckon the year. [5]

Daniel Seiter’s 1685 painting of Diana over Orion’s corpse, before he is placed in the heavens

The legend of Orion was first told in full in a lost work by Hesiod, probably the Astronomia; simple references to Hesiod will refer to this, unless otherwise stated. This version is known through the work of a Hellenistic author on the constellations; he gives a fairly long summary of Hesiod’s discourse on Orion. [6] According to this version, Orion was likely the son of the sea-god Poseidon and Euryale, [7] daughter of Minos, King of Crete. Orion could walk on the waves because of his father; he walked to the island of Chios where he got drunk and attacked Merope, [8]

daughter of Oenopion, the ruler there. In vengeance, Oenopion blinded Orion and drove him away. Orion stumbled to Lemnos where Hephaestus — the lame smith-god — had his forge. Hephaestus told his servant, Cedalion, to guide Orion to the uttermost East where Helios, the Sun, healed him; Orion carried Cedalion around on his shoulders. Orion returned to Chios to punish Oenopion, but the king hid away underground and escaped Orion’s wrath. Orion’s next journey took him to Crete where he hunted with the goddess Artemis and her mother Leto, and in the course of the hunt, threatened to kill every beast on Earth. Mother Earth objected and sent a giant scorpion to kill Orion. The creature succeeded, and after his death, the goddesses asked Zeus to place Orion among the constellations. Zeus consented and, as a memorial to the hero’s death, added the Scorpion to the heavens as well. [9]

Other sources

Although Orion has a few lines in both Homeric poems and in the Works and Days, most of the stories about him are recorded in incidental allusions and in fairly obscure later writings. No great poet standardized the legend. [10] The ancient sources for Orion’s legend are mostly notes in the margins of ancient poets (scholia) or compilations by later scholars, the equivalent of modern reference works or encyclopedias; even the legend from Hesiod’s Astronomy survives only in one such compilation. In several cases, including the summary of the Astronomy, although the surviving work bears the name of a famous scholar, such as Apollodorus of Athens, Eratosthenes, or Gaius Julius Hyginus, what survives is either an ancient forgery or an abridgement of the original compilation by a later writer of dubious competence; editors of these texts suggest that they may have borne the names of great scholars because they were abridgments, or even pupil’s notes, based on the works of the scholars. [11]

The margin of the Empress Eudocia’s copy of the Iliad has a note summarizing a Hellenistic poet [12] who tells a different story of Orion’s birth. Here the gods Zeus, Hermes and Poseidon come to visit Hyrieus of Tanagra, who roasts a whole bull for them. [13] When they offer him a favor, he asks for the birth of sons. The gods take the bull’s hide and ejaculate or urinate into it [14] and bury it in the earth, then tell him to dig it up ten months [15] later. When he does, he finds Orion; this explains why Orion is earthborn. [16]

A second full telling (even shorter than the summary of Hesiod) is in a Roman-era collection of myths; the account of Orion is based largely on the mythologist and poet Pherecydes of Leros. Here Orion is described as earthborn and enormous in stature. This version also mentions Poseidon and Euryale as his parents. It adds a first marriage to Side before his marriage to Merope. All that is known about Side is that Hera threw her into Hades for rivalling her in beauty. It also gives a different version of Orion’s death than the Iliad: Eos, the Dawn, fell in love with Orion and took him to Delos where Artemis killed him. [17]

Another narrative on the constellations, three paragraphs long, is from a Latin writer whose brief notes have come down to us under the name of Hyginus. [18] It begins with the oxhide story of Orion’s birth, which this source ascribes to Callimachus and Aristomachus, and sets the location at Thebes or Chios. [19] Hyginus has two versions. In one of them he omits Poseidon; [20] a modern critic suggests this is the original version. [21]

The same source tells two stories of the death of Orion. The first says that because of his “living joined in too great a friendship” with Oenopion, he boasted to Artemis and Leto that he could kill anything which came from Earth. Earth objected and created the Scorpion. [22] In the second story, Apollo objected to his sister Artemis’s love for Orion, and, seeing Orion swimming with just his head visible, challenged her to shoot at that mark, which she hit, killing him. [23]

He connects Orion with several constellations, not just Scorpio. Orion chased Pleione, the mother of the Pleiades, for seven years, until Zeus intervened and raised all of them to the stars. [24] In Works and Days, Orion chases the Pleiades themselves. Canis Minor and Canis Major are his dogs, the one in front is called Procyon. They chase Lepus, the hare, although Hyginus says some critics thought this too base a prey for the noble Orion and have him pursuing Taurus, the bull, instead. [25] A Renaissance mythographer adds other names for Orion’s dogs: Leucomelaena, Maera, Dromis, Cisseta, Lampuris, Lycoctonus, Ptoophagus, Arctophonus. [26]

Variants

There are numerous variants in other authors. Most of these are incidental references in poems and scholiasts. The Roman poet Vergil shows Orion as a giant wading through the Aegean Sea with the waves breaking against his shoulders; rather than, as the mythographers have it, walking on the water. [27] There are several references to Hyrieus as the father of Orion that connect him to various places in Boeotia, including Hyria; this may well be the original story (although not the first attested), since Hyrieus is presumably the eponym of Hyria. He is also called Oeneus, although he is not the Calydonian Oeneus. [28] Other ancient scholia say, as Hesiod does, that Orion was the son of Poseidon and his mother was a daughter of Minos; but they call the daughter Brylle or Hyeles. [29] There are two versions where Artemis killed Orion, either with her arrows or by producing the Scorpion. In the second variant, Orion died of the Scorpion’s sting as he does in Hesiod. Although Orion does not defeat the Scorpion in any version, several variants have it die from its wounds. Artemis is given various motives. One is that Orion boasted of his beast-killing and challenged her to a contest with the discus. Another is that he assaulted either Artemis or the Hyperborean maiden Opis in her band of huntresses. [30] Aratus’s brief description, in his Astronomy, conflates the elements of the myth: according to Aratus, Orion attacks Artemis while hunting on Chios, and the Scorpion kills him there. [31] Nicander, in his Theriaca, has the scorpion of ordinary size and hiding under a small (oligos) stone. [32]

Most versions of the story that continue after Orion’s death tell of the gods raising Orion and the Scorpion to the stars, but even here a variant exists: Ancient poets differed greatly as to who Aesculapius brought back from the dead; [33] the Argive epic poet Telesarchus is quoted as saying in a scholion that Aesculapius resurrected Orion. [34] Other ancient authorities are quoted anonymously that Aesculapius healed Orion after he was blinded by Oenopion. [35]

The story of Orion and Oenopion also varies. One source refers to Merope as the wife of Oenopion and not his daughter. Another refers to Merope as the daughter of Minos and not of Oenopion. [36] The longest version (a page in the Loeb) is from a collection of melodramatic plots drawn up by an Alexandrian poet for the Roman Cornelius Gallus to make into Latin verse. [37] It describes Orion as slaying the wild beasts of Chios and looting the other inhabitants to make a bride-price for Oenopion’s daughter, who is called Aëro or Leiro. [38] Oenopion does not want to marry her to someone like Orion, and eventually Orion, in frustration, breaks into her bedchamber and rapes her. The text implies that Oenopion blinds him on the spot.

Johannes Hevelius drew the Orion constellation in Uranographia, his celestial catalogue in 1690

Lucian includes a picture with Orion in a rhetorical description of an ideal building, in which Orion is walking into the rising sun with Lemnos nearby, Cedalion on his shoulder. He recovers his sight there with Hephaestus still watching in the background. [39]

Latin sources add that Oenopion was the son of Dionysus. Dionysus sent satyrs to put Orion into a deep sleep so he could be blinded. One source tells the same story but converts Oenopion into Minos of Crete. It adds that an oracle told Orion that his sight could be restored by walking eastward and that he found his way by hearing the Cyclops’ hammer, placing a Cyclops as a guide on his shoulder; it does not mention Cabeiri or Lemnos—this is presumably the story of Cedalion recast. Both Hephaestus and the Cyclopes were said to make thunderbolts; they are combined in other sources. [41] One scholion, on a Latin poem, explains that Hephaestus gave Orion a horse. [42]

Giovanni Boccaccio cites a lost Latin writer for the story that Orion and Candiope were son and daughter of Oenopion, king of Sicily. While the virgin huntsman Orion was sleeping in a cave, Venus seduced him; as he left the cave, he saw his sister shining as she crossed in front of it. He ravished her; when his father heard of this, he banished Orion. Orion consulted an oracle, which told him that if he went east, he would regain the glory of kingship. Orion, Candiope, and their son Hippologus sailed to Thrace, “a province eastward from Sicily”. There he conquered the inhabitants, and became known as the son of Neptune. His son begat the Dryas mentioned in Statius. [43]

In Ancient Greece, Orion had a hero cult in the region of Boeotia. The number of places associated with his birth suggest that it was widespread. [44] Hyria, the most frequently mentioned, was in the territory of Tanagra. A feast of Orion was held at Tanagra as late as the Roman Empire. [45] They had a tomb of Orion [46] most likely at the foot of Mount Cerycius (now Mount Tanagra). [47][48]

Maurice Bowra argues that Orion was a national hero of the Boeotians, much as Castor and Pollux were for the Dorians. [49] He bases this claim on the Athenian epigram on the Battle of Coronea in which a hero gave the Boeotian army an oracle, then fought on their side and defeated the Athenians.

The Boeotian school of epic poetry was chiefly concerned with the genealogies of the gods and heroes; later writers elaborated this web. [50] Several other myths are attached to Orion in this way: A papyrus fragment of the Boeotian poet Corinna gives Orion fifty sons (a traditional number). This included the oracular hero Acraephen, who, she sings, gave a response to Asopus regarding Asopus’ daughters who were abducted by the gods. Corinna sang of Orion conquering and naming all the land of the dawn. [51] Bowra argues that Orion was believed to have delivered oracles as well, probably at a different shrine. [52][53] Hyginus says that Hylas’s mother was Menodice, daughter of Orion. [54] Another mythographer, Liberalis, tells of Menippe and Metioche, daughters of Orion, who sacrificed themselves for their country’s good and were transformed into comets. [55]

The Fountain of Orion, in Messina, Italy

Orion also has etiological connection to the city of Messina in Sicily. Diodorus of Sicily wrote a history of the world up to his own time (the beginning of the reign of Augustus). He starts with the gods and the heroes. At the end of this part of the work, he tells the story of Orion and two wonder-stories of his mighty earth-works in Sicily. One tells how he aided Zanclus, the founder of Zancle (the former name for Messina), by building the promontory which forms the harbor. [56] The other, which Diodorus ascribes to Hesiod, relates that there was once a broad sea between Sicily and the mainland. Orion built the whole Peloris, the Punta del Faro, and the temple to Poseidon at the tip, after which he settled in Euboea. He was then “numbered among the stars of heaven and thus won for himself immortal remembrance”. [57] The Renaissance historian and mathematician Francesco Maurolico, who came from Messina, identified the remains of a temple of Orion near the present Messina Cathedral. [58] Maurolico also designed an ornate fountain, built by the sculptor Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli in 1547, in which Orion is a central figure, symbolizing the Emperor Charles V, also a master of the sea and restorer of Messina; [59] Orion is still a popular symbol of the city.

Images of Orion in classical art are difficult to recognize, and clear examples are rare. There are several ancient Greek images of club-carrying hunters that could represent Orion, [60]

but such generic examples could equally represent an archetypal “hunter”, or indeed Heracles. [61] Some claims have been made that other Greek art represents specific aspects of the Orion myth. A tradition of this type has been discerned in 5th century BC Greek pottery—John Beazley identified a scene of Apollo, Delian palm in hand, revenging Orion for the attempted rape of Artemis, while another scholar has identified a scene of Orion attacking Artemis as she is revenged by a snake (a counterpart to the scorpion) in a funerary group—supposedly symbolizing the hope that even the criminal Orion could be made immortal, as well as an astronomical scene in which Cephalus is thought to stand in for Orion and his constellation, also reflecting this system of iconography. [62] Also, a tomb frieze in Taranto (ca. 300 BC) may show Orion attacking Opis. [63] But the earliest surviving clear depiction of Orion in classical art is Roman, from the depictions of the Underworld scenes of the Odyssey discovered at the Esquiline Hill (50–40 BC). Orion is also seen on a 4th-century bas-relief, [64] currently affixed to a wall in the Porto neighborhood of Naples. The constellation Orion rises in November, the end of the sailing season, and was associated with stormy weather, [65] and this characterization extended to the mythical Orion—the bas-relief may be associated with the sailors of the city.

Renaissance

Apollo, Vulcan and Mercury conceive Orion in an allegory of the three-fathered “philosophical child”. The artist stands at the left; Mars at right. Published in 1617.

Mythographers have discussed Orion at least since the Renaissance of classical learning; the Renaissance interpretations were allegorical. In the 14th century, Boccaccio interpreted the oxhide story as representing human conception; the hide is the womb, Neptune the moisture of semen, Jupiter its heat, and Mercury the female coldness; he also explained Orion’s death at the hands of the moon-goddess as the Moon producing winter storms. [66] The 16th-century Italian mythographer Natalis Comes interpreted the whole story of Orion as an allegory of the evolution of a storm cloud: Begotten by air (Zeus), water (Poseidon), and the sun (Apollo), a storm cloud is diffused (Chios, which Comes derives from χέω, “pour out”), rises though the upper air (Aërope, as Comes spells Merope), chills (is blinded), and is turned into rain by the moon (Artemis). He also explains how Orion walked on the sea: “Since the subtler part of the water which is rarefied rests on the surface, it is said that Orion learned from his father how to walk on water.” [67] Similarly, Orion’s conception made him a symbol of the philosophical child, an allegory of philosophy springing from multiple sources, in the Renaissance as in alchemical works, with some variations. The 16th-century German alchemist Michael Maier lists the fathers as Apollo, Vulcan and Mercury, [68] and the 18th-century French alchemist Antoine-Joseph Pernety gave them as Jupiter, Neptune and Mercury. [69]

Modern

Modern mythographers have seen the story of Orion as a way to access local folk tales and cultic practices directly without the interference of ancient high culture; [70] several of them have explained Orion, each through his own interpretation of Greek prehistory and of how Greek mythology represents it. There are some points of general agreement between them: for example, that the attack on Opis is an attack on Artemis, for Opis is one of the names of Artemis. [71]

There was a movement in the late nineteenth century to interpret all the Boeotian heroes as merely personifications of the constellations; [72] there has since come to be wide agreement that the myth of Orion existed before there was a constellation named for him. Homer, for example, mentions Orion, the Hunter, and Orion, the constellation, but never confuses the two. [73] Once Orion was recognized as a constellation, astronomy in turn affected the myth. The story of Side may well be a piece of astronomical mythology. The Greek word side means pomegranate, which bears fruit while Orion, the constellation, can be seen in the night sky. [74] Rose suggests she is connected with Sidae in Boeotia, and that the pomegranate, as a sign of the Underworld, is connected with her descent there. [75]

The 19th-century German classical scholar Erwin Rohde viewed Orion as an example of the Greeks erasing the line between the gods and mankind. That is, if Orion was in the heavens, other mortals could hope to be also. [76]

The Hungarian mythographer Karl Kerényi, one of the founders of the modern study of Greek mythology, wrote about Orion in Gods of the Greeks (1951). Kerényi portrays Orion as a giant of Titanic vigor and criminality, born outside his mother as were Tityos or Dionysus. [77] Kerényi places great stress on the variant in which Merope is the wife of Oenopion. He sees this as the remnant of a lost form of the myth in which Merope was Orion’s mother (converted by later generations to his stepmother and then to the present forms). Orion’s blinding is therefore parallel to that of Aegypius and Oedipus.

In Dionysus (1976), Kerényi portrays Orion as a shamanic hunting hero, surviving from Minoan times (hence his association with Crete). Kerényi derives Hyrieus (and Hyria) from the Cretan dialect word ρον – hyron, meaning “beehive”, which survives only in ancient dictionaries. From this association he turns Orion into a representative of the old mead-drinking cultures, overcome by the wine masters Oenopion and Oeneus. (The Greek for “wine” is oinos.) Fontenrose cites a source stating that Oenopion taught the Chians how to make wine before anybody else knew how. [78]

Joseph Fontenrose wrote Orion : the Myth of the Hunter and the Huntress (1981) to show Orion as the type specimen of a variety of grotesque hero. Fontenrose views him as similar to Cúchulainn, that is, stronger, larger, and more potent than ordinary men and the violent lover of the Divine Huntress; other heroes of the same type are Actaeon, Leucippus (son of Oenomaus), Cephalus, Teiresias, and Zeus as the lover of Callisto. Fontenrose also sees Eastern parallels in the figures of Aqhat, Attis, Dumuzi, Gilgamesh, Dushyanta, and Prajapati (as pursuer of Ushas).

In The Greek Myths (1955), Robert Graves views Oenopion as his perennial Year-King, at the stage where the king pretends to die at the end of his term and appoints a substitute, in this case Orion, who actually dies in his place. His blindness is iconotropy from a picture of Odysseus blinding the Cyclops, mixed with a purely Hellenic solar legend: the Sun-hero is captured and blinded by his enemies at dusk, but escapes and regains his sight at dawn, when all beasts flee him. Graves sees the rest of the myth as a syncretism of diverse stories. These include Gilgamesh and the Scorpion-Men, Set becoming a scorpion to kill Horus and the story of Aqhat and Yatpan from Ras Shamra, as well as a conjectural story of how the priestesses of Artemis Opis killed a visitor to their island of Ortygia. He compares Orion’s birth from the bull’s hide to a West African rainmaking charm and claims that the son of Poseidon should be a rainmaker. [79]

The ancient Greek and Roman sources which tell more about Orion than his being a gigantic huntsman are mostly both dry and obscure, but poets do write of him: The brief passages in Aratus and Vergil are mentioned above. Pindar celebrates the pancratist Melissus of Thebes “who was not granted the build of an Orion”, but whose strength was still great. [80]

Cicero translated Aratus in his youth; he made the Orion episode half again longer than it was in the Greek, adding the traditional Latin topos of madness to Aratus’s text. Cicero’s Aratea is one of the oldest Latin poems to come down to us as more than isolated lines; this episode may have established the technique of including epyllia in non-epic poems. [81]

Orion is used by Horace, who tells of his death at the hands of Diana/Artemis, [82]

and by Ovid, in his Fasti for May 11, the middle day of the Lemuria, when (in Ovid’s time) the constellation Orion set with the sun. [83] Ovid’s episode tells the story of Hyrieus and the three gods, although Ovid is bashful about the climax; Ovid makes Hyrieus a poor man, which means the sacrifice of an entire ox is more generous. There is also a single mention of Orion in his Art of Love, as a sufferer from unrequited love: “Pale Orion wandered in the forest for Side.” [84]

Statius mentions Orion four times in his Thebaïd; twice as the constellation, a personification of storm, but twice as the ancestor of Dryas of Tanagra, one of the defenders of Thebes. [85] The very late Greek epic poet Nonnus mentions the oxhide story in brief, while listing the Hyrians in his Catalogue of the Boeotian army of Dionysius. [86]

Nicolas Poussin (1658) “Landscape with blind Orion seeking the sun”

References since antiquity are fairly rare. At the beginning of the 17th century, French sculptor Barthélemy Prieur cast a bronze statue Orion et Cédalion, some time between 1600 and 1611. This featured Orion with Cedalion on his shoulder, in a depiction of the ancient legend of Orion recovering his sight; the sculpture is now displayed at the Louvre. [87]

Nicolas Poussin painted Paysage avec Orion aveugle cherchant le soleil (1658) (“Landscape with blind Orion seeking the sun”), after learning of the description by the 2nd-century Greek author Lucian, of a picture of Orion recovering his sight; Poussin included a storm-cloud, which both suggests the transient nature of Orion’s blindness, soon to be removed like a cloud exposing the sun, and includes Natalis Comes’ esoteric interpretation of Orion as a storm-cloud. [88] Poussin need not have consulted Lucian directly; the passage is in the notes of the illustrated French translation of Philostratus’ Imagines which Poussin is known to have consulted. [89] The Austrian Daniel Seiter (active in Turin, Italy), painted Diane auprès du cadavre d’Orion (c.1685) (“Diana next to Orion’s corpse”), pictured above.

In Endymion (1818), John Keats includes the line “Or blind Orion hungry for the morn”, thought to be inspired by Poussin. William Hazlitt may have introduced Keats to the painting—he later wrote the essay “On Landscape of Nicholas Poussin”, published in Table Talk, Essays on Men and Manners (1821-2). [90] Richard Henry Horne, writing in the generation after Keats and Hazlitt, penned the three volume epic poem Orion in 1843. [91] It went into at least ten editions and was reprinted by the Scholartis Press in 1928. [92]

Science fiction author Ben Bova re-invented Orion as a time-traveling servant of various gods in a series of five novels. In The Blood of Olympus, the final volume of a series, Rick Riordan depicts Orion as one of the giant sons of the Earth Goddess Gaea.

Italian composer Francesco Cavalli wrote the opera, L’Orione in 1653. The story is set on the Greek island of Delos and focuses on Diana’s love for Orion as well as on her rival, Aurora. Diana shoots Orion only after being tricked by Apollo into thinking him a sea monster —she then laments his death and searches for Orion in the underworld until he is elevated to the heavens. [93]

Johann Christian Bach (‘the English Bach’) wrote an opera, Orion, or Diana Reveng’d, first presented at London’s Haymarket Theatre in 1763. Orion, sung by a castrato, is in love with Candiope, the daughter of Oenopion, King of Arcadia but his arrogance has offended Diana. Diana’s oracle forbids him to marry Candiope and foretells his glory and death. He bids a touching farewell to Candiope and marches off to his destiny. Diana allows him his victory and then kills him, offstage, with her arrow. In another aria, his mother Retrea (Queen of Thebes), laments his death but ultimately sees his elevation to the heavens. [94] The 2002 opera Galileo Galilei by American composer Philip Glass includes an opera within an opera piece between Orion and Merope. The sunlight, which heals Orion’s blindness, is an allegory of modern science. [95]

Philip Glass has also written a shorter work on Orion, as have Tōru Takemitsu, [96] Kaija Saariaho, [97] and John Casken. [98] David Bedford’s late-twentieth-century works are about the constellation rather than the mythical figure; he is an amateur astronomer. [99]

The twentieth-century French poet René Char found the blind, lustful huntsman, both pursuer and pursued, a central symbol, as James Lawler has explained at some length in his 1978 work René Char: the Myth and the Poem. [100]

French novelist Claude Simon likewise found Orion an apt symbol, in this case of the writer, as he explained in his Orion aveugle of 1970. Marion Perret argues that Orion is a silent link in T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land (1922), connecting the lustful Actaeon/Sweeney to the blind Teiresias and, through Sirius, to the Dog “that’s friend to men”. [101]

This illustration of the late-5th century BC Greek vase artwork Blacas krater shows a mythological interpretation of the rising Sun and other astronomical figures—the large pair on the left are Cephalus and Eos; Cephalus appears to be in the form of Orion’s constellation, and the dog at his foot may represent Sirius.

Aliearia