Monthly Archives: July 2016

THE CONTAGEOUS VID TO MAKE U ANGRY?

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MOST ANCIENT YORK RITE FREEMASON LODGE IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA (Tour & Info)

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Home Up Grave Locations Masonic Walk in Charleston, South Carolina

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By: Ill. Bro. McDonald “Don” Burbidge, 33º

Click on this link for the Masonic Walking Tour Map

or view map at the end of this web page.

In an effort to provide the visitor (Mason or non mason) about the rich history that has taken place in our city this “Masonic Walk” was created. The intention of the “Masonic Walk” is to show the person or persons taking it to get a sense of pride due to the events that took place so many years ago by our forefathers who helped shape our rich history and America as we know it today.

This tour is not found on any “Tourist Guide’s Map,” that is presented by any one in Charleston. The tour comes complete with a detail of events that happened at each stop along the way along with a map. It was put together through many years of research and information gathered.

When you take this tour keep an open mind and if for some reason you want to you can always travel it again at a time of your own choosing.

The tour starts at the at the sight were Colonel John Mitchell is know were to live at on, “17 Guignard Street.” The tour will end at St. Michael’s church with you standing in front of Ill. Brother Frederick Dalcho’s grave. Masonic Walk in Charleston, South Carolina

By: Ill. Bro. McDonald “Don” Burbidge, 33º

In January 2007 when Illustrious Brent Morris, 33° G. C. decided to run a feature in the Scottish Rite Journal on Masonic Historic places he chose as his first article the Charleston, S. C. “Masonic Walk,” to introduce to his readers that they may learn from. Since then new information has been added to the, “Masonic Walk.”

In an effort to provide the Mason or non-mason about the rich history that has taken place in Charleston, S. C. the “Masonic Walk” was created. The intention of this project is to show the person or persons taking it to get a sense of the events that took place so many years ago by our forefathers who helped shape our rich history and America as we know it today.

I am very proud to say that this tour is not found on any “Tourist Guide’s Map,” that is presented by any one in the Charleston area. The tour comes complete with details of events that happened at each stop along the way with a map to guide you through the city streets. It was put together through many years of research and information gathered.

The tour starts at the at the sight were Colonel John Mitchell is know were to live at on, “17 Guignard Street.” The tour will end at St. Michael’s church with you standing in front of Ill. Brother Frederick Dalcho’s grave.

Introduction

The first documented mason to arrive in Charles Town as it was then called was Brother Thomas Whitmarsh who was a printer, and by Brother Benjamin Franklin’s office that was located in Philadelphia.

He left Philadelphia on September 9, 1731, for Charles Town, S.C., with equipment for a printing office to be established there. It is to Brother Whitmarsh that we may trace the introduction of Freemasonry in South Carolina. Although there is no known records that survive today it is strongly believe that an uncharted Masonic lodge existed in Charles Town before 1735 when Solomon’s Lodge No. 1, was given a charter from England.

Point “A” “Colonel John Mitchell’s House”

At this location were we will start the “Masonic Walk.” It is at this point that Colonel John Mitchell lived at with his wife and his mother-in-law Mrs. Cruger lived across the street.

During the merger talks of the Ancient and Modern Grand Lodges Colonel Mitchell played an important role in the various committees that meet to make it happen.

When President George Washington arrived in Charles Town for a visit it was Colonel John Mitchell who entertained him at the “Orphan House,” that was located on Calhoun Street. Both of these Brothers were also very close friends during the Revolutionary war.

On May 31, 1801, Colonel John Mitchell and his good friend Dr. Frederick Dalcho established the Supreme Council at Shepheard’s Tavern that was located at the corner of Broad and Church Street. This was to be the first meeting in America of the Supreme Council.

Written in the “Register,” of 1802 of the Supreme Council is written;

Councils are held at the house of the Grand Commander at Meridian [noon], every third new Moon, reckoning from the new Moon in May.

It is at this location were Colonel John Mitchell lived at in Charleston, S.C. The house he lived in is no longer standing here but we now know another location that the Supreme Council met at other than Shepheard’s Tavern were it was established at on May 31, 1801.

Colonel John Mitchell was listed as living at 17 Guignard Street at the time of his death.

(As you turn onto East Bay Street turn to your right and walk to Lodge Alley were the second stop of the tour takes place. It is note worthy to add that when President George Washington visited the city he travelled this same road.)

Point “B” “Lodge Alley”

Paved in Belgian blocks, the alley was created by adjacent landowners to allow access from their homes on State Street to their ships and docks one block away on East Bay Street. It takes its name from the Lodge of Freemasons, First established in the alley in 1773. Lodge Alley is located in an area of the old walled city of Charleston where the French Huguenots once had warehouses and dwellings. Originally being very close to Charleston’s wharf’s, Lodge Alley developed an 18th century seaport character expressed in taverns, storage warehouses, carriage houses, tables, lodges and corner dwellings.

It was at Marine Lodge No. 38 that Charlestonians openly defied the British government before the Revolutionary War. On November 7, 1774 as a means of protesting the harsh treatment shown to Boston, Charleston’s Liberty Boys met in the Masonic Lodge-Room and constructed a “rolling stage” or parade float. Upon it effigies where the images of the Pope, the Devil, Lord North, and Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts were displayed. The appearance of the float marked the end of a three-day period in which Charleston’s Tea Party was equally important as a symbol of defiance to British oppression as it was in Boston.

When the “Grand Lodge of South Carolina, Ancient York Masons,” was formed by the five “Ancient: Lodges in Charleston, January 1, 1787, in which movement Marine Lodge, No. 38, was a prominent factor, it is a noteworthy fact, that at least three of the principal officers were Pennsylvania Masons, viz. Hon. William Drayton, Grand Master; Hon. Mordecai Gist, Deputy Grand Master; Edward Weyman, Esq., Senior Grand Warden.

Another important event that took place here was the formation of the South Carolina Commandery No. 1 that was established from a charter provided by St. Andrew’s Lodge No. 1 of Pensacola, Florida on August 1, 1783. The charter was issued to Brother Sir Henry Beaumont. According to Sir Knight Theodore Gourdin (in 1855) who describes the charter as follows;

It has upon it a star of seven points, with the ineffable name in the centre, and the motto, “Memento Mori” the arch on two pillars, and the “All seeing eye” on the Keystone, the sun beneath the arch, and “Holiness to the Lord” for the motto; the cross and brazen serpent erected on the bridge, “Jesus Salvator Hominis” for the motto; on the fourth circle is the skull and cross bones, surmounted with the cross, “in hoe signo vinces.” The reference of the last three devices is evidently to the Royal Arch, the red cross and the Templar degrees, while the first is the symbol of the Lodge of Perfection, and hence they show the connection of the Order of Templary in this State at that time with the ancient and accepted rite.

The charter that was created for South Carolina Commandery No. 1 is shown below.

We, the High Priest, Captain Commandant of the Red Cross, and Captain General of the most Holy Invincible Order of Knights Templars of St. Andrews Lodge No. 1, Ancient Masons, held in Charleston, South Carolina, under charter from the Grand Lodge of the Southern District of North America, do hereby certify that our trusty and well-beloved brother, Sir Henry Beaumont, had passed the Chair, been raised to the sublime degrees of an Excellent, Super Excellent, Royal Arch Mason, Knight of the Red Cross, and a Knight of the most Holy, Invincible, and Magnanimous Order of Knights Templars, Knights Hospitallers, Knights of Rhodes, and of Malta, which several Orders are above delineated; and he having conducted himself like a true and faithful brother, we affectionaly recommend him to all the Fraternity of Ancient Masons around the globe wherever assembled.

Given under our hands, and seal of our Lodge, this first day of August, five thousand seven hundred and eighty three, and of Malta 3517.

Geo. Carter, Capt. Gen’l.

Thos. Pashley, 1 st King.

Wm. Nisbett, 2 nd King.

Rd. Mason Recorder.

(As you exit the Alley turn left and go to the next block then turn right at Philadelphia Street.)

Point “C” “Philadelphia Street”

Originally named Kinloch Court but in 1810 by William Johnson. His occupation was that of a Blacksmith and he owned much of the property in the vicinity. He was also a member of Orange Lodge No. 14. He was elected to numerous committees that also included Brother George Flagg (Solomon’s Lodge No. 1) and Brother Edward Weyman (Union Kilwinning Lodge No. 4) who were also respected masons of the day.

During the Revolutionary war Brother William Johnson had been sent to Philadelphia as a prisoner. After his return to Charles Town he renamed it to, “Philadelphia Street,” in admiration of Philadelphia.

As you walk down this historic street you will find that a modern day brick path has been laid down the middle of the street. On either side of the brick path is ballast stone that once cover the entire width and length of the Street. This street looks much the as it was when it was first made.

About 1/3 of the way down the Street look up to your left and you will see a view of the steeple of St. Phillip’s church over the brick wall that runs most of the length of the Street. Also try to imagine the pistol duels of men protecting their honor and horse carriages traveling down it.

This is the same church that our late Brother Frederick Dalcho was a rector of at one time.

(As you exist the street turn to your left go to Church Street and turn left again.)

Point “D”

“St. Phillip’s Church”

St. Philip’s church was first erected at the corner of Broad and Meeting Streets between the years 1681 and 1682. The structure was made of black cypress and the foundation was made of brick. After a prosper start it was usually referred to as the “English Church,” but it’s actual name was, “St. Philip’s.”

As Charles Town evolved into a prosperous Colonial City the need for a new church was realized. As early as 1711 the Assembly authorized “a new church built of brick with a tower or steeple, and a ring of bells therein.” A decade later the “brick church” was still incomplete. The Assembly passed another bill in December 1720, which empowered the Commissioners to determine what the church would look like. To raise the money for this, the bill also called for “An additional duty of three pence per gallon to be laid on rum, and five pence per gallon on brandy and other spirits.”

When the new edifice of the “Established Church” rose at the head of one of the town’s principal through fares, the street became known as Church Street as does the present building on the same site.

On December 27, 1762 and again in December 1784 Right Rev. Robert Smith presented to the Masons of Charles-Town a Masonic sermon, which he called “Charity Sermon for the Masons No. 100.” This sermon is perhaps one of the earliest if not one of the first documented Masonic sermons of its kind presented in Charles-Town to the Masons. Right Rev. Smith also established the College of Charleston and the Society for the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy, which still exists today. Rev. Frederick Dalcho, M.D. and Colonel John Mitchell, was also a member of the Society for the Widows and Orphans of the Clergy.

On Christmas Day, 1805, Rev. Dr. Edward Jenkins married Dr. Dalcho and Mary Elizabeth Threadcraft in St. Philip’s Church. This was Dr. Dalcho’s second marriage and his wife was to survive him until December 12, 1852. There were no children, from this marriage.

During the summer months of 1814 our late Ill. Brother Frederick Dalcho, M.D. officiated at the church as Rector for the summer months until a new Rector could be found to fill the vacant spot left by the untimely death of Rev. J. D. Simons.

Buried in the graveyard of St. Philip’s church you will find the grave of Ill. Brother James Moultrie, Sr. who was a founder of the Supreme Council and the gravesite of Right Rev. Robert Smith. In 2000 a grave marker was placed on Dr. Moultrie’s grave which also names him as a member of the founding fathers of the Supreme Council.

(As you leave St. Phillip’s church head towards go to the front of the Dock Street Theatre.)

Point “E”

“Dock Street Theatre”

On May 11, 1774, for the benefit of a charity fund raiser for the masons a play was performed at the “Dock Street’ theatre which was named, “Cato,” that was performed by the American Company. At the end of Act I “A New Mason’s Song,” with a chorus was sung. The doors of the theatre were opened at 5:00P.M. and the play was started at 6:00 P.M.

At the time of this play Union Kilwinning Lodge No. 4 owned the building. The pupils of Mr. James Thompson again repeated the play on July 1, 1774. It was later said that Union Kilwinning Lodge No. 4 were very happy to lend the building to the pupils to perform in.

Point “F”

“Brother George Flagg”

Located directly across from the Dock Street Theatre.

In 1774 in Charleston some of the locale artist made money by painting houses. Listed among these was Brother George Flagg who was a member of St. John’s Lodge No. 31 (Ancient), which is the same lodge that Dr. Frederick Dalcho was a member of.

Brother Flagg at some time later joined Solomon’s Lodge No. 1 which was a modern Masonic Lodge. From its organization, in 1736, Solomon’s Lodge No. 1, continued uninterruptedly to work until 1811, when it suspended labour, at which time Brother George Flagg, the only remaining member, placed in the hands of the Grand Treasurer ninety-six dollars of funds, to be kept in trust by the Grand Lodge until the resuscitation of the Lodge. In 1817 it was revived, but again became dormant in 1838.

The portraits that Brother Flagg painted were those having to do with historic moments. His painting can be seen in various museums around the world with one being located in Paris at the Louvre. It is due to one of his portraits that we know the image of Brother Edward Weyman who was responsible for establishing the first Ancient Lodge (Marine Lodge No. 38, Ancient) in Charleston.

When the meeting were taking place among the Ancients and the Moderns of 1809 to merge both Grand Lodges into one Brother Flagg is seen as an active member who worked hard on the committees.

He is buried in the graveyard of the French Protestant Church, which is located directly across the street from the Dock Street Theatre. His grave is located on the first row in the centre.

(Next go the corner of Broad and Church Street and stand in front of the C&S Bank.)

Point “G”

“Corner of Broad and Church Street”

Site of Brother Charles Shepheard’s Tavern, also known at various times as Swallow’s Tavern, The City Tavern and The Corner Tavern. At this location occurred many historically important events. One was the organization of one of the first Masonic lodges and of The Supreme Council for the Scottish Rite Masons for the entire United States.

Solomon’s Lodge No. 1, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on Oct. 29, 1736, at ‘Mr. Charles Shepheard ‘s in Broad Street. ‘ The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, was organized at this same location in 1801. The first record of a theatrical season in Charleston, and one of the first in the country, was announcement in the South Carolina Gazette, Jan. 11, 1735, that on the following 24th, a tragedy called The Orphan, or the Unhappy Marriage, by Thomas Otway, would be “‘attempted” in ”the Courtroom.” The ”courtroom” was the long room of Shepheard’s Tavern, which was rented for several years prior to 1738 to the provincial government for meetings of the court, since the Province had no suitable building and the Governor and Council could not agree on where one should be built. The use of the same room for court sessions and entertainment’s was not unusual. A dancing master, Henry Holt, gave a ball in the Courtroom a month before The Orphan was presented there. (The Orphan was not the first theatrical production in Charleston. Tony Aston, an English actor, in 1703, wrote and acted what was probably the first professional dramatic performance written and acted in the American colonies.) Shepheard’s was also one of the city’s post offices. In 1743, Charles Shepheard received and distributed mail arriving on ships and by land. In 1773, when the establishment was Swallow’s Tavern, the first Chamber of Commerce in America was formed. Banquets were given for arriving Royal Governors at Shepheard’s Tavern. The St. Andrew’s Society, and other fraternal organizations in the city, held their meetings and dinners at Shepheard’s. After the name changed to “The Corner Tavern” it hosted meetings of the Sons of liberty during the Revolutionary period. The name changed again to the “City Tavern” was burned in 1796 but was soon replaced. The tavern building was demolished in 1928 for the construction, in 1928-29, of the present building. The Classic style building faced with Indiana limestone, which cost $280,000 and was known as the Citizens and Southern Bank in 1906.

As you stand on this corner try to imagine what it must have looked like back in 1801 when the streets were made of dirt, no traffic lights, power lines did not exist, and no cars traveled up and down the streets. Imagine if you can what it might have looked like on May 31, 1801 when each of the founders of the Supreme Council arrived to establish the first meeting of the Supreme Council at this site.

(When leaving Broad and Church Street go towards Meeting Street to St. Michael’s Church that is located on the left side of the street.)

Point “H”

“St. Michael’s Church”

St. Michael’s church was completed in 1761 and is the oldest church edifice in the city of Charleston. Built on this same spot was the first church of St. Philip’s or as the population called it, “Church of England.”

Located in the graveyard under the “Big Oak Tree” near the wall facing Meeting Street you will find the grave of General Mordecai Gist who served under General George Washington during the Revolutionary War. After the war he settled down on a plantation to live near Charleston and was a Past Grand Master of Masons for the Ancient Grand Lodge along with being one of the original members that established the Society of the Cincinnati, which was established at Shepheard’s Tavern.

When the first president of America George Washington (a known mason) made his southern tour through Charleston in 1791 he attended church services here at St. Michael’s. Many dinners were held in his honour to which two of them given to him were by the Society of the Cincinnati and the Ancient Grand Lodge of Masons.

“Reverend Fredrick Dalcho”

Rev. Frederick Dalcho who is another prominent masons is buried in this graveyard.

During the year 1811-1812, Dr. Dalcho and his wife owned pew number 89 at St. Michael’s church. The location of this pew is in the same location today as it was in 1811.

On December 26, 1817, The Grand Lodge of South Carolina Ancient York Masons and the Grand Lodge of South Carolina met for the last time in two separate locations as two separate Grand Lodges in Charleston, South Carolina. On this same night they met together for the first time to elect the officers for the newly formed Grand Lodge.

On December 27, 1817 the newly elected Grand Officers were elected under the title of, “Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of South Carolina,” at Galloway’s Tavern. The first order of business was performed by Brother Jarvis H. Stevens, Past Grand Master of the old Grand Lodge of South Carolina who installed the first Brother Thomas W. Bacot as the first Grand Master of the newly formed Grand Lodge. After Worshipful Master Bacot installation he then proceeded to install his officers for the ensuing year.

With the installation of the newly established Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemasons of South Carolina a prayer was given by the newly elected Grand Chaplin (Brother Frederick Dalcho) and the meeting was closed in due form.

After the appointments were made the brethren then preceded to St. Michael’s Church, where a Divine Service was performed and a discourse delivered by Grand Chaplain Dr. Frederick Dalcho to the brethren of Charleston. His talk was well written for the evening of the events that had just taken place the day before. He based his talk on the scripture of John xii:36, “while ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light.” After the presentation of his talk he provided a copy of his talk to the Grand Lodge for publication. In part he spoke the following words;

“Free-Masonry, like the Religion of the Redeemer, is eminently calculated to dispense “peace on earth, and good will towards men.” And if the moral and religious state of the community in which it flourishes, be not increased and refined by its influence, it must be charged to the perversity of the Brotherhood, and not to the principles of the Institution. The general application of its principles and practice to the spiritual and temporal welfare of men cannot be doubted. It binds its members by the strongest sanctions, “to do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly before God;” and to “love the Brotherhood.”

On December 27, 1817 the brethren of the newly formed Grand Lodge of Ancient Free Masons of South Carolina met once again at the lodge room located at Galloway’s Tavern.

With the installation of the new Grand Master and the newly formed Grand Lodge it also brought harmony back to the brethren of Charleston that had for so many years was missing.

Following a number of part-time associations with St. Michael’s Church in Charleston, South Carolina, Rev. Dalcho was retained as an assistant minister on February 23, 1819. In 1824 he established with others, “The Charleston Gospel Messenger and Protestant Episcopal Resgister”, a monthly journal of the Church’s activities. This paper was published monthly until 1853. His monumental work at this period was a history of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina, the first published history of any diocese in America. Consisting of more than 600 pages. All of Dr. Fredrick Dalcho’s books were sold at the, ”The Theological Book Store” in Charleston, South Carolina located at 51 Board Street.

In a 1999 a letter was discovered which Dr. Dalcho who was the presiding Sunday School Superintendent of the children wrote. He asks the Church Warden’s for permission to locate a bookshelf in the balcony of the church next ti the bell tower door for the Sunday school children to place their Sunday school books on. Until this time it was not known what Dr. Dalcho duties were in the church.

Ill. Bro. Frederick Dalcho, M. D. and his wife are buried in the graveyard of this historic churchyard.

As you stand looking at Ill. Brother Frederick Dalcho’s grave read each word carefully on his marker that was erected in his honour from the Masons of Charleston.

Rev. Frederick Dalcho

1770-1836

Assistant Minister Of

St. Michael’s Church

Historian of the Diocese

Sovereign Grand Commander

1816-1822

Of The Supreme Council, 33°

A\A\S\R\

Of Freemasonry

Southern Jurisdiction

U.S.A.

Of all of the known gravesites of the founders of the Supreme Council only on Ill. Brother Frederick Dalcho grave is it mention that he was a member of the Supreme Council until 1999 when the grave of Dr. James Moultrie was discovered.

In 2000 a grave marker was placed on Dr. James Moultrie grave, which announces him as a mason and co-founder of the Supreme Council. Both Dr. Dalcho and Moultrie were members of Union Kilwinning Lodge No. 4 after the final merger of 1817 of the two Grand Lodges. Dr. Dalcho grave marker was placed on his grave by the masons of Charleston, South Carolina who held him in such high respect.

Point “I”

Dr. Fredrick Dalcho passed away on November 24, 1836 at his resident at 54 Meeting Street, Charleston, S.C. at the age of 67 on this corner lot. One who appears to have known him well, and to whom the melancholy task of writing his obituary was entrusted, says of him, “he died in the comfortable possession of a religious holy hope, and in perfect charity with all the world.”

Published in the “News and Courier,” newspaper on November 25, 1836 is the following:

“The Clergy of the Episcopal Church and of other denominations; the Members of St. Michael’s congregation, and of the other congregations of the Episcopal Church in this city, and the Friends and Acquaintances, are invited to attend the Funeral of the late Rev. Dr. DALCHO, from his house in Meeting street, This Afternoon, at 4 o’clock precisely.

Nov.25”

The Church, showing their due respect for their late Assistant Minister was draped in black merino. “Grand Lodge was ordered to be clothed in mourning for the space of six weeks” at its Quarterly Communication on the 16 th of December.

Point “J” “Masonic Hall”

Located at the West end of Market Street was the newly built Masonic Hall to be used by the Masons of South Carolina. Built as a need to have a central location Masonic Hall for all the Brethren to attend. At Special Communication of the Ancient Freemasons Grand Lodge on July 13, 1835 the lot chosen for the Masonic Hall could be bought for a cost of $12,350.00. Soon after this meeting the Grand Lodge bought the lot.

The building was designed by Mr. Hyde who was one of the first architects of the city was chosen for the task of designing and building it.

Special Communication of the Grand Lodge on August 1, 1835. Plans and specifications had been obtained from Mr. Hyde, the architect on the proposed Masonic Hall to be located at the end of Market Street and Meeting Street. The plans were submitted to City County who in turn offer some suggestion of alteration in the foundation and the columns of the basement story. The suggested alteration were;

1) That the building be commenced within one year from the approved date.

2) That the lower part of the building under the arches be forever kept open as a market place.

3) That the Hall be so constructed as to be capable of accommodating large assemblies of the citizens, and be open free of charge for all general meetings.

4) That the fee simple of the land shall continue vested in the Council, but the Grand Lodge and their assigns be warranted in the use and enjoyment of the rents and profits to accrue and be derived from the buildings forever.

5) If for any reason the building is destroyed it must be rebuilt within five years from the time of the accident or the Grand Lodge shall forfeit all rights to rebuild.

The corner stone laying for the new Masonic Hall took place on August 23, 1837. At the appointed time the Grand Master instructed the Grand Treasurer Brother John R. Rogers to place the customary memorials into the stone.

The stone being made and placed into position read:

ERECTED BY

THE GRAND LODGE OF

ANCIENT FREE MASONS

OF SOUTH CAROLINA,

AUGUST 1 ST , 5837

At this location the following Masonic bodies met, Grand Lodge, Masonic Lodges, Scottish Rite, & the York Rite. When these bodies met here they also stored their “meeting minutes,” of their lodges at this location.

On April 27, 1838 a fire broke out in the City. It started on King Street near the corner of Beresford Street and extended its rage in a North direction to Society Street extending to almost East Bay Street. Nearly one-third of the buildings in the city fell victim to this fire. Included in this great lost of building was the Masonic Hall, which was in the process of being built at this very site. At Seyle’s Hall the Grand Lodge and the Subordinate Lodges met also was consumed by the fire. As a result of this the entire records of Grand Lodge along with the Subordinate Lodges were destroyed.

On Thursday August 24, 1837 published in, “The Southern Patriot,” was a short event of the previous days event.

“New Masonic Hall. The Corner Stone of the new Masonic Hall, for the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free Masons of South-Carolina, about to be erected in Meeting street, fronting the Market, was yesterday laid with the usual masonic ceremonies. The different Lodges assembled at Seyle’s, at 5 o’clock in the afternoon, and on being joined by Council, they formed a procession, with music, to the spot, where, on arriving, the Right Worshipful Grand Master J. J. Alexander, Esq. Assisted by the other officers, first deposited several coins and newspapers, of the date of the ceremonial about to take place, and having then laid the corner stone of the new building, addressed the different Lodges in a manner equally eloquent and appropriate.

On April 27, 1838, a fire broke out in the City of Charleston. It started on King Street near the corner of Beresford Street and extended its rage in a North direction to Society Street extending to almost East Bay Street. Nearly one-third of the buildings in the city fell victim to this fire. Included in this great lost of building was the Masonic Hall, which was in the process of being built at this very site. At Seyle’s Hall the Grand Lodge and the Subordinate Lodges met also was consumed by the fire. As a result of this the entire records of Grand Lodge along with the Subordinate Lodges were destroyed.

This ends the “Masonic Walk” tour. If anyone has a question I will try and answer it to the best of my knowledge.

Thank you for allowing me to take you on this the, “Masonic Walk.” You can reach me by e-mail at:

Illustrious Bro. McDonald “Don” Burbidge, 33 0

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Aliearia

EPHESIANS 6, THE FULL ARMOUR OF GOD & THE 7 CHURCHES OF EPHASUS

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JEREMIAH 1: 5-8

Then the word of the LORD

came unto me, saying,

Before I formed thee in the

belly I knew thee; and before

thou camest forth out of the

womb I sanctified thee, and I

ordained thee a prophet unto

the nations. Then said I, Ah,

Lord GOD! behold, I cannot

speak: for I am a child. But

the LORD said unto me, Say

not, I am a child: for thou

shalt go to all that I shall

send thee, and whatsoever I

command thee thou shalt

speak. Be not afraid of their

faces: for I am with thee to

deliver thee, saith the LORD

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REVELATION 1:9 I John, who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,

1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

1:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

1:14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;

1:15 And his feet like unto fine brass, as if they burned in a furnace; and his voice as the sound of many waters.

1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.

1:17 And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:

1:18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

1:19 Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;

1:20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches. Revelation

——————
REVELATION 19:15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

——————

REVELATION 19:1 And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

19:2 For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.

19:3 And again they said, Alleluia And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.

19:4 And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.

19:5 And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.

19:6 And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.

19:8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.

19:9 And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

19:10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

19:11 And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.

19:12 His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.

19:13 And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.

19:14 And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.

19:15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.

19:16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

19:17 And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;

19:18 That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great.

19:19 And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.

19:20 And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.

19:21 And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh. Revelation

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Map of western Anatolia showing the island Patmos and the locations of the cities housing the seven churches

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. The Apostle Paul spent two and a half years here on his 3rd missionary journey, and in Acts 19, a riot broke out over the drop in sales of the silver models of Diana’s temple. According to an early tradition John replaced Timothy towards the end of the first century as leader of the Ephesian church, and probably wrote his first epistle for them. The excavations done by Austrians are considered to be the largest excavated ruins in the world.

The Seven Churches of Revelation, also known as The Seven Churches of the Apocalypse and The Seven Churches of Asia (referring to the Roman province of Asia, not the entire continent), are seven major churches of Early Christianity, as mentioned in the New Testament Book of Revelation. In early part of the Revelation, on the Greek island of Patmos, Jesus Christ instructs his servant John of Patmos, through an angelic intermediary, to: “Write on a scroll what you see and send it to the seven churches: to Ephesus, and to Smyrna, and to Pergamum, and to Thyatira, and to Sardis, and to Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.” [1]

“Churches” in this context refers to the community or local congregations of Christians living in each city, and not merely to the building or buildings in which they gathered for worship. [2][3]

The seven churches are located in:

Ephesus (Metropolis of Ephesus)

Smyrna (Metropolis of Smyrna)

Pergamum (Metropolis of Pergamum)

Thyatira

Sardis (See of Sardis)

Philadelphia (Metropolis of Philadelphia)

and Laodicea, near Denizli (see Laodicean Church)

The seven churches of Asia in stained glass in York Minster by John Thornton

1. Ephesus (Revelation 2:1-7) – the church known for having laboured hard and not fainted, and separating themselves from the wicked; admonished for having forsaken its first love (2:4)

2. Smyrna (Revelation 2:8-11) – the church admired for its tribulation and poverty; forecast to suffer persecution (2:10)

3. Pergamum (Revelation 2:12-17) – the church located at ‘Satan’s seat’; needed to repent of allowing false teachers (2:16)

4. Thyatira (Revelation 2:18-29) – the church known for its charity, whose “latter works are greater than the former”; held the teachings of a false prophetess (2:20)

5. Sardis (Revelation 3:1-6) – the church that has a good name; cautioned to fortify itself and return to God through repentance (3:2-3)

6. Philadelphia (Revelation 3:7-13) – the church steadfast in faith, that had kept God’s word and endured patiently (3:10)

7. Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22) – the church that was lukewarm and insipid (to God) (3:16)

The letters follow a common pattern. For example: the Lord first addresses each church and identifies himself, [4]

then defines things that he knows about the church in question. [5] After this a challenge or reproach is given, [6]

followed by a promise. [7] In all seven cases the admonition is included, “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches”, [8] although sometimes this comes before the promise and sometimes after.

Although the letters differ in length in accord with the needs of each community, all conclude with an appeal to hold fast and to listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. Each church is promised that everyone who conquers will be rewarded by Christ.

Some historicists typically interpret the seven churches as representing seven different periods in the history of the Western Church from the time of Paul until the return of Jesus Christ. [9]

Scofield states that “these messages by their very terms go beyond the local assemblies mentioned.” [10] He is of the opinion that the letters have a prophetic purpose disclosing the seven phases of the spiritual history of the Church. Other writers, such as Clarence Larkin, [11]

Henry Hampton Halley, [12] Merrill Unger, [13] and William M. Branham [14]

also have posited the view that the seven churches preview the history of the global Church.

Mosaic in St Mark’s Basilica of the seven angels

Historicism has been criticized by the Eastern Orthodox Fr. Dimitri Cozby, who writes that historicists take a greatly oversimplified view of church history: “Since dispensationalism is Protestant in origin its ‘Church history’ is strictly Western. The dispensations take into account almost nothing of Orthodox history after the period of the early councils which we share with the West.” [15]

Chapters 2-3 of the Revelation has specific messages for each of the seven churches. The message of each of the seven letters is directed to the angel of the particular church that is mentioned.

Origen [16] explains that these “angels” are the guardian angels of the churches, a view upheld by Henry Alford. But Epiphanius [17] explicitly rejects this view, and, in accordance with the imagery of the passage, explains it of the bishops.

John sees a vision of the Son of Man, who walks among seven lampstands and has seven stars in his right hand. Revelation 1:20 states that “The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.” The comparison of a teacher to a star is scriptural. [18]

Augustine of Hippo’s reason for interpreting angels of the churches as the prelates of the church is that St. John speaks of them as falling from their first charity which is not true of the angels. [19][20] Others would say that the falling away relates to the churches, not to the messengers, as each of the seven letters conclude with the words “He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.”

In the New Testament, the Greek word for angels (άγγελος[1] ) is not only used for heavenly angels, but also used for human messengers, such as John the Baptist (Matthew 11:10 ,Mark 1:2 ,Luke 7:27 ) and God’s prophets (Revelation 22:8-9 ) [21] C.I. Scofield has noted that “The natural explanation of the ‘messengers’ is that they were men sent by the seven churches to ascertain the state of the aged apostle … but they figure any who bear God’s messages to a church.”

Aliearia

ESOTERIC # NUMBERS, MASTER NUMBERS, ORACLES, HEIROPHANTS & THE BIBLE

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EPHESIANS 6:
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THE LAST DAYS (youtube channel: MORMON ) 2 TIMOTHY 3

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(GOES W ALIEARIAS WP BLOG/& PC NOTES: ESOTERIC # MASTER NUMBERS ORACLES HEIROPHANTS THE BIBLE)

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See my vid

WHAT IS AN ORACLE?

or·a·cle

noun

1. a priest or priestess acting as a medium through whom advice or prophecy was sought from the gods in classical antiquity.

2. a response or message given by an oracle, typically one that is ambiguous or obscure.

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Aliearia

ESOTERIC #11

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You are welcome to share the information on this site with others, although I do request that you include this website address, credit your source/page links and author. All postings by Joanne Walmsley – Sacred Scribes may be used for personal, not-for-profit purposes only. Joanne Walmsley Sacred Scribes sacredscribes@gmail.com

NUMEROLOGY – NUMEROLOGY -The Vibration and The Vibration and Meaning of Meaning of NUMBERS NUMBERS

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5.20.2011 5.20.2011

Joanne Sacred Scribes at 6:43 PM

NUMBER 11

NUMBER 11

11 – MASTER TEACHER – KARMIC MASTER TEACHER

The Master Teacher, illumination, enlightenment, inspirational, idealism, intuitive, psychic abilities, channelling, poetry, art/artistic, symbols, expression, dreamer, revolution, drugs, alternate consciousness, mysticism, catalyst, prisoner, prophet, celebrity, highly energized, radical, sensitive, visionary, enthusiastic, creative/creativity.

The Ruler: Neptune

Colours: Silver, glossy white, black, violet

Gemstones/Metals: Platinum, silver, mother of pearl

Guardian/Archangel Angel: Archangel Uriel Uplifting and inspirational, Uriel guides you to the truth and nurtures balance.

Astrological Equivalent: Sagittarius/Aquarius

Tarot Card: Justice

The Number 11 is the first of the Master Numbers, and as a Master Number is not usually reduced down to a single numeral. The Tarot card related to the Number 11 is the Justice card, and 11 is related to the Star Sign Aquarius.

The Master Number 11 is usually called ‘the Illuminator’, ‘the Messenger’ or ‘the Teacher’, as those under the influence of this Master Number are here to be inspirational guiding lights, and their mission is to bring illumination to others and to help raise spiritual awareness.

Number 11 is the number of trials, tests and treachery from others.

The Master Numbers possess more potential than other numbers. They are often highly charged, difficult to deal with and require time, maturity and great effort to integrate into one’s personality. Master Number 11 people are very powerful and have volunteered to incarnate to help the human race. Their pathway is often hidden, and one must learn through experiences in both the outer and inner-worlds. Master Number 11 represents ‘transformation’.

11 is a high vibration and needs to stay centred and balanced at all times. There is a tendency to sway from high to low, quickly. The high energy of the 11 will require some form of outlet where there can be active participation, whether it be through ones own profession, or some charitable inspirational leader this number represents.

11 is an idealist in that they can see the bigger picture through revelations and intuition. Master Number 11 draws on the cosmic forces for inspiration and enlightenment, through pronounced intuitive and psychic abilities.

They must, however, avoid getting involved in the ‘nit-picking’ tendencies of the number 2 vibration. The 11 person must remember to set an example for others to learn from.

The Number 11 symbolizes the principle of enlightenment and 11 colours everything with drama, a visionary outlook, artistic sensitivity and ‘sparkling’ qualities. The 11 energy is not truly practical, but its contribution in its unique perspective and philosophy which instigates new consciousness is invaluable. 11’s energy is very highly-strung, intense, mercurial, polarized (off and on) and subtle. 11s tend to lead a life of extremes. In their quest to find a balance between the rational and the irrationality they will often pursue the most eclectic of religions and cultures.

The 11 energy fears drudgery, restriction, ugliness of any kind and boredom. 11 develops ‘Soul Power’ through loving, selfless service. With the 11 influencing you with your Day or Destiny, you are all about enlightenment. This energy is loving and caring – however, the are also sensitive, and may have trouble with their self-esteem. They enjoy the company of their friends and any quarrelling is very upsetting for them.

Those born on the 11th will make their mark on the world – perhaps in the media professions.

All Master Numbers are powerful and have volunteered to come back to help the race. The pathway is often hidden and one must learn through experiences in both the outer and inner-worlds. 11 is a high vibration and needs to keep centred at all times. There is a tendency to sway from high to low; Spiritual to Material; Material to Physical; Practical to Impractical.

The high energy of the 11 is a fast vibration which will require some form of outlet where there can be active participation, whether it be through one’s own profession, or some charitable organization. Working with others gives the opportunity to be the inspirational leader this number represents and the number 11 must remember to set an example for others to learn from.

Number 11 can be a leader when the vibration is raised to the two 1’s that compose it. A desire to uplift others brings in the Master Teacher, for true Mastery is service to others. If the 11 does not respond to the Higher Vibration it will be working on the Lower Level of the number 2 and will be operating in a position of support to others.

The need is always to raise the number 2 to the Master 11 vibration and respond to the Higher Energies of the Visionary and bring in the Spiritual Messenger as the Master Teacher. When man reaches the higher stages he responds to the Master forces of numbers 9, 11 and 22. When these forces become fully active in man he acquires the ability to create new conditions, a new body, a new life, all in harmony with the ‘Divine Image’ in whose likeness he was fashioned in the beginning.

Numbers 11 and 22 vibrate to all tones of the musical scale. They also respond to the entire planetary octave. Masons are taught that 11 is the most important number because with the possession within the 2 unites (equilibrium) one may come into possession of all things. 11 then becomes the priestly messenger bringing to all mankind the glad tiding of great joy.

11 and 22 are secret workers; silent, aloof and alone. Their workshop is the cosmos and their tools the latent forces of Divinity residing in the heart of all life. 11 embraces the opposites in both Heaven and Hell which both vibrate to the number 11.

The upright columns before the entrance of every mystery temple, Masonic included, are synonymous of the power and purpose of 11.

Black and white are the colours of 11, signifying truth, latent and active, hidden and revealed. Violet also belongs to 11 and signifies the illumination which the Spirit gains through sorrow. 11 develops Soul power through loving, selfless service.

There are many places where you can find a Master Number in your own chart. If you are born on the 11th or 29th you have an 11/2 Day 11 number.

If your date of birth adds up to 11, 29, 38 or 47, you have an 11/2 Life Path or Destiny Number 11.

Each different aspect has more to say about the particular role your Master Number has for you.

Your full name can give you a soul, personality or destiny Master Number 11/2.

11 DAY NUMBER The 11 is a Karmic number and those under its influence will experience many ‘challenges’ in their lifetimes.

It is also a ‘Master Number’, indicating that you will excel in any job where you help others. 11 Day Number individuals are drawn to assist others in their understanding of themselves, and often set themselves up as the ‘fall guy’ for others as their energies can rise above the mundane to exel on higher levels of spirituality and inner-knowing. 11s will sometimes sacrifice their time and energy in the pursuit of uplifting and enlightening others on a day to day basis.

11 Day Number people often spend much of their time with their minds on the esoteric and spiritual.

Highly intuitive, 11 Day Number people often feel isolated or ‘different’ from others around them.

11 DESTINY / LIFE PATH 11s tend to lead a life of extremes and in their quest to find a balance between the rational and the irrationality they will often pursue the most eclectic of religions and cultures.

These avant-garde and visionary individuals make great students, psychics, mystics, healers, teachers, writers, musicians and artists.

Many of them are ‘wounded healers’ who at some point in their life suffer a devastating experience that propels them on the search for their personal spirituality. However along with these situations usually comes a lot of toxic emotional baggage and a harsh inner-critic. It takes many 11’s their entire life to rid themselves of the chip on their shoulder and achieve enlightenment.

The 11 is a Master Spiritual Number, giving you great intuition and psychic abilities. You are here to help the world, and when you enter a room, there is an ‘energy’ about you. You have a great sense of humour, but must protect your vulnerable nervous system to avoid bouts of depression.

Your challenge is to protect your energy levels.

Your purpose is to help heal the world in any way you can.

11 SOUL URGE / MOTIVATION NUMBER Your soul’s purpose is to manifest ideals into reality and your highest calling is to become the master of a religion or of a spiritual realm. You are the ultimate seeker of truth and will go to any lengths to find a spiritual teacher or guru. This search often leads you on a path that is full of many pitfalls and disappointments as you realize that one spiritual system doesn’t work for you or that a guru or teacher is only human after all.

11 NAME NUMBER Positive Attributes: The Master Teacher, illumination, enlightenment, inspirational, idealism, intuitive, psychic, channelling, poetry, art/artistic, symbols, expression, dreamer, revolution, drugs, alternate consciousness, mysticism, catalyst, prisoner, prophet, celebrity, highly energized, radical, sensitive, visionary, enthusiastic, creative/creativity.

Negative Attributes: Too much of the 11 personality with this name may bring out a tendency to sit and ponder, rather than do. Although, generally not a financial or materialistic personality, you could be inclined to strive towards these areas for which you could believe that personal recognition is, and should be measured in material accumulations.

* The Master Number 11 Name is of the super-intellect or genius, also regarded as a lucky person. The Master Number 11 Name is of the super-intellect or genius, also regarded as a lucky person.

This name is one of intuitive, spiritual awareness and refinement. It suggests that your intuition is very strong and you are among the potentially best equipped to help guide people towards their own spiritual and intuitive awareness. You value life and your environment with a deep appreciation of the beauty and refinement that it has to offer. You are someone who can be extremely dependable, honest and compassionate.

Name Number 11 people carry a high vibration and need to stay centred and balanced at all times as there is a tendency to sway from high to low, quickly. The high energy of the 11 will require some form of outlet where there can be active participation, whether it be through ones own profession, or some charitable inspirational leader this number represents.

The Name Number 11 individual is an idealist in that they can see the bigger picture through revelations and pronounced intuitive and psychic abilities. The 11 Name person must remember to set an example for others to learn from.

The Name Number 11 energy is not truly practical, is very highly-strung, intense, mercurial, polarized (off and on) and subtle.

Those with the Name Number of 11 fears drudgery, restriction, ugliness of any kind and boredom. Many Name Number 11 people, at some point in their life, may suffer a devastating experience that propels them on the search for their personal spirituality and higher purpose.

The 11 is a Master Spiritual Number, giving you great intuition and psychic abilities. You

Name Number 11s are here to help the world.

KARMIC NAME NUMBER 11 Master Number 11s reap the greatest karmic rewards by having faith in their intuition as opposed to their rational minds. 11s need to work on their faith and trust in other people as fate has a way of only bringing them what they expect. If an 11 expects the worst than he or she will get the worst. If she or he expects the best, then they are usually blessed.

Your biggest fear is that there is no God.

Other people’s first impression of you might include words such as “flaky” or “eccentric.”Karmic Name Number 11 is the number of the genius, of saints and sinners. 11 has the potential to fulfill the heights of spiritual ambition and idealistic dreams.

While disappointment can lead to dissipation and degradation, basic qualities remain undimmed.

11 CAREER OPPORTUNITIES Media star, poet, inventor, psychologies, minister, designer, society figure, beauty queen, occultist, psychic/clairvoyant, spiritualist.

11 IDEAL GIFTS

The 11 person loves sensual gifts. Men will appreciate aftershave, pure cotton underwear, a foot spa or a voucher for a massage.

Women like satin sheets, sexy lingerie, romantic novels, good quality cookware, their favourite perfume or a voucher for the beauty salon. Tickets for a show or sporting event, and family pictures enlarged and framed, go down well with both sexes.

NOVEMBER

Numerologically, November is the 11th month of the year and carries the energies of the Master Number 11. The number 11 is a ‘karmic’ number, so throughout November pay attention to your repetitive thoughts and ideas as they are ‘answers’ to your prayers. Be aware that you will manifest your thoughts, therefore, do not think negative thoughts as these are what you will draw into your life.

During the month of November we have the date 11/11, which has great spiritual significance. On the 11th of the 11th focus and meditate upon your dreams, wants and desires as the Universe is open to whatever it is you truly want in your life. You could also meditate on whatever it is that is troubling you and ask for a quick resolution to the problem. Make the most of 11/11 in positive, life-affirming ways.

11 breaks down to the number 2 so November is also influenced by the vibrations of 2. The vibration of 2 is one of partnerships, relationships and deep emotions. November, with it’s spiritual vibration of 2, encourages you to trust your own intuition as your senses will be very strong at this time. The message of November is to listen to your inner-voice … and most of all … trust it. You will discover that most of your insights are spot-on!

November is the perfect month to have a good look at your relationships, particularly marriage and life partnerships, and put in extra effort to show how much you love them. November is a good time to look into ways to make your love life more happy and harmonious. The love you have in your life is a gift and needs to be cherished. This month find ways to be romantic and do things to spruce up your love life. Send flowers or write a lovely card telling them how much you love them.

November is a month when you need to know what you’re supposed to be learning right now so that you can move on to the next step.

November is a month for you to pamper yourself. Get a full body massage, have your hair done, or take a weekend trip. All the fun (and stress) of the holiday season is coming up and you want to be ready for it.

Look at the month of November as a time to really live in the moment!

NOVEMBER – The Month You Were Born If you were born in November, the number 11 (which is a higher vibration of 2) will be of great importance to you. You are psychic, empathic and positive. However sometimes you may get overwhelmed by your own sensitivity and develop stress related health and psychological problems such as chronic fatigue syndrome and depression.

**

Repeating Number Sequences or Angel Numbers

Angel Number 11

HOW TO WORK OUT YOUR NUMBERS

DATE OF BIRTH NUMEROLOGY

* Joanne Walmsley Sacred Scribes

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63 comments:

Anshita February 29, 2012 at 4:31 PM

My life path is number 11…..The above mentioned path truly relates to me…Thanx for your information:)It will help me in achieving my dreams…

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Eleven May 4, 2012 at 10:10 AM

Thanks for the information, it’s helpful

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Ankitha Narayanaa August 6, 2012 at 11:02 PM

Hi, My date of birth is 19/12/1985, and my name number adds up to 11. Is it compatible?

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KOZMIK SINGER May 13, 2014 at 5:04 PM

It is your lifepath #

Alison Wright January 9, 2015 at 10:42 AM

1+9+1+2+1+9+8+5=36 …..you’re a 36/9

K October 2, 2012 at 4:37 AM

i was very curious why number 11 became a part of my life when i started having a relationship with my childhood sweetheart. and when i searched here at google about it i came across your site and clicked it….what a co-incedence coz when i look at the dste you published this, it was my birthday….and 2011…11 again 🙂

what does this mean? my bf was born may 10,1966 and i was born may 20,1971.

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Virgin Hair extensions Guru January 17, 2013 at 10:18 PM

I am a 11 my God! I relate 100% to this..this the story of my life..I am also Libra/dragon which is also very similar to the description…so i may even be a double 11? Thank you for the article, I found it when I was through a dark memory moment at 4 am..it give me strength..

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Afragilemind January 19, 2013 at 11:23 PM

I am also 11 and a Libra Dragon, same as you. I find that the descriptions are very applicable to my life. Recently I was able to release and heal from some of the deep and buried pain and wounds I was holding onto. I feel this past year has been very transformative as I am strengthening my body, soul spirit and self in a new and more meaningful way. i am also very intuitive and artistic. I am hoping this year to use these talents more to help bring meaning to my life and others.

wyatt n January 19, 2014 at 4:02 PM

well i think you might have to have a birthday like mine on 11 11 and my name adds up to 11 letters oddly just reconising that and have literally always new things like a genius but just didnt know that they were there or where they came from it just came out all this info i cant explain where it came from but its their

Unknown December 24, 2015 at 4:20 AM

Kinda like channeling, yeah.

Polymerclayer March 14, 2013 at 6:43 PM

I am born on the 11th day of november. my twins are born on the 22th day of march… I quite like the idea of knowing what this signifies because its such a coincidence to me….

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danny turley April 30, 2013 at 3:46 PM

I was born on November 11, 1988, and I always knew that there was some significance to this. So, thank you, for this wonderful information, because now it all makes sense. But I still feel like there’s something that I have yet to discover about myself?! I do know that it is of great importance but I’m just not quiet sure of what it is yet?!

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Kyle G May 16, 2013 at 1:41 PM

I was born feb 11, 1996, and I’ve always felt like I had a strong connection spiritually to everyone and now it makes sense why I always have a nack for recognizing someones aura and aiding them from any damage mentally or spiritually. thank you!

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Claire Higgins June 12, 2013 at 6:02 PM

I have a Master 11 name and this truly resonates with me. I am discovering my soul purpose.

11:11 is appearing more often than can be explained. What does this mean for Master 11’s?

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AM NU January 17, 2014 at 11:32 AM

I’m an 11 birthday 6/10/1975. When I was a teen I remember used to wake up exactly at 11:11. Inumerous times I went to sleep and wondered if the next day it would happened again, when I woke up there it was… I totally relate to this, concerning negative and positive issues.

David Ganesh August 20, 2013 at 11:16 PM

Well I’m like 11 April 1983 and my name also comes to 11 alphabets. Which is David Ganesh. So strange that everything mentioned of the 11 number is really true of my personality. Thanks for sharing. I need to take the good from this and change my perspective of life. As I have a tendency to think negative when it comes to relationship’s especially. I definitely need to follow the advice given and said.

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Silvia Olivares September 16, 2013 at 1:30 PM

This have me chills ! I was both born on the 29th and my birth date adds up to 38. When I read the following it was spot on : The 11 is a Karmic number and those under its influence will experience many ‘challenges’ in their lifetimes. It is also a ‘Master Number’, indicating that you will excel in any job where you help others. Highly intuitive, you often feel isolated or ‘different’ from others around you…. The number 11 has kept reappearing to me this past month. Amazing.

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Jacob Merrill October 20, 2013 at 2:30 AM

Like i said before, the number 7 and 11 are quite common, and here it saids again I’m psychic, this explains just about everything about me….”So all those who are born under the 11th month are masters of the world now”,…that’s cute, well said.

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Gray November 2, 2013 at 4:24 AM

I was born on the 7th and my soul urge is 11. Have always been interested in getting to the bottom of things and I am amazed at what I understand now.

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theuntouchablei95 November 4, 2013 at 11:55 AM

my d.o.b. is 4/23/1982. I’m an 11. Shakespeare was also born on 4/23 and he died on 4/23. I am also dealing with this number 23 aka the 23 enigma.Jim Carrey fetured in a movie the #23.I feel alien like and I have a passion for magic.I don’t do fb but if you look up my twitter account with this account you’ll see I’m screaming 11. good luck all the 11’s I love you guys.

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theuntouchablei95 November 4, 2013 at 12:13 PM

bkbreadmaker@gmail.com

bobby marcilis November 17, 2013 at 11:41 PM

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bobby marcilis November 17, 2013 at 11:45 PM

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bobby marcilis November 17, 2013 at 11:47 PM

I’m also a 11. I love the reaction on people face when I appear shy, then out of no where I turn to a new person on them lol. I crack myself up allot being a 11 reading people like a book without even trying lol. Even when I see ghost I see straight to their core

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Shameni November 22, 2013 at 3:05 AM

I was born on 11th Mar’86 which also adds up to 11. So i have double 11’s. I have always thought i am special in a lot of ways and i am capable of achieving a lot in life. However, i am going thru so many challenges, i tend to doubt myself but not any more. Great article! 🙂

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Dylan Roper November 27, 2013 at 4:10 PM

I was born on the 22/09/1995=38=11 (plus i have the 22) My name is Dylan(20=2) Roper(9) =2+9=11 I have been through a bad experience which left me on the verge of insanity but yet i am still sane seeking the truth and since I started searching I have made great progress relating too Illumination. I am also an inspiring rapper and this states i could possibly be a songwriter. people see me as a different person kind of Extra-Terrestrial 😉 and i also feel different somehow i used too see this as a bad ting but now i see it as i am blessed. when i walk into a room the atmosphere changes almost like they can feel my energy field. very helpful. Thank You.

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AM NU January 17, 2014 at 11:35 AM

meditation is the key 😉 best of luck

GEORGEANTHONY December 1, 2013 at 8:38 PM

i have learned a lot about 11 which is my birth date AND TIME i was born November 11th at 11:11 am upon turning 30 i began to catch it on clocks and random other ways signs addresses etc. only to find out its a global phenomenon. and more..

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Alex Mascaro December 24, 2013 at 4:39 PM

Reading this.. Shocks me actually. Such accuracy.

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My Zen Garden January 3, 2014 at 1:13 AM

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My Zen Garden January 3, 2014 at 1:17 AM

I was born on 11/11, at 4:43pm, which adds up to 11. My given first and last name has 11 letters, and my first name is Kathryn, K being the 11th letter of the alphabet. My daughter was born on 3/16/1990, a Master Number 11/2, her given first and last name has 11 letters (which I did not realize at the time), and we were both Baptized on the 29th, another 11. I could go on…I love 11!! This is so accurate, as my intuition, which was dormant for a while, is now alive and well! I am moving on to become a Spiritual Teacher too. Awesome information! LOL I just realized my blog name has 11 letters too:)

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Aj January 10, 2014 at 5:33 AM

Great Article! I had been looking up numerology articles on the internet, when I discovered that I have a life path 11, an expression number 11. When you add the two up, you get a maturity number 22. I feel its so much more than mere co incidence that I have both life path and expression number 11. Could you elaborate on what does it mean to have both in your chart, or can I just overlook the maturity number as insignificant?

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Bakhtiyor GBT March 14, 2014 at 1:03 AM

somewhat inspirational, I mostly clash with the number 11 in my life, but i was born on 22/12/1985, zodiac capricorn. Yet, i dont know how it might happen like that, cuz when i glance my watch unintentionally it gets 11:11, or on the way, i see cars with head 11 numbers, or the apartment number i bought in 2010 was 11, long time ago a friend of mine sold me the cell phone number was also 1111000, i married in 2011, my daughter was born on 11 september ……….i already accustomed to facing this ’11’ almost each day. Having read the above article, i found some useful information but guess it is not enough to fully grasp the exact gist of 11, no one can exactly what they mean, to me it turned to be just lucky number….:)))

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Melissa Rocha April 22, 2014 at 2:42 PM

Thank you!

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la9ification April 27, 2014 at 5:27 PM

I know a 38/11 who’s famous…actually many 11’s are famous but my mom is an 29/11, she was born on the 29th too, and she’s turned my life right side up. She changed everything and gave me more than what I could ever as for. If you listen to some music, there’s songs than are interconnected in some spider web way but i think of her when I listen to them. She’s an Aquarius too, a lucky person. But she doesn’t care too much about ugliness,. For example she doesn’t care if she looks her worst out in public. “Master number” is kind of exaggerated. Like you mention, there are positive and negative things about defining a person by their numbers…and people take it out of hand and over exaggerate it too…it all turns out to be a huge misunderstanding over something not really a big deal…but if it makes you money…why pass it up!? Eyes can see!! Thanks!

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Geetika Sikri May 26, 2014 at 4:04 AM

frm last few months.. constantly almost every day my eyes catch up towards 11 and 22 number what does it means? and before that it was 17.. but now only 11 and 22..everywhere…. every day

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Joanne Sacred Scribes May 31, 2014 at 2:55 PM

The meaning and message of the repeating numbers you speak of can be found in the INDEX on my ANGEL NUMBERS site at:

http://sacredscribesangelnumbers.blogs pot.com.au/p/index-numbers.html

Joanne Sacred Scribes

Nate July 8, 2014 at 10:25 AM

I’m not sure if I commented correctly; so I’m doing it again while logged on. This will be short.

How do I figure out my time of birth, when my current birth certificate does not have it; and 2) My full name is David Lee Madison Jr.; but is the Jr. considered part of the name; or is it a “title”; like the Third or Esquire or something. It makes the difference between me being a 29/11 and a 30/3. Please respond by email if you can… Thank you so much, David/Nate/Knave

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sri anjaneya December 4, 2014 at 6:26 PM

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LOVE February 8, 2015 at 9:51 PM

Thank you for all of this information. Everything written describes & resonates with me. I have three double numbers & the last four mirror one another. What does all of this mean?

11/28/1982 or 11 28 82 or 11 22 88

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jason cray February 17, 2015 at 11:57 AM

My name is Jason which each letter of my name matches the first letter in each month starting in July and ending in November. I was born on 11/11/74 (7+4=11). A lot of what i read in this article describes me pretty well.

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sri anjaneya February 18, 2015 at 4:46 PM

You may achieve a life time relaxation through Get my love back by vashikaran from any love issue only by Vashikaran Mantras that are applicable on every love issue that can arrive in various stages of life. Top Indian Psychic Reading in London | Leading Indian Astrologer in London

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Prince Palmer February 22, 2015 at 9:45 AM

Hey my name is prince palmer and my birthday is 2 / 11 / 91these past weeks I been seeing 211 everywhere I go and time I see 11 on everything is there a reason why I do

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Charles Hatton March 3, 2015 at 12:28 PM

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Charles Hatton March 3, 2015 at 12:29 PM

my life path is 38/11 and my name number is destiny number 9 and hearts desire 4. what does this mean?

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pranith kumar June 4, 2015 at 6:09 PM

Hi i was born on 11 11 1987 which finally adds up to 11. Amazing even others r noticingGthis

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angel cat June 5, 2015 at 1:54 PM

I am Born April, the 7th, 1999, How i know i am an 11-Master Number? First i add my month and day,4+7=11 1+1=2. Angel here,Thank you for the information.

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Erica tyler June 20, 2015 at 9:15 AM

Hi it keeps erasing my post

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Erica tyler June 20, 2015 at 9:18 AM

My birthday is 2/8/80 could you please give me some type of insight ,? I loved the info it really hit home to me more ways than one thank you

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josh deberry June 23, 2015 at 2:38 AM

Hey thank you for your dedication and hard work this far! Keep up the good work it’s very informational. On a side note I’d like to ask if you can help me decipher what my name and dob means. Please and thank you! Joshua Lee DeBerry/ 08/29/1990

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sanjay kushwah July 18, 2015 at 3:11 AM

I born on 22-11-1997

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Adam Revere July 27, 2015 at 2:29 PM

Great numerology article. There is a great benefit of knowing your own life path based on numerology. You can easily make decisions in life knowing what is better for you and what’s not. If you are interested in knowing your name’s numerology, check this site http://www.numerologycentral.com/calculator/

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Sonal Golani October 21, 2015 at 6:10 AM

My life path number is 11, born in november i.e the 11th month, and to my surprise my name number is also 11 as well as the number of characters in my name. This can’t be just a coincidence. I am even seeing 11 a lot these days like 11.11 in clock and last two digits of my roll no. I am amazed to read your article it all seems so true about me, I have always felt that I am different from others, and I can tell by the looks on people’s face when they meet me, that they kinda find me eccentric. Lol now I am so excited for my future, it kinda feels that I am gonna do something different, something great, who knows. 😛 Thanks for sharing! 😀

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Joy’s B’logna October 23, 2015 at 9:49 AM

Great job going into all the aspects of number 11’s. Thank you. I have an 11 lifepath and my life has been full of heavy stuff to help refine my blessings!

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Leri October 29, 2015 at 4:02 AM

Hello my destiny number is 11,my expression number is 11,my soul urge number is 11 and I was born on the 11th of June 1983 I have had a lot of misfortunes in my life even though I have been told that I have great potential,I have always felt different ever since I was a child and i am highly imaginative,.soon fi all goes well i am going to be a Freemason and i am very involved in politics in my constituency,i used to write poems and raps but it’s been a while since I wrote anything.I am in the process of writting a fictional book based on the end of times.

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Geoff Hay December 17, 2015 at 1:47 AM

I was born 29/8/64. Virgo/Dragon. I am a 11 also. I can heal things like backs,legs,arms, drop shouders. I use to say (in the name of jesus and gods holy spirit, I command ligaments, tendents, muscles to grow out. Then wait as slowly move. But now it is instant. I just touch the limb or back and say (in) and it moves. By learning the Hebrew names. Yahweh = god and Yahshua = jesus.

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Anonymous January 5, 2016 at 4:24 AM

My birthday adds to 29/11, I was born on the 11th of my birth month, and born at 2:11 am? I recently met up with a couple friends on a mountain for a weekend and met a guy for the first time…..I spent a lot of time hanging out with him and kept having deja vu…I don’t know if it was him or the place that was causing it, the mountain was full of quartz and the veins ran through the surfaces. It was overwhelming, deja vu kept happening and both the guy and I just knew that we were connected somehow, it was frightening, as if we already knew each other for a very long time. I’m still denying this connection because I have a boyfriend who I love and have been with for years. I pulled some tarot cards and they clearly told me that an era (relationship) of my life was coming to an end. He is the only person I can think of. How can you love someone and feel like you’ve both matured and nurtured each other but need to let go so that each can take on the path they are supposed to? I don’t know how to explain this to my bf. He is also a life path 11.

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Jan Briljantje January 18, 2016 at 6:00 AM

I am The Master.

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Anonymous March 8, 2016 at 9:18 AM

To the Anonymous poster on Jan 5th. Quartz intensifies any natural gifts a person has. It charges you like a natural battery.

I am a 29/11 vibration as well. My birth date sums up to 29, then reduces to 11.

Sometimes relationships are like seasons, they change. It isnt a bad thing. It may feel negative or you may be reluctant to let go. It is ok to feel that way, you are human. What is important is you learn from all of your relationships and experiences. And remember, just because a relationship changes, it doesnt mean it is the end of it. Only the form and dynamic has changed.

As for the deja vu, this occurs as to what I believe as a spiritual check point. It lets you know kind of like a mile marker – you have reached certain points in your life.

From what I was told about tarot is, you see things in the cards, but the events can change. We set our paths by our actions. A relationship may come to an end, but it may be an unforseen one on your end. They are not always bf/gf. We all have relationships with one another in various forms.

Peace and be well to all.

S.P.

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Unknown March 9, 2016 at 6:24 PM

I’ve been so confused and been going through so much since I turned 30. I’ve had this insane rush of data, and I’ve been seeing signs and have endured paranoia. I’m still a bit lost but this all makes sense. It’s odd, as if the world secrets have been just coming to me. Any direction is helpful. I’m born on 11/11 my name also makes me an 11 but my birthdate with my year makes me a 9 life path. So I’m a generous master I suppose. My trials have been intense. And than enlightenment struck when I had nothing left. I guess I’m just looking to confirm all the wisdom I have before I teach. But I feel a very evil power that wants me down and quiet. Truth scares most people. And people attack the things they fear. Or shoot the messenger. Idk if any of you other geniuses are reading this but I am looking for help. Please, any feedback or prayer would be helpful. Rlujan80@gmail.com

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Wozzi of Cadre 3, Entity 5. April 3, 2016 at 2:24 PM

THEN IT HIT ME FULL ON IN THE FACE!… I AM an 11. It all makes sense. So many connections… like the big orbs of spider webs. Interconnected. The recurring numbers. All that is.

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james harold Bardwell May 29, 2016 at 10:19 PM

Im also an 11 ..on the day of my birth ..29th..and my full birthdate is also an 11 ..found this out over 12 years ago now. ..it has certainly helped shed light on my life path. .im allways trying to search out new info regarding numerology. .so thanks for this article 🙂 oh and just wondering did you notice the day this article was published was an 11 …or was that planed?

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Charu Prabhakar July 4, 2016 at 7:19 PM

Thanx my birthday is 11.11… could relate highly with your write-up and information !

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Aliearia

ESOTRIC #9 (Numerology/Illuminati)

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The symbolism of Number 9 (Ennead)

The esoteric meaning of the number nine is associated with the idea of completeness and perfection, done it and related to the synthesis of the three worlds, that is a triple trinity (God, the universe, man). Well it reflects the essence of the meaning which had nine in the Chinese tradition, where it symbolized the concept of “everything.” In nine of his divine aspect means the divine power and the power of the Creator, which is manifested in the material environment laws. In its natural aspect, number nine symbolizes the physical plane of existence, in which the law is manifested trinity. In its human aspect, nine represents the idea of spiritual power, which is expressed in the possession of the three worlds, that is, the idea of initiation.

Graphical representation of nine is circle divided into nine parts.

Attributes and essence of the number nine

Representing the number of complete and all-embracing, nine seats in the whole cycle of life, depicted in the form of a circle, which contains 360 (3 +6 +0 = 9), and all the numbers from 1 to 9. She played a big role in the numerical symbolism of the various religious traditions and cultures – in Christianity, and Buddhism, and the occult and Masonic doctrine and in Manichaeism, and Gnosticism. Losev gives detailed evidence of the visible presence of nine in numerical symbolism of antiquity:

“In addition to the nine muses Trojan War lasts 9 years (and in the 10th year of its outcome), 9 years wandering Odysseus (and on the 10th returned home), 9 birds that predict the duration of the war, 9 years of his life at sea Poseidon goddesses , 9 days plague the Achaeans at the behest of Apollo, 9 days of the feast Bellerophon at the Lycian king, nine days of captivity in the Phoenix home of his parents, 9 days for the flood washed away the Achaean camp, 9 days quarrels of the gods of the body of Hector, 9 days without burial children Niobe, 9 days of mourning for Hector, 9 days for svezeniya wood for his burial, 9 days before the arrival of the storm to the lotus-eaters Odyssey, 9 days, data Eolom for safe arrival of Odysseus to Ithaca, 9 days before the arrival of the storm Odysseus to Calypso. And this is not all the examples of Homer’s use of the number 9. ”

Detailed description of the various properties of nines gives Manly Hall: “Ennead, 9, was the first square of an odd number (3×3). It was associated with errors and shortcomings, because it lacks the perfect number to 10 in the same units. She called the number of man, because of his nine months of embryonic development. Among its key words – “Ocean” and “horizon”, because they were for the ancient limitless. Ennead is limitless number because there is nothing for it but an infinite number of 10. It is called the boundary and limitation, because it gathered all numbers within. It is called the sphere of air, because it surrounded the numbers as air surrounds the earth. Among the gods and goddesses who share a greater or lesser degree of its nature – Prometheus, Vulcan, Juno, the sister and wife of Jupiter, Pan, Aglaia Titogeniya, Kuritis, Proserpine, Hyperion, and Terpsichore (muse). The number 9 is regarded as evil, because it is an inverted 6. According to the Eleusinian Mysteries, it was the number of spheres through which the consciousness of its way at birth. Because of its similarity in shape with sperm 9 associated with the origin of life. ”

Blavatsky indicates that property nines, as its reproducibility when carried with her operations: “This is the number that is constantly reproduced in all aspects and at all times total. This is the sign of each circle, because its value is 9 degrees, ie 3 +6 +0. In some conditions, it is a bad sign, and very unhappy. If the number six was a symbol of the world, ready to ozhivotvoreniya divine Spirit, the 9 was a symbol of our land, the lively spirit of evil or bad. ”

Similar idea about the relationship between the nine and the circle expresses Rene Guenon: “… 9 instead of 10 is the number of circles, the division carried out according to the last multiple of 9 (90-degree quadrant, therefore, 360 for the whole of the circle).”

According to esoteric ideas if the number nine symbolizes a circle, number 1 – the center of the circle, and the whole circle is the number 10 = 1 +9.

X.E. Kerlot gives triple nature of the nine following description: “Nine – Triangle and Triad triple triple. Hence, it is a complex image of the three worlds. Nine is the end – the ultimate digital series to its return to unity. For the Jews, this number was a symbol of truth, being characterized by the fact that, multiplied, it reproduces itself (in addition of the mystical.) In medical rituals it represented the number of par excellence, ie, it is a triple synthesis or disposition of each of the existing plans of reality: the body, the intellectual and spiritual. ”

The number 9 is not just a symbol of dedication, but also expresses the steps closer to perfection, which says Moebius: “Lists nine major cycles of these efforts, noting that they are often implemented in parallel, rather than sequentially. 1. Eliminate a physical cowardice. 2. Eliminate a hesitation. 3. Eliminate a retrospective regret of the offense, which can not be corrected. 4. Fight as much as possible with superstition. 5. As far as possible to fight against prejudice. 6. Fight as much as possible with the conventions. 7. Implement around the physical order, and in itself to maintain health. 8. Achieve equally astral order in itself (already mentioned the desire for spiritual harmony) and of itself (the exact classification and accurate empirical familiarity with the entities of the astral plane and its manifestations). 9. Organize more and mental order, that is clean, clear, absolute metaphysical outlook and complete consciousness of its emanation from the origin of the archetype. ”

Nine plays a special role in the mechanisms of the psyche, which is primarily associated with the processes of storing information relevant not only to sevenfold, but nonary structure

Aliearia

APOLLYON IS HERE

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ISAIAH 46:9 (REMEMBER THE MOST ANCIENT OF TIMES)

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GENESIS 1:1- (TIME, SPACE & MATTER=Signs=7 STARS)

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ESOTERIC #9 (Numerology/NWO, Illuminati)

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APOLLYON EXPLAINED WEBSITE

The earthly reection of the locusts of Revelation 9 are Roman soldiers and the General Titus is the human reection of Apollyon. Following the precedent set in the Book of Joel, the locusts in this chapter are an invading army. Roman legions and auxiliaries were often represented by dierent constellations and signs of the zodiac. Interestingly, all the attributes used to describe this locust army were taken directly from constellations that would have been visible the night of Passover, the holiday in which Jesus was crucied and Titus and his army began their ve month siege of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. The fact that Jerusalem fell after ve months fullls Revelation 9:5:The locust army was “not given power to kill them, but only to torture them for ve months.” Abaddon and Apollyon is an angel with an obvious human counterpart. Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the commander of the Apollonian Legion. The soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by locusts because locusts are sacred to Apollo. Titus then went on to succeed his father, Vespasian, as general over all the Roman legions in Israel after Vespasian became emperor. At this time a multitude of soldiers from the Euphrates converged on Jerusalem in fulllment of Revelation 9:14. In Revelation 9:1-3 a swarm of locusts is released from the Abyss, the dark underworld of the dead. This resurrection motif points to the rise of the Flavian Dynasty who together revived the Roman Empire by putting an end to the civil war following Nero’s death. In other words, the Roman Empire under the Flavian Caesars is the beast whose wound had been healed of Revelation 13:3 and the beast that rises out of the Abyss in Revelation 9:2-3, Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 17. In the following preterist Bible commentary on Revelation 9, the reader will be exposed to compelling evidence of the fulllment of every detail of every verse in this chapter.

The following may seem unbelievable. However, all information is taken from unbiased historical records and is easily veriable. Sources listed at the end.

The locusts of Revelation 9 are the Roman army described in a blended likeness of those constellations visible in the night sky on Passover, the night in which Rome began its siege of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.

Overwhelming Evidence that the Earthly Shadow of the Locusts are the Roman Legions and the Human Counterpart of Apollyon is Titus Flavius Vespasianus

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: As is the Case in Ezekiel 28 in which the Earthly Fall of the King of Tyre is depicted as the Fall of an Angel from Heaven, Revelation 9 also describes earthly events in Otherworldly Imagery.

In Ezekiel 28, Ezekiel predicts ruin for the king of Tyre, a prophecy likely fullled in the sixth century B.C. However, while predicting the fall of this earthly king, Ezekiel describes this event as if describing the fall of an angel from heaven:

“Son of man, take up a lament concerning the king of Tyre and say to him: ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: “‘You were the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. . . . You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. . . . You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was found in you. . . . So I drove you in disgrace from the mount of God, and I expelled you, guardian cherub, from among the ery stones. So I threw you to the earth; I made a spectacle of you before kings (Ezekiel 28:12-17).

Revelation 9 also describes earthly events in otherworldly imagery. In this chapter, the resurrection of the beast under the Flavian Dynasty and the subsequent return of the Roman army to besiege Jerusalem is depicted in the image of demons rising out of the Abyss. (Though I believe that it is likely that spiritual beings truly did rise from the Abyss to act behind the scenes to aid in the fall of Jerusalem as implied in this chapter.)

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Fifth Trumpet was Fullled Twice.

In Revelation 9:1-3 an army rises out of the Abyss. As stated often throughout these commentaries, the sea or Abyss has a double meaning. Throughout Revelation these two terms point to both the dark underworld of the dead and the Gentile nations, specically Rome, simultaneously. Thus the locust army is both a spiritual army from the realm of the dead and a Gentile or Roman earthly army. In other words, the predictions concerning the fth trumpet and bowl of Revelation may have a dual fulllment. Initially these predictions were fullled on earth metaphorically from A.D. 69 to 70 with the resurrection of the beast during the rise of Vespasian and the Flavian dynasty and the subsequent return of Titus and the Roman army to Israel. Then shortly after Vespasian’s death and Titus’ coronation, these predictions may have been fullled quite literally in a vision of supernatural beings seen coming out of a volcano during a famous volcanic eruption.[1] See Was Revelation 9 and Revelation 16:10-11 Literally Fullled in a Famous Volcanic Eruption?.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: Rome’s Darkest Hour . . .

As prophesied in Revelation 9:2 and Revelation 16:10, the beast’s kingdom was plunged into a darkness. In A.D. 69, Rome faced what may have been its darkest hour. That year warring generals pitted the empire’s legions against one another threatening to collapse the empire and ultimately resulting in the deaths of three self-proclaimed Caesars. Ripped apart by civil war, Rome temporarily ceased its assault on Israel. Then order arose out of chaos as control of the empire fell securely into hands of the former general of the Jewish War—Vespasian.

The sixth trumpet and bowl describe what happened next: Upon Vespasian’s ascension, in A.D. 70, control of the Roman legions in Israel passed to his son Titus. Desiring a quick victory, Vespasian drew thousands more Roman soldiers and auxiliaries from neighboring provinces to aid in the war eort. This plague describes the mobilization of these troops and their subsequent assault on Jerusalem.

Martin, John. One of the Seven Plagues of Egypt.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Fifth and Sixth Trumpets are the Eighth and Ninth Plagues of Exodus.

Holding to the theme of the last chapter, John continues to connect future events to the plagues of Exodus. This chapter represents the plague of locusts and the plague of darkness. This plague of darkness links the fth trumpet with the fth bowl of Revelation 16:10 in which the beast’s kingdom is plunged into darkness. Thus in both Revelation 9:2 and in Revelation 16:10, the beast’s kingdom is cast into darkness.

Locusts are an ancient Canaanite and Biblical metaphor for an invading foreign/Gentile army. This point is illustrated in the rst and second chapters of Joel where the Babylonian army of the sixth century B.C. is portrayed as a swarm of locusts. This imagery is also found in Judges 6:5, 7:12; Jeremiah 51:14, 27; and Nahum 3:15. The fact that foreign/Gentile armies are symbolized by locusts is not just found in the Bible, it is also implicit in the Babylonian Talmud where it is said, “The destruction of Jerusalem [during Israel’s rst century war with Rome] came through a Kamza [locust] and a Bar Kamza [son of a locust].”[3] Here one can see that according to the Babylonian Talmud, rst century Jerusalem was destroyed by locusts. The reason the Talmud says that Jerusalem was destroyed by locusts is because locusts are a symbol of Gentiles or foreigners. This point is shown in Strong’s Concordance which denes Gentile in the following terms:

#1471 gowy go’-ee rarely (shortened) goy {go’-ee}; apparently from the same root as 1465 (in the sense of meaning); a foreign nation; hence, a Gentile; also (guratively) a troop of animals, or a ight of locusts[.]”

The fact that locusts represent Gentile or foreign invaders is echoed in this chapter of Revelation as will be exhaustively shown below. This locust symbolism is multifaceted. When laying siege to a city, invading forces, much a like a swarm of locusts, will leave the surrounding countryside stripped of food, timber and vegetation in order to feed the war eort. These armies will also often set re to anything their enemies might nd useful as the Romans did when they burned many of the cities and rural areas of Palestine during the Jewish War. Interestingly, locusts “were known to the people of Palestine as ‘burners of the land,’ a phrase derived from the literal meaning of ‘locust.’”[3a] Furthermore, when seen at a great distance, an army of several thousand troops even looks like locusts in a eld. But what do locusts look like?

There is an old Arab saying paraphrased by Isbon Beckwith in which locusts are described as having “ a head like a horse, a breast like a lion, feet like a camel, a body like a serpent, and antennae like the hair of a maiden.”[3b] The locusts of Revelation 9 with their woman’s hair, lions’ teeth, serpent heads and serpent tails are described somewhat similarly. However, there is much more to the description of the locusts in Revelation 9 than a common Middle Eastern anatomical description of locusts.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Fact that the Locust Army is described in the Attributes of the Zodiac Implies that this Army is the Roman Legions.

In this chapter, the author of Revelation describes the Roman military, which is soon to attack Jerusalem, as a plague of locusts from the Abyss. The soldiers of the vast Roman military are said to breathe re, have woman’s hair, lions’ teeth, serpent heads and scorpion tails. This odd choice of symbolism, like much of John’s vision, has double meaning. Roman legions were often signied by a dierent sign of the zodiac or constellation in the night sky. Each Roman legion and auxiliary cohort often carried an image of a sacred constellation or a sign of the zodiac when going into battle. The sign of the zodiac for a particular legion or cohort typically represented the month in which the unit was created. The fact that this army from the Abyss is described in the image and attributes of the zodiac and its surrounding constellations broadly hints at the identity of this locust army as the Roman legions.[4]

The fact that the Roman legions are described in the imagery of the zodiac also serves an important literary function that compliments a major theme in Revelation. The zodiac was originally developed and disseminated by and from ancient Babylon. Therefore, the fact that the Roman legions are described in stereotypical Babylonian iconography points to Rome as spiritual Babylon mentioned later in the Book of Revelation. (It should also be noted that Jerusalem is called Babylon in Revelation as well. This is because as a result her spiritual act of adultery with Rome, Jerusalem became one esh with Rome like a prostitute becoming one esh with her lover (1 Corinthians 6:16). For a detailed explanation of how the spiritual act of adultery between rst century Jerusalem and Rome accounts for why Jerusalem is also called Babylon in Revelation see the commentary on Revelation 17.)

Roberts, David. The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, A.D. 70 . 1850. Yeshiva University Museum, New York.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Constellations used to describe the Locust Army were all visible the First Night of the Roman Siege of Jerusalem.

The choice of constellations used in Revelation 9 to describe this army also describes the appearance of the Roman army in the image and attributes of those constellations visible in the night sky during the rst night of Titus’ ve month siege of Jerusalem.[5] Thus through the zodiac imagery of this chapter, John sends four messages:

1) The zodiac symbolism in this chapter is designed to describe the appearance and tactics of the army soon to invade Jerusalem.

2) The zodiac symbolism points to the Roman Legions which were each represented by a constellation of the night sky.

3) The zodiac iconography hints at the identity of this army as spiritual Babylon.

4) The constellations of the zodiac referred to in this chapter also point to the time of attack

image

The Zodiac. On Passover, the holiday in which Jesus was crucied and the Romans began their siege of Jerusalem, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Ophiuchus and Sagittarius would have stretched across the night sky in a band with the Hydra below Leo and Virgo. All the attributes of the locust army were taken directly from these constellations.

Titus began his assault on Jerusalem during Passover—the anniversary in which these people had killed the Messiah. That night the constellations Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Ophiuchus and Sagittarius would have stretched across the night sky in a band with the Hydra below Leo and Virgo to the southwest.[6] Most of the symbolism in this chapter comes from these constellations. In vs. 8 and 17 the locusts of Revelation 9 are said to have the head and teeth of a lion. When a nighttime observer is facing north on Passover these attributes are on display just over the western horizon in the constellation of the lion, Leo. Along the ecliptic, just above Leo is the lady Virgo, giving rise to the woman’s hair in v. 8. Beyond Virgo are the scales of Libra. In Revelation 9:15, the four horsemen of Revelation 6 are released–one of which is holding the scales of Libra in his hand–warning Jerusalem to ration its food for the coming siege. The next constellation in this procession is Scorpio: symbolizing the tail of the scorpion in v. 10. Interestingly, in ancient Hellenistic calendars locusts appear in this sign of the zodiac: astrologically accounting for the locust imagery in this chapter.[7] Just above Scorpio is Ophiuchus, the serpent bearer. The constellation Ophiuchus is a man holding a snake. Here one can see the serpent head and tail symbolism in v. 19. At the end of the southern horizon is Centaurus with Sagittarius at the southeast. Sagittarius and Centaurus are both centaurs. Half man and half horse, these two star clusters account for the imagery of the horse with a human face in v. 7.

Directly beside these signs of the zodiac, in the part of the sky called the sea, lies the Hydra. This constellation originally represented the re-breathing leviathan, a seven-headed serpent used by John and the prophet Daniel to symbolize Rome. In this constellation one can see the origin of the rebrand symbolism mentioned in vs. 17 and 19. As will be exhaustively shown in the remainder of the chapter, these attributes of the above mentioned constellations highlight important elements of the weaponry, war tactics and appearance of the Roman military.

1

The fth angel sounded his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from the sky to the earth. The star was given

2

the key to the shaft of the Abyss. When he opened the Abyss, smoke rose from it like the smoke from a gigantic furnace. The sun and sky were darkened by the

3

smoke from the Abyss. And out of the smoke locusts came down upon the earth and were given power like that of scorpions of the earth.

Martin, John. The Eruption of Vesuvius.1789 – 1854

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: Was there a Volcanic Eruption in Campania in A.D. 69 at the Rise of the Flavian Dynasty?

As also implied in Revelation 9:1-3, 1 Enoch 10:4-7 reveals that the Abyss, like the ery magma of the earth’s core, is located under the earth (Numbers 16:31, Ezekiel 26:20, Luke 16:23 and 2 Peter 2:4). In Revelation 9:1-3 an angel opens the Abyss releasing smoke and re. This smoke is so dark that according to v. 2 it darkens the sun and sky. Revelation 9:1-3 appears to be describing a volcanic eruption. Volcanic eruptions often release so much smoke and ash that they can cover vast areas around the eruption in darkness so thick that it can blot out the sun sometimes hundreds of miles away as was the case with the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79.[7a] And like the eruption of Vesuvius which completely buried the town of Pompeii in ash, volcanic eruptions can also quickly bury a city in volcanic debris and hot ash. In his historical account of A.D. 69, the unusually calamitous year before the rise of the Flavian Dynasty, Tacitus writes, “Whole towns were burnt down or buried throughout the richest part of the coast of Campania [central, coastal Italy].”[7b] Could these towns in Campania have been burned down and buried from a volcanic eruption in explicit fulllment of Revelation 9:1-3?

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: Rome, the Beast, dies with Nero Caesar and rises from the Dead with the Flavian Dynasty–Vespasian, Titus and Domitian–Who together revived the Roman Empire by putting an End to Rome’s Civil War and the War with Israel.

Regardless of whether or not a volcano actually erupted in A.D. 69, Revelation 9:1-3 is replete with resurrection imagery pointing to the release of the beast from the Abyss, the underworld of the dead, at the rise of the Flavian Dynasty. In Revelation 9:2-3 a locust army is released from the Abyss. In Revelation 9:11 the king of this army is identied as “the angel of the Abyss, whose name . . . [is] Apollyon.” Apollyon is the beast that “once was, now is not, and will come up out of the Abyss” in Revelation 17:8. Because the Abyss is the spiritual realm of the dead, the expression “once was, now is not, and will come up out of the Abyss” is a cryptic way of saying, “This beast once was alive, now is dead, and yet will rise from the dead.” This beast who dies and then rises out of the Abyss is Rome represented by its Caesars.

After the death of Nero Caesar in June of A.D. 68, Rome collapsed because of civil war and the Roman legions withdrew from Israel. This period of civil war from the death of Nero in the summer of A.D. 68 to the rise of Vespasian in A.D. 70 represents the death of the beast. This period from A.D. 68 to A.D. 70 is the period of the fth trumpet of Revelation 9:1-12 and the fth bowl of Revelation 16:10-11. The fact that Rome, the beast, had been hurled into darkness in Revelation 9:2 and Revelation 16:10 during the fth trumpet and bowl implies that the beast had been cast into the Abyss, the dark underworld of the dead described in Job 10:19-22 as “the land of deepest night, of utter darkness” and called outer darkness by Jesus in the Gospels.[8]

Vespasian and Titus. The rise of the Flavian Dynasty is the beast that rises out of the Abyss also known as the beast whose wound has been healed.

As explained in Revelation 13:3, the Flavian Dynasty–Caesar Vespasian, Caesar Titus and Caesar Domitian–is the beast whose wound had been healed. At Vespasian’s coronation as emperor of Rome, Vespasian and his two sons and successors, Titus and Domitian, were simultaneously granted the title Caesar.[9] Thus the beast is embodied by Caesar Vespasian, Caesar Titus and Caesar Domitian who shortly after coming to power brought peace back to Rome after destroying Jerusalem. Having restored the unity of the empire by putting an end to the civil war at the fall of Jerusalem, the Flavian Dynasty brought the Roman beast which had died as a consequence of civil war back to life. In other words, the Roman Empire under the trinity of Flavian Caesars is the beast whose wound had been healed of Revelation 13:3 and the beast that rises out of the Abyss in Revelation 9:2-3, Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 17. See Revelation 11: A Preterist Commentary–Who are the Two Witnesses? and Revelation 17: A Preterist Commentary.

In Revelation 9:1-3, a star is given the key to the shaft of the Abyss. The fact that this star has the key to the Abyss shows that it has power over death itself. This star is Jesus Christ who is given authority over death in Revelation 1:18. This star opens the Abyss causing locusts to be released under the authority of Apollyon (Revelation 9:11). The ascent of Apollyon and his army of locusts from the Abyss is resurrection imagery. These verses are a metaphorical depiction of the resurrection of the Roman beast under the Flavians. But why is the resurrection of Rome also mentioned in Revelation 13:3, Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 17 portrayed as a locust army rising out of the Abyss, the dark underworld of the dead?

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: The Death and Resurrection of the Beast is also Illustrated by Titus’ and Vespasian’s Presence in Israel, the Earth, and Rome, the Sea or Abyss.

In the Book of Revelation, the Abyss is not just the land of the dead. Abyss also has a symbolic meaning. The Abyss represents foreign nations, in this case Rome, throughout the Apocalypse just as the earth symbolizes Israel (Revelation 17:15; Daniel 7; Psalm 65:7; 144:7; Isaiah 8:7-8; 17:12; 60:5; Jeremiah 46:7-8; 47:1-2; 51:55-56; Ezekiel 26:3). After the death of Nero Caesar, Rome ceased its assault on Judea and Titus and Vespasian left Israel not long after.[11] Thus around the time of the death of the beast, Vespasian and Titus left Israel, the earth, and went to Lebanon and Egypt in Gentile Rome, the sea or Abyss, in order to plot the overthrow of their rival for the emperor’s throne, Vitellius. Thus around the time in which the beast was “dead,” Vespasian and Titus were in the Abyss, Gentile Rome. Immediately after supplanting Vitellius and usurping the throne, Caesar Vespasian dispatched Titus back to Israel, the earth, with full control of the Roman military. Therefore, at the coronation of Vespasian which represents the resurrection of the beast, Titus and the Roman army leave the Abyss, Gentile Rome, and return to Israel. Put simply, when the beast, Vespasian and or Titus and the Roman army, was present on the earth, Israel, the beast was symbolically alive. When the beast departed to the sea or Abyss, representing both Gentile Rome and the realm of the dead simultaneously, the beast was metaphorically dead. When the beast rises out of the sea or Abyss, the beast is alive again. Thus the departure of the beast and the Roman army from Gentile Rome, the Abyss, to Israel, the earth, is symbolized in Revelation 9:1-3 as a locust army rising out of the Abyss. This imagery is appropriate because the return of the Roman army to Israel was roughly concurrent with the coronation of Vespasian which marked the resurrection of the beast.

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: Revelation 9 was also fullled Symbolically during the Reign of Caesar Titus (A.D. 79-81).

The Emperor Nero

As stated above, Revelation 9:1-3 were fullled metaphorically from A.D. 68-A.D. 70 with the death of Nero and the rise of the Vespasian and the Flavian Dynasty which represented the resurrection of the beast. That having been said, it should be noted that an interesting historical peculiarity may hint at the fact that the Flavian Dynasty; Caesar Vespasian, Caesar Titus and Caesar Domitian; signied the resurrection of the beast. During the reign of the second emperor of the Flavian dynasty; Titus, Vespasian’s son and successor; a man resembling Nero, the beast with the wounded head of Revelation 13:3, appeared in Rome. Describing this man, Cassius Dio writes:

In his reign also the False Nero appeared, who was an Asiatic named Terentius Maximus. He resembled Nero both in appearance and in voice (for he too sang to the accompaniment of the lyre). He gained a few followers in Asia, and his advance to the Euphrates attached a far greater number, and nally sought refuge with Artabanus, the Parthian leader, who . . . both received him and set about making preparations to restore him to Rome.[12]

As indicated in Revelation 13: A Preterist Commentary, Nero, Vespasian and Titus are all represented by the 666 cryptogram. In the Book of Revelation these three men symbolically represent a beast who dies and resurrects from the dead. Vespasian and Titus represent the beast whose wound had been healed while Nero represents the beast with the wounded head. If the Nero imposter was not the actual miraculous resurrection of Nero and thus a literal fulllment of Revelation 13:3, he at least represents a kind of counterfeit resurrection, a symbol pointing to Titus, one of the Flavians, as the beast who rises from the dead. Called Apollyon in Revelation 9:11 and the beast that comes out of the Abyss in Revelation 17:8, Titus like his father, Vespasian, is also seen as a kind of resurrected devil.

4

They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any plant or tree, but only those people who did not have the

5

seal of God on their foreheads. They were not given power to kill them, but only to torture them for ve months. And the agony they suered was like that of the sting of a scorpion when it

6

strikes a man. During those days men will seek death, but will not nd it; they will long to die, but death will elude them.

Revelation 9:5 Commentary: The Siege of Jerusalem lasted Five Months in Fulllment of v. 5.

In v. 5 the locusts of the Abyss are given power to torture mankind for ve months. This is the time period in which God had historically destroyed heaven and earth, rst during the ood in Genesis 7:24 and later during the Babylonian siege of Israel according to the Septuagint version of Ezekiel 4. Once again God destroys the land in ve months, this time using the Roman army.

The initial purpose of the fth trumpet of A.D. 68-70 was to prepare the Roman legions for war. In v. 5 these soldiers are given power to torture the people of Jerusalem for ve months, a power they will soon exercise at the blowing of the seventh trumpet. After the sounding of this trumpet, Titus’ vast army, described here, tortured the inhabitants of Jerusalem. For ve months, from the middle of Nisan to the middle of Elul, Titus’ army induced famine and plague in the closed quarters of the city before nally breaking through the last fortications and putting thousands of people out of their misery.[25] This ve month interval from the middle of Nisan to the middle of Elul in which Titus and his army besieged Jerusalem is also the same ve month timeframe in which locusts typically appear in Israel.[25a] This fact is one more piece of evidence pointing to the Roman army as the locusts of Revelation 9.

7

The locusts looked like horses prepared for battle. On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.

Revelation 9:7 Commentary: The Roman Calvary is described in the Likeness of Sagittarius.

image

Sagittarius, the centaur, and Corona Australis, the crown. “The locusts looked like horses prepared for battle. On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.”

As stated above, people of the ancient Middle East sometimes described the anatomical features of locusts in a chimeric fashion (using characteristics of other animals). In Revelation 9, John also describes Roman soldiers chimerically using various features of those constellations that were visible in the night sky on the day in which the Romans began their siege of Jerusalem. In this verse, John describes soldiers on horseback wrapped-up in the likeness of the constellation Sagittarius, the constellation seen on southeastern horizon at the start of the siege. Having the face of a man and the lower body of a horse, Sagittarius, like the locusts in this verse, also wears a crown, the constellation Corona Australis.[26] Here one can see how the locust cavalry of Revelation 9:7 wore a crown, had the face of a man and the body of a horse.

Revelation 9:7 Commentary: Locusts also represent an Invading Army in the Book of Joel.

As stated earlier, John follows the precedence set by the prophet Joel, who in a similar vision describes the Assyrian army invading Israel as a swarm of locusts. The rst half of this verse is a virtual quote of Joel 2:4. This fact suggests that these locusts may again refer to human soldiers on horseback. But having an earthly fulllment to the fth plague does not mean that there may not also be a spiritual one as well. The locusts of Revelation 9 are frequently seen to be a spiritual army because of the fact that these beings are released from the Abyss, the realm of the dead. For this reason, I believe that there is a dual fulllment of this plague, one that points rst to the Roman army under Titus’ leadership and then again in the mass-vision of spiritual beings seen in the ash of a famous eruption at the death of Vespasian. See Was Revelation 9 and Revelation 16:10-11 Fullled Literally in a Famous Volcanic Eruption?. It may also be possible that the spiritual army witnessed in the clouds over Israel at the start of the Jewish war in Iyyar of A.D. 66 is an earlier manifestation of this spiritual army. I believe that the combination of these two or three interpretations in this chapter is necessary to truly appreciate complete fulllment.

Moving to the next half of the verse, these locusts are said to wear crowns and have human faces. High ranking Roman cavalry often wore masks sometimes ornately adorned with crowns or laurel wreaths. Many of these masks were adorned with long hair, hence “the hair of women” in v. 8. Below is an example of one such mask worn in the middle of the rst century.

“On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.” Roman equestrian helmet. Valkhof Museum, Nijmegen.

Above one can see how the faces of these locust soldiers resembled that of a man wearing a golden crown.

Revelation 9:7 Commentary: Roman War Horses Sometimes Wore Helmets with Reliefs of Human Faces in Fulllment of v.7 in which the Horses are said to have Human Faces.

Roman war horses also wore armor guards over their heads. These armor guards made the horses appear as if they were wearing crowns in fulllment of v. 7. These armor guards could be very ornate containing reliefs of women, lion heads, or human faces with crowns just to name a few possibilities.

“On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.” Roman Horse Armor Straubing, Germany.

Their hair was like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth.

Revelation 9:8 Commentary: The Roman Calvary is described in the Likeness of Leo and Virgo.

image

Scorpio (the scorpion) “They had tails and stings like scorpions . . .”

Here the tail of Scorpio may be a metaphor for the Roman spear, with its tail representing the shaft and its stinger the blade.

The Roman soldier with his standard-issue spear looks like a scorpion.

It is also possible that the scorpion image in v. 10 may refer to the Roman ballista, a siege engine that hurled darts or arrows, and even the onager also known as the catapult. The ballista was called the scorpio meaning scorpion. Thus it is perhaps not surprisingly that some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate the ballista as “scorpion.”[27a] According to Amminaus Marcellius, 4 century A.D., the Onager (Lat., ‘wild ass’) was [also] originally known as the ‘scorpion.’”[27b]

According to Brian Martin some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate this siege engine as “scorpion.”

They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is an Angel with a Human Counterpart.

Many commentators have identied Abaddon and Apollyon as an angel and rightly so. Abaddon is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for destruction and it is used virtually interchangeably with Sheol or the Abyss, the realm of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20).[27c] Thus Apollyon does appear to be an angel. However, there can be no doubt that this angel has a human counterpart.

As frequently stated and emphasized in this commentary, events in the Book of Revelation are often fullled both in heaven and on earth. In other words, events said to have transpired in the spiritual realms often have reections on earth that also fulll these predictions. The fact that Apollyon or Abaddon is said to be an angel does not preclude him from being a man. Each of the human pastors of the seven churches in the introduction to John’s vision are addressed as the “angel” of their church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). Other examples in the Bible in which saints or prophets are called angels or messengers of God include 2 Chronicles 36:15-16; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10; 24:31; Luke 7:24; 9:52; 1 Timothy 3:16; and Revelation 21:17. But why would a man be called “the angel of the Abyss?” Before answering this question, let us turn our attention to the implicit meaning behind the name Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Who is Apollyon?

The name Apollyon is a Greek play on words for Apollo and destroy.[28] The blending of these two words is meant to call attention to this agent’s identication with the Greek God Apollo and his active role as the destroyer of Israel. So who could this be, and why is he given the name Apollo?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is Titus the General of the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion.

The earthly reection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation.[29] As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: The Soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by Locusts, an Animal Sacred to Apollo.

At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulllment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is the Perfect Title for Titus.

The blending of the Greek words for Apollo–the god of death and plague–and destroy in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation, including the complete destruction of Jerusalem. That being said, an interesting coincidence occurred two months after Titus’ coronation further solidifying his link to Apollo, the God of death and plague: Mt. Vesuvius erupted causing a massive loss of life and later a terrible pestilence throughout Rome.[30] Below is a Roman coin representing Titus as Apollo.

Titus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Jan 1-June 30 80, A.D. (3.17g, 18.1m, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, tripod with llets, above dolphin; on tripod, two ravens, left and right, and wreath under the dolphin. RIC II 131. From the private collection of Lucas Harsh posted on Forvm Ancient Coins. Web. 1 June 2013. Used with permission.

On the front of the coin is the bust of Titus. On the back is a tripod, laurel wreath, a dolphin and two ravens: all symbols of Apollo. At the top of the coin are two ravens and a dolphin, both animals are sacred to Apollo. The tripod is Apollo’s most famous attribute representing his prophetic powers. Perhaps this is partially why Titus is also identied in Revelation as the false prophet (Revelation 19:20)?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Why is Caesar Titus called the Angel of the Abyss?

Having explained how the earthly counterpart or fulllment of Abaddon and Apollyon is

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2

3

4

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6

7

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[26a]

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11 Scorpio (the scorpion) “They had tails and stings like scorpions . . .”

Here the tail of Scorpio may be a metaphor for the Roman spear, with its tail representing the shaft and its stinger the blade.

The Roman soldier with his standard-issue spear looks like a scorpion.

It is also possible that the scorpion image in v. 10 may refer to the Roman ballista, a siege engine that hurled darts or arrows, and even the onager also known as the catapult. The ballista was called the scorpio meaning scorpion. Thus it is perhaps not surprisingly that some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate the ballista as “scorpion.”[27a] According to Amminaus Marcellius, 4 century A.D., the Onager (Lat., ‘wild ass’) was [also] originally known as the ‘scorpion.’”[27b]

According to Brian Martin some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate this siege engine as “scorpion.”

They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is an Angel with a Human Counterpart.

Many commentators have identied Abaddon and Apollyon as an angel and rightly so. Abaddon is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for destruction and it is used virtually interchangeably with Sheol or the Abyss, the realm of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20).[27c] Thus Apollyon does appear to be an angel. However, there can be no doubt that this angel has a human counterpart.

As frequently stated and emphasized in this commentary, events in the Book of Revelation are often fullled both in heaven and on earth. In other words, events said to have transpired in the spiritual realms often have reections on earth that also fulll these predictions. The fact that Apollyon or Abaddon is said to be an angel does not preclude him from being a man. Each of the human pastors of the seven churches in the introduction to John’s vision are addressed as the “angel” of their church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). Other examples in the Bible in which saints or prophets are called angels or messengers of God include 2 Chronicles 36:15-16; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10; 24:31; Luke 7:24; 9:52; 1 Timothy 3:16; and Revelation 21:17. But why would a man be called “the angel of the Abyss?” Before answering this question, let us turn our attention to the implicit meaning behind the name Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Who is Apollyon?

The name Apollyon is a Greek play on words for Apollo and destroy.[28] The blending of these two words is meant to call attention to this agent’s identication with the Greek God Apollo and his active role as the destroyer of Israel. So who could this be, and why is he given the name Apollo?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is Titus the General of the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion.

The earthly reection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation.[29] As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: The Soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by Locusts, an Animal Sacred to Apollo.

At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulllment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is the Perfect Title for Titus.

The blending of the Greek words for Apollo–the god of death and plague–and destroy in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation, including the complete destruction of Jerusalem. That being said, an interesting coincidence occurred two months after Titus’ coronation further solidifying his link to Apollo, the God of death and plague: Mt. Vesuvius erupted causing a massive loss of life and later a terrible pestilence throughout Rome.[30] Below is a Roman coin representing Titus as Apollo.

Titus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Jan 1-June 30 80, A.D. (3.17g, 18.1m, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, tripod with llets, above dolphin; on tripod, two ravens, left and right, and wreath under the dolphin. RIC II 131. From the private collection of Lucas Harsh posted on Forvm Ancient Coins. Web. 1 June 2013. Used with permission.

On the front of the coin is the bust of Titus. On the back is a tripod, laurel wreath, a dolphin and two ravens: all symbols of Apollo. At the top of the coin are two ravens and a dolphin, both animals are sacred to Apollo. The tripod is Apollo’s most famous attribute representing his prophetic powers. Perhaps this is partially why Titus is also identied in Revelation as the false prophet (Revelation 19:20)?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Why is Caesar Titus called the Angel of the Abyss?

Having explained how the earthly counterpart or fulllment of Abaddon and Apollyon is

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11 Scorpio (the scorpion) “They had tails and stings like scorpions . . .”

Here the tail of Scorpio may be a metaphor for the Roman spear, with its tail representing the shaft and its stinger the blade.

The Roman soldier with his standard-issue spear looks like a scorpion.

It is also possible that the scorpion image in v. 10 may refer to the Roman ballista, a siege engine that hurled darts or arrows, and even the onager also known as the catapult. The ballista was called the scorpio meaning scorpion. Thus it is perhaps not surprisingly that some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate the ballista as “scorpion.”[27a] According to Amminaus Marcellius, 4 century A.D., the Onager (Lat., ‘wild ass’) was [also] originally known as the ‘scorpion.’”[27b]

According to Brian Martin some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate this siege engine as “scorpion.”

They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is an Angel with a Human Counterpart.

Many commentators have identied Abaddon and Apollyon as an angel and rightly so. Abaddon is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for destruction and it is used virtually interchangeably with Sheol or the Abyss, the realm of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20).[27c] Thus Apollyon does appear to be an angel. However, there can be no doubt that this angel has a human counterpart.

As frequently stated and emphasized in this commentary, events in the Book of Revelation are often fullled both in heaven and on earth. In other words, events said to have transpired in the spiritual realms often have reections on earth that also fulll these predictions. The fact that Apollyon or Abaddon is said to be an angel does not preclude him from being a man. Each of the human pastors of the seven churches in the introduction to John’s vision are addressed as the “angel” of their church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). Other examples in the Bible in which saints or prophets are called angels or messengers of God include 2 Chronicles 36:15-16; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10; 24:31; Luke 7:24; 9:52; 1 Timothy 3:16; and Revelation 21:17. But why would a man be called “the angel of the Abyss?” Before answering this question, let us turn our attention to the implicit meaning behind the name Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Who is Apollyon?

The name Apollyon is a Greek play on words for Apollo and destroy.[28] The blending of these two words is meant to call attention to this agent’s identication with the Greek God Apollo and his active role as the destroyer of Israel. So who could this be, and why is he given the name Apollo?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is Titus the General of the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion.

The earthly reection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation.[29] As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: The Soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by Locusts, an Animal Sacred to Apollo.

At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulllment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is the Perfect Title for Titus.

The blending of the Greek words for Apollo–the god of death and plague–and destroy in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation, including the complete destruction of Jerusalem. That being said, an interesting coincidence occurred two months after Titus’ coronation further solidifying his link to Apollo, the God of death and plague: Mt. Vesuvius erupted causing a massive loss of life and later a terrible pestilence throughout Rome.[30] Below is a Roman coin representing Titus as Apollo.

Titus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Jan 1-June 30 80, A.D. (3.17g, 18.1m, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, tripod with llets, above dolphin; on tripod, two ravens, left and right, and wreath under the dolphin. RIC II 131. From the private collection of Lucas Harsh posted on Forvm Ancient Coins. Web. 1 June 2013. Used with permission.

On the front of the coin is the bust of Titus. On the back is a tripod, laurel wreath, a dolphin and two ravens: all symbols of Apollo. At the top of the coin are two ravens and a dolphin, both animals are sacred to Apollo. The tripod is Apollo’s most famous attribute representing his prophetic powers. Perhaps this is partially why Titus is also identied in Revelation as the false prophet (Revelation 19:20)?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Why is Caesar Titus called the Angel of the Abyss?

Having explained how the earthly counterpart or fulllment of Abaddon and Apollyon is

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THE RESOURCE CURSE (Weediquette)/Genocide, Hotel Rowanda

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THE RESOURCE CURSE

The resource curse, also known as the paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources, specifically non-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources

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Resource curse

The resource curse, also known as the paradox of plenty, refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources, specifically non-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have less economic growth, less democracy, and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources. This is hypothesized to happen for many different reasons, and there are many academic debates about when and why it occurs. Most experts believe the resource curse is not universal or inevitable, but affects certain types of countries or regions under certain conditions. [1][2]

The idea that resources might be more of an economic curse than a blessing began to emerge in debates in the 1950s and 1960s about the economic problems of low and middle-income countries. [3] The term resource curse was first used by Richard Auty in 1993 to describe how countries rich in mineral resources were unable to use that wealth to boost their economies and how, counter-intuitively, these countries had lower economic growth than countries without an abundance of natural resources. An influential study by Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner found a strong correlation between natural resource abundance and poor economic growth. [4] Hundreds of studies have now evaluated the effects of resource wealth on a wide range of economic outcomes, and offered many explanations for how, why, and when a resource curse is likely to occur. [1][5]

While “the lottery analogy has value but also has shortcomings”, [6] many observers have likened the resource curse to the difficulties that befall lottery winners who struggle to manage the complex side-effects of newfound wealth. [7][8][9][10]

The IMF classifies 51 countries as “resource-rich.” These are countries which derive at least 20% of exports or 20% of fiscal revenue from nonrenewable natural resources. 29 of these countries are low- and lower-middle-income. Common characteristics of these 29 countries include (i) extreme dependence on resource wealth for fiscal revenues, export sales, or both; (ii) low saving rates; (iii) poor growth performance; and (iv) highly volatile resource revenues. [1]

Dutch disease

Main article: Dutch disease

Dutch disease makes tradable goods less competitive in world markets. Absent currency manipulation or a currency peg, appreciation of the currency can damage other sectors, leading to a compensating unfavorable balance of trade. As imports become cheaper in all sectors, internal employment suffers and with it the skill infrastructure and manufacturing capabilities of the nation. This problem has historically influenced the domestic economics of large empires including Rome during its transition from a Republic, and the United Kingdom during the height of its colonial empire. To compensate for the loss of local employment opportunities, government resources are used to artificially create employment. The increasing national revenue will often also result in higher government spending on health, welfare, military, and public infrastructure, and if this is done corruptly or inefficiently it can be a burden on the economy. (If it is done efficiently this can boost economic competitiveness – effectively acting as a wage subsidy). While the decrease in the sectors exposed to international competition and consequently even greater dependence on natural resource revenue leaves the economy vulnerable to price changes in the natural resource, this can be managed by an active and effective use of hedge instruments such as forwards, futures, options and swaps, however if it is managed inefficiently or corruptly this can lead to disastrous results. Also, since productivity generally increases faster in the manufacturing sector, the economy will lose out on some of those productivity gains. Dutch Disease first became apparent after the Dutch discovered a massive natural gas field in Groningen in 1959. The Netherlands sought to tap this resource in an attempt to export the gas for profit. However, when the gas began to flow out of the country so too did its ability to compete against other countries’ exports. With the Netherlands’ focus primarily on the new gas exports, the Dutch currency began to appreciate, which harmed the country’s ability to export other products. With the growing gas market and the shrinking export economy, the Netherlands began to experience a recession. This process has been witnessed in multiple countries around the world including but not limited to Venezuela (oil), Angola (diamonds, oil), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (diamonds), and various other nations. All of these countries are considered “resource-cursed”. [11]

Revenue volatility

Prices for some natural resources are subject to wide fluctuation: for example crude oil prices rose from around $3 per barrel to $12/bbl in 1974 following the 1973 oil crisis and fell from $27/bbl to below $10/bbl during the 1986 glut. In the decade from 1998 to 2008, it rose from $10/bbl to $145/bbl, before falling by more than half to $60/bbl over a few months. When government revenues are dominated by inflows from natural resources (for example, 99.3% of Angola’s exports came from just oil and diamonds in 2005), [12] this volatility can play havoc with government planning and debt service. Abrupt changes in economic realities that result from this often provoke widespread breaking of contracts or curtailment of social programs, eroding the rule of law and popular support. Responsible use of financial hedges can mitigate this risk to some extent.

Susceptibility to this volatility can be increased where governments chose to borrow heavily in foreign currency. Real exchange rate increases, through capital inflows or the “Dutch disease” can make this appear an attractive option by lowering the cost of interest payments on the foreign debt, and they may be considered more creditworthy due to the existence of natural resources. If the resource prices fall, however, the governments’ capacity to meet debt repayments will be reduced. For example, many oil-rich countries like Nigeria and Venezuela saw rapid expansions of their debt burdens during the 1970s oil boom; however, when oil prices fell in the 1980s, bankers stopped lending to them and many of them fell into arrears, triggering penalty interest charges that made their debts grow even more. As Venezuelan oil minister and OPEC co-founder Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo presciently warned in 1976: “Ten years from now, twenty years from now, you will see, oil will bring us ruin… It is the devil’s excrement.” [13]

Enclave effects

Economic diversification may be neglected by authorities or delayed in the light of the temporary high profitability of the limited natural resources. The attempts at diversification that do occur are often grand public works projects which may be misguided or mismanaged. However, even if the authorities try to diversify the economy, this is made difficult because the resource extraction is vastly more lucrative and out-competes other industries. Successful natural-resource-exporting countries often become more dependent on extractive industries over time. The abundance of revenue from natural resources discourages long-term investment in infrastructure which would support a more diverse economy, increasing the negative impact of sudden resource-price drops. While the resource sectors tend to provide large financial revenues, they often provide few jobs, and tend to operate as enclaves with few forward and backward connections to the rest of the economy.

Human resources

In many poor countries, natural resource industries tend to pay far higher salaries than what would be available elsewhere in the economy. [citation needed] This tends to attract the best talent from both private and government sectors, damaging these sectors by depriving them of their best skilled personnel. Another possible effect of the resource curse is the crowding out of human capital; countries that rely on natural resource exports may tend to neglect education because they see no immediate need for it. Resource-poor economies like Singapore, Taiwan or South Korea, by contrast, spent enormous efforts on education, and this contributed in part to their economic success (see East Asian Tigers). Other researchers, however, dispute this conclusion; they argue that natural resources generate easily taxable rents that more often than not result in increased spending on education. [14]

Incomes and employment

A study on coal mining in Appalachia “suggest that the presence of coal in the Appalachian region has played a significant part in its slow pace of economic development. Our best estimates indicate that an increase of 0.5 units in the ratio of coal revenues to personal income in a county is associated with a 0.7 percentage point decrease in income growth rates. No doubt, coal mining provides opportunities for relatively high-wage employment in the region, but its effect on prosperity appears to be negative in the longer run.” [15]

Another example was the Spanish Empire which obtained enormous wealth from its resource-rich colonies in South America in the sixteenth century. The large cash inflows from silver reduced incentives for industrial development in Spain. Innovation and investment in education were therefore neglected, so that the prerequisites for successful future development were given up. Thus, Spain soon lost its economic strength in comparison to other Western countries. [16]

A study of US oil booms finds positive effects on local employment and income during booms but “that incomes per capita decreased and unemployment compensation payments increased relative to what they would have been if the boom had not occurred.” [17]

Natural resources are a source of economic rent which can generate large revenues for those controlling them even in the absence of political stability and wider economic growth. Their existence is a potential source of conflict between factions fighting for a share of the revenue, which may take the form of armed separatist conflicts in regions where the resources are produced or internal conflict between different government ministries or departments for access to budgetary allocations. This tends to erode governments’ abilities to function effectively. [18][19]

Even when politically stable, countries whose economies are dominated by resource extraction industries tend to be less democratic and more corrupt. [20][21]

Armed conflict

According to one academic study, a country that is otherwise typical but has primary commodity exports around 5% of GDP has a 6% risk of conflict, but when exports are 25% of GDP the chance of conflict rises to 33%. [22]

Ethno-political groups are more likely to resort to rebellion rather than using nonviolent means or becoming terrorists when representing regions rich in oil. [23]

There are several factors behind the relationship between natural resources and armed conflicts. [2] Resource wealth may increase the vulnerability of countries to conflicts by undermining the quality of governance and economic performance, [24] (the ‘resource curse’ argument). Secondly, conflicts can occur over the control and exploitation of resources and the allocation of their revenues (the ‘resource war’ argument). Thirdly, access to resource revenues by belligerents can prolong conflicts (the ‘conflict resource’ argument). [25]

A 2004 literature review finds that oil makes the on-set of war more likely and that lootable resources lengthen existing conflicts. [26] One study finds the mere discovery (as opposed to just the exploitation) of petroleum resources increases the risk of conflict, as oil revenues have the potential to alter the balance of power between regimes and their opponents, rendering bargains in the present obsolete in the future. [27]

One study suggests that the rise in mineral prices over the period 1997-2010 contributed to up to 21 percent of the average country-level violence in Africa. [28] Research shows that declining oil prices make oil-rich states less bellicose. [29] Jeff Colgan observed that oil-rich states have a propensity to instigate international conflicts as well as to be the targets of them, which he referred to as “petro-aggression”. [30]

Arguable examples include Iraq’s invasion of Iran and Kuwait; Libya’s repeated incursions into Chad in the 1970s and 1980s; Iran’s long-standing suspicion of Western powers; USA’s relations with Iraq and Iran. It is not clear whether the pattern of petro-aggression found in oil-rich countries also applies to other natural resources besides oil. A 2016 study finds that “oil production, oil reserves, oil dependence, and oil exports are associated with a higher risk of initiating conflict while countries enjoying large oil reserves are more frequently the target of military actions.” [31]

The emergence of the Sicilian Mafia has been attributed to the resource curse. Early Mafia activity is strongly linked to Sicilian municipalities abundant in sulphur, Sicily’s most valuable export commodity. [32]

Authoritarian rule

See also: Rentier state

Research shows that oil wealth lowers levels of democracy and strengthens autocratic rule. [20][33][34][35][36][37]

According to Michael Ross, “only one type of resource has been consistently correlated with less democracy and worse institutions: petroleum, which is the key variable in the vast majority of the studies that identify some type of curse.” [2] A 2014 meta-analysis confirms the negative impact of oil wealth on democratization. [38] A 2016 study challenges the conventional academic wisdom on the relationship between oil and authoritarianism. [39]

Another 2016 study finds that resource windfalls have no political impact on democracies and deeply entrenched authoritarian regimes, but significantly exacerbate the autocratic nature of moderately authoritarian regimes. [40]

There are two ways that oil wealth might negatively affect democratization. The first is that oil strengthens authoritarian regimes, making transitions to democracy less likely. The second is that oil wealth weakens democracies. Research generally supports the first theory but is mixed on the second. [2]

Both pathways might result from the ability of oil-rich states to provide citizens with a combination of generous benefits and low taxes. In many economies that are not resource-dependent, governments tax citizens, who demand efficient and responsive government in return. This bargain establishes a political relationship between rulers and subjects. In countries whose economies are dominated by natural resources, however, rulers don’t need to tax their citizens because they have a guaranteed source of income from natural resources. [41][42] Because the country’s citizens aren’t being taxed, they have less incentive to be watchful with how government spends its money. [43] In addition, those benefiting from mineral resource wealth may perceive an effective and watchful civil service and civil society as a threat to the benefits that they enjoy, and they may take steps to thwart them. [20] As a result, citizens are often poorly served by their rulers, [44] and if the citizens complain, money from the natural resources enables governments to pay for armed forces to keep the citizens in check. It has been argued rises and falls in the price of petroleum correlate with rises and falls in the implementation of human rights in major oil-producing countries. [45][46]

Corrupt members of national governments may collude with resource extraction companies to override their own laws and ignore objections made by indigenous inhabitants. [47] The United States Senate Foreign Relations Committee report entitled “Petroleum and Poverty Paradox” states that “too often, oil money that should go to a nation’s poor ends up in the pockets of the rich, or it may be squandered on grand palaces and massive showcase projects instead of being invested productively”. [48]

The Center for Global Development argues governance in resource rich states would be improved by the government making universal, transparent, and regular payments of oil revenues to citizens, and then attempting to reclaim it through the tax system, which they argue will fuel public demand for the government to be transparent and accountable in its management of natural resource revenues and in the delivery of public services. [49]

One study finds that “oil producing states dependent on exports to the USA exhibit lower human rights performance than those exporting to China”. The authors argue that this stems from the fact that US relationships with oil producers were formed decades ago, before human rights became part of its foreign policy agenda. [50]

Gender inequality

Research links gender inequality in the Middle East to resource wealth. [51] A study in the US finds similar results: resource wealth leads to lower levels of female labor force participation, lower turnout and fewer seats held by women in legislatures. [52]

International cooperation

Research finds that the more that states depend on oil exports, the less cooperative they become: they grow less likely to join intergovernmental organizations, to accept the compulsory jurisdiction of international judicial bodies, and to agree to binding arbitration for investment disputes. [53]

A 2008 study argues that the curse vanishes when looking not at the relative importance of resource exports in the economy but rather at a different measure: the relative abundance of natural resources in the ground. Using that variable to compare countries, it reports that resource wealth in the ground correlates with slightly higher economic growth and slightly fewer armed conflicts. That a high dependency on resource exports correlates with bad policies and effects is not caused by the large degree of resource exportation. The causation goes in the opposite direction: conflicts and bad policies created the heavy dependence on exports of natural resources. When a country’s chaos and economic policies scare off foreign investors and send local entrepreneurs abroad to look for better opportunities, the economy becomes skewed. Factories may close and businesses may flee, but petroleum and precious metals remain for the taking. Resource extraction becomes the “default sector” that still functions after other industries have come to a halt. [54][55]

A 2011 article that examines the long-term relationship between natural resource reliance and regime type across the world from 1800 to 2006 reports that increases in natural resource reliance do not induce authoritarianism. With a focus on alleviating the methodological biases of earlier studies, the authors find evidence which suggests that increasing reliance on natural resources promotes democratization, the opposite of what the Resource curse theory suggests. [56] The researchers provide qualitative evidence for this fact across several countries both here, and in another article; [57] as well as evidence that there is no relationship between resource reliance and authoritarianism in Latin America. [58] The main methodological bias of earlier studies, the authors claim, is the assumption of random effects: “Numerous sources of bias may be driving the results [of earlier studies on the resource curse], the most serious of which is omitted variable bias induced by unobserved country-specific and time-invariant heterogeneity.” [56] In other words, this means that countries might have specific, enduring traits that gets left out of the model, which could increase the explanation power of the argument. The authors claim that the chances of this happening is larger when assuming random effects, an assumption that does not allow for what the authors call “unobserved country-specific heterogeneity”. [56]

These criticism have themselves been subject to criticism. One study re-examined the Haber-Menaldo analysis, using Haber and Menaldo’s own data and statistical models. It reports that their conclusions are only valid for the period before the 1970s, but since about 1980, there has been a pronounced resource curse. Authors Andersen and Ross suggest that oil wealth only became a hindrance to democratic transitions after the transformative events of the 1970s, which enabled developing country governments to capture the oil rents that were previously siphoned off by foreign-owned firms.

A 2011 study argues that previous assumptions that oil abundance is a curse were based on methodologies which failed to take into account cross-country differences and dependencies arising from global shocks, such as changes in technology and the price of oil. The researchers studied data from the World Bank over the period 1980–2006 for 53 countries, covering 85% of world GDP and 81% of world proven oil reserves. They found that oil abundance positively affected both short-term growth and long-term income levels. [59]

In a companion paper, using data on 118 countries over the period 1970–2007, they show that it is the volatility in commodity prices, rather than abundance per se, that drives the resource curse paradox. [60][61]

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CERN 666 Carbon Atoms

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ANGELS AND DEMONS (CERN)
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CERN=666= NUMBER OF MAN SYMBOLISM

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Is “www” in Hebrew equal to 666?

We’ve gotten several emails asking is it true “www” is “666” in the Hebrew language.

YES. . . and. . . NO.

NOTE: “www” is the acronym for world wide web and is normally used as the prefix, or first node of the Internet domain names, such as http://www.av1611.org

FIRST. . . The YES.

How to get 666 from www?

The Hebrew and Greek alphabet does not have separate characters or alphabets for numbers and letters. Letters are also used as numbers. So each letter is a numerical value.

The Hebrew equivalent of our “w” is the letter “vav” or “waw”. The numerical value of vav is 6. So the English “www” transliterated into Hebrew is “vav vav vav”, which numerically is 666.

HEBREW-ENGLISH-NUMBER TABLE

The English equivalent is below theHebrew letter (in parenthesis). The number value of theHebrew letter isbelow the English letter. The “vav” or English “w” or “6” ishighlighted in yellow. Bytheway, Hebrew reads right to left. vav vav vav = www = 666

Now. . . the NO.

A little “detail” concerning the Biblical number “666”:

Notice how Revelation 13:18 reads:

Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. Rev. 13:18

The number is NOT simply three SIXES or 6-6-6, but 600 + 60 + 6, or the number “Six hundred sixty and six”.

In Revelation 13:18 we’re curiously told to “count the number of the beast”. How do we “count the number of the beast”? In Revelation 14:11 the mark is referred to “the mark of his NAME”. In Revelation 13:17, 15:2 it’s called “the number of his NAME”. So the “mark” and “number” refer to his “name”. We count the number of his name.

In the Greek and Hebrew language there are no “numbers” such as 1, 2, 3, or 666. The Greek and Hebrew letters are also numbers. Gematria is the adding up or “counting” (Rev 13:18), the numerical equivalent of each letter in a word or name. This was fairly common in the days before alphabetic numbers. For instance, on the walls of ancient Pompeii, someone wrote, “I love her whose number is 545”.

For instance, it’s common knowledge, the name of Jesus in Greek equals 888

Grant Jeffrey writes in Prince of Darkness:

The number 666 indicates that the letters in the Greek form of the name of the Antichrist will add up to 666. There is a slim possibility that his name will equal 666 in the Hebrew language since the Antichrist will be Jewish. The numeric system does not work in English or in languages other than Greek or Hebrew, so it is useless to calculate the values of names in these modern languages. (Grant R. Jeffrey, Prince of Darkness, pp. 275, 277)

The “count the number of the beast” is the total of adding the letter/numerical value of his name. This “count” equals “Six hundred sixty and six’, not simply three 6’s or 666.

So if we apply the clear teaching of Revelation 13:18 to the Hebrew “www”, we actually have 6+6+6 or 18 — not 666.

Another interesting insight. . .

It’s also been discovered the Hebrew letter “vav” means “hook, peg or nail”. The number “6” also resembles a “hook”. Is the internet “hooking” the world into the 666 system.

IS THE WORLD WIDE WEB — 666: THE MARK OF THE BEAST?

Before some “simple soul” gets too excited and starts screaming the World Wide Web is “666” and a dozen new books hit the bookshelves declaring “666 Is Here”!, let’s briefly read what God says about 666: the mark of the beast:

And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a MARK in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the MARK, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. Rev. 13:16-18

The Mark of the Beast is received only after “worship” of the beast or his image.

“If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark. . . ” Rev. 14:9

“. . . who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark. . . ” Rev. 14:11

” . . .which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.” Rev. 16:2

” . . . them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. . .” Rev. 19:20

” . . . which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark . . .” Rev. 20:4

Let’s compare the World Wide Web and 666: The Mark of the Beast.

Why the World Wide Web (www) is NOT 666: the Mark of the Beast

666 is total of the numerical values in the letters of the antichrist’s name The World Wide Web is not a name.

666 is total of the numerical values of the letters in the antichrist’s name The actual total of “www” is 18 — not 666.

666 is the number of a man, the antichrist, or the beast The World Wide Web is not a man.

The mark of the beast controls the ability to buy or sell The World Wide Web currently does not

The mark of the beast goes in the right hand or forehead The World Wide Web does not.

The mark is symbolic of the antichrist or beast The World Wide Web is not

The mark is received only after worshiping the beast The World Wide Web is not worship

Should I be concerned with “www” as “666”?

No.

What does all this mean?

Not much. Other than it’s interesting and prophetic the number “666” seems to “pop-up” more and more. . . humhhhh. . .

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CARBON ATOMS (NOT A.D.A.M!!!) 666
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