APOLLYON IS HERE

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ISAIAH 46:9 (REMEMBER THE MOST ANCIENT OF TIMES)

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GENESIS 1:1- (TIME, SPACE & MATTER=Signs=7 STARS)

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ESOTERIC #9 (Numerology/NWO, Illuminati)

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APOLLYON EXPLAINED WEBSITE

The earthly reection of the locusts of Revelation 9 are Roman soldiers and the General Titus is the human reection of Apollyon. Following the precedent set in the Book of Joel, the locusts in this chapter are an invading army. Roman legions and auxiliaries were often represented by dierent constellations and signs of the zodiac. Interestingly, all the attributes used to describe this locust army were taken directly from constellations that would have been visible the night of Passover, the holiday in which Jesus was crucied and Titus and his army began their ve month siege of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. The fact that Jerusalem fell after ve months fullls Revelation 9:5:The locust army was “not given power to kill them, but only to torture them for ve months.” Abaddon and Apollyon is an angel with an obvious human counterpart. Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the commander of the Apollonian Legion. The soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by locusts because locusts are sacred to Apollo. Titus then went on to succeed his father, Vespasian, as general over all the Roman legions in Israel after Vespasian became emperor. At this time a multitude of soldiers from the Euphrates converged on Jerusalem in fulllment of Revelation 9:14. In Revelation 9:1-3 a swarm of locusts is released from the Abyss, the dark underworld of the dead. This resurrection motif points to the rise of the Flavian Dynasty who together revived the Roman Empire by putting an end to the civil war following Nero’s death. In other words, the Roman Empire under the Flavian Caesars is the beast whose wound had been healed of Revelation 13:3 and the beast that rises out of the Abyss in Revelation 9:2-3, Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 17. In the following preterist Bible commentary on Revelation 9, the reader will be exposed to compelling evidence of the fulllment of every detail of every verse in this chapter.

The following may seem unbelievable. However, all information is taken from unbiased historical records and is easily veriable. Sources listed at the end.

The locusts of Revelation 9 are the Roman army described in a blended likeness of those constellations visible in the night sky on Passover, the night in which Rome began its siege of Jerusalem in A.D. 70.

Overwhelming Evidence that the Earthly Shadow of the Locusts are the Roman Legions and the Human Counterpart of Apollyon is Titus Flavius Vespasianus

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: As is the Case in Ezekiel 28 in which the Earthly Fall of the King of Tyre is depicted as the Fall of an Angel from Heaven, Revelation 9 also describes earthly events in Otherworldly Imagery.

In Ezekiel 28, Ezekiel predicts ruin for the king of Tyre, a prophecy likely fullled in the sixth century B.C. However, while predicting the fall of this earthly king, Ezekiel describes this event as if describing the fall of an angel from heaven:

“Son of man, take up a lament concerning the king of Tyre and say to him: ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: “‘You were the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. . . . You were anointed as a guardian cherub, for so I ordained you. . . . You were blameless in your ways from the day you were created till wickedness was found in you. . . . So I drove you in disgrace from the mount of God, and I expelled you, guardian cherub, from among the ery stones. So I threw you to the earth; I made a spectacle of you before kings (Ezekiel 28:12-17).

Revelation 9 also describes earthly events in otherworldly imagery. In this chapter, the resurrection of the beast under the Flavian Dynasty and the subsequent return of the Roman army to besiege Jerusalem is depicted in the image of demons rising out of the Abyss. (Though I believe that it is likely that spiritual beings truly did rise from the Abyss to act behind the scenes to aid in the fall of Jerusalem as implied in this chapter.)

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Fifth Trumpet was Fullled Twice.

In Revelation 9:1-3 an army rises out of the Abyss. As stated often throughout these commentaries, the sea or Abyss has a double meaning. Throughout Revelation these two terms point to both the dark underworld of the dead and the Gentile nations, specically Rome, simultaneously. Thus the locust army is both a spiritual army from the realm of the dead and a Gentile or Roman earthly army. In other words, the predictions concerning the fth trumpet and bowl of Revelation may have a dual fulllment. Initially these predictions were fullled on earth metaphorically from A.D. 69 to 70 with the resurrection of the beast during the rise of Vespasian and the Flavian dynasty and the subsequent return of Titus and the Roman army to Israel. Then shortly after Vespasian’s death and Titus’ coronation, these predictions may have been fullled quite literally in a vision of supernatural beings seen coming out of a volcano during a famous volcanic eruption.[1] See Was Revelation 9 and Revelation 16:10-11 Literally Fullled in a Famous Volcanic Eruption?.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: Rome’s Darkest Hour . . .

As prophesied in Revelation 9:2 and Revelation 16:10, the beast’s kingdom was plunged into a darkness. In A.D. 69, Rome faced what may have been its darkest hour. That year warring generals pitted the empire’s legions against one another threatening to collapse the empire and ultimately resulting in the deaths of three self-proclaimed Caesars. Ripped apart by civil war, Rome temporarily ceased its assault on Israel. Then order arose out of chaos as control of the empire fell securely into hands of the former general of the Jewish War—Vespasian.

The sixth trumpet and bowl describe what happened next: Upon Vespasian’s ascension, in A.D. 70, control of the Roman legions in Israel passed to his son Titus. Desiring a quick victory, Vespasian drew thousands more Roman soldiers and auxiliaries from neighboring provinces to aid in the war eort. This plague describes the mobilization of these troops and their subsequent assault on Jerusalem.

Martin, John. One of the Seven Plagues of Egypt.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Fifth and Sixth Trumpets are the Eighth and Ninth Plagues of Exodus.

Holding to the theme of the last chapter, John continues to connect future events to the plagues of Exodus. This chapter represents the plague of locusts and the plague of darkness. This plague of darkness links the fth trumpet with the fth bowl of Revelation 16:10 in which the beast’s kingdom is plunged into darkness. Thus in both Revelation 9:2 and in Revelation 16:10, the beast’s kingdom is cast into darkness.

Locusts are an ancient Canaanite and Biblical metaphor for an invading foreign/Gentile army. This point is illustrated in the rst and second chapters of Joel where the Babylonian army of the sixth century B.C. is portrayed as a swarm of locusts. This imagery is also found in Judges 6:5, 7:12; Jeremiah 51:14, 27; and Nahum 3:15. The fact that foreign/Gentile armies are symbolized by locusts is not just found in the Bible, it is also implicit in the Babylonian Talmud where it is said, “The destruction of Jerusalem [during Israel’s rst century war with Rome] came through a Kamza [locust] and a Bar Kamza [son of a locust].”[3] Here one can see that according to the Babylonian Talmud, rst century Jerusalem was destroyed by locusts. The reason the Talmud says that Jerusalem was destroyed by locusts is because locusts are a symbol of Gentiles or foreigners. This point is shown in Strong’s Concordance which denes Gentile in the following terms:

#1471 gowy go’-ee rarely (shortened) goy {go’-ee}; apparently from the same root as 1465 (in the sense of meaning); a foreign nation; hence, a Gentile; also (guratively) a troop of animals, or a ight of locusts[.]”

The fact that locusts represent Gentile or foreign invaders is echoed in this chapter of Revelation as will be exhaustively shown below. This locust symbolism is multifaceted. When laying siege to a city, invading forces, much a like a swarm of locusts, will leave the surrounding countryside stripped of food, timber and vegetation in order to feed the war eort. These armies will also often set re to anything their enemies might nd useful as the Romans did when they burned many of the cities and rural areas of Palestine during the Jewish War. Interestingly, locusts “were known to the people of Palestine as ‘burners of the land,’ a phrase derived from the literal meaning of ‘locust.’”[3a] Furthermore, when seen at a great distance, an army of several thousand troops even looks like locusts in a eld. But what do locusts look like?

There is an old Arab saying paraphrased by Isbon Beckwith in which locusts are described as having “ a head like a horse, a breast like a lion, feet like a camel, a body like a serpent, and antennae like the hair of a maiden.”[3b] The locusts of Revelation 9 with their woman’s hair, lions’ teeth, serpent heads and serpent tails are described somewhat similarly. However, there is much more to the description of the locusts in Revelation 9 than a common Middle Eastern anatomical description of locusts.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Fact that the Locust Army is described in the Attributes of the Zodiac Implies that this Army is the Roman Legions.

In this chapter, the author of Revelation describes the Roman military, which is soon to attack Jerusalem, as a plague of locusts from the Abyss. The soldiers of the vast Roman military are said to breathe re, have woman’s hair, lions’ teeth, serpent heads and scorpion tails. This odd choice of symbolism, like much of John’s vision, has double meaning. Roman legions were often signied by a dierent sign of the zodiac or constellation in the night sky. Each Roman legion and auxiliary cohort often carried an image of a sacred constellation or a sign of the zodiac when going into battle. The sign of the zodiac for a particular legion or cohort typically represented the month in which the unit was created. The fact that this army from the Abyss is described in the image and attributes of the zodiac and its surrounding constellations broadly hints at the identity of this locust army as the Roman legions.[4]

The fact that the Roman legions are described in the imagery of the zodiac also serves an important literary function that compliments a major theme in Revelation. The zodiac was originally developed and disseminated by and from ancient Babylon. Therefore, the fact that the Roman legions are described in stereotypical Babylonian iconography points to Rome as spiritual Babylon mentioned later in the Book of Revelation. (It should also be noted that Jerusalem is called Babylon in Revelation as well. This is because as a result her spiritual act of adultery with Rome, Jerusalem became one esh with Rome like a prostitute becoming one esh with her lover (1 Corinthians 6:16). For a detailed explanation of how the spiritual act of adultery between rst century Jerusalem and Rome accounts for why Jerusalem is also called Babylon in Revelation see the commentary on Revelation 17.)

Roberts, David. The Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans Under the Command of Titus, A.D. 70 . 1850. Yeshiva University Museum, New York.

Revelation 9 Commentary Intro: The Constellations used to describe the Locust Army were all visible the First Night of the Roman Siege of Jerusalem.

The choice of constellations used in Revelation 9 to describe this army also describes the appearance of the Roman army in the image and attributes of those constellations visible in the night sky during the rst night of Titus’ ve month siege of Jerusalem.[5] Thus through the zodiac imagery of this chapter, John sends four messages:

1) The zodiac symbolism in this chapter is designed to describe the appearance and tactics of the army soon to invade Jerusalem.

2) The zodiac symbolism points to the Roman Legions which were each represented by a constellation of the night sky.

3) The zodiac iconography hints at the identity of this army as spiritual Babylon.

4) The constellations of the zodiac referred to in this chapter also point to the time of attack

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The Zodiac. On Passover, the holiday in which Jesus was crucied and the Romans began their siege of Jerusalem, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Ophiuchus and Sagittarius would have stretched across the night sky in a band with the Hydra below Leo and Virgo. All the attributes of the locust army were taken directly from these constellations.

Titus began his assault on Jerusalem during Passover—the anniversary in which these people had killed the Messiah. That night the constellations Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Ophiuchus and Sagittarius would have stretched across the night sky in a band with the Hydra below Leo and Virgo to the southwest.[6] Most of the symbolism in this chapter comes from these constellations. In vs. 8 and 17 the locusts of Revelation 9 are said to have the head and teeth of a lion. When a nighttime observer is facing north on Passover these attributes are on display just over the western horizon in the constellation of the lion, Leo. Along the ecliptic, just above Leo is the lady Virgo, giving rise to the woman’s hair in v. 8. Beyond Virgo are the scales of Libra. In Revelation 9:15, the four horsemen of Revelation 6 are released–one of which is holding the scales of Libra in his hand–warning Jerusalem to ration its food for the coming siege. The next constellation in this procession is Scorpio: symbolizing the tail of the scorpion in v. 10. Interestingly, in ancient Hellenistic calendars locusts appear in this sign of the zodiac: astrologically accounting for the locust imagery in this chapter.[7] Just above Scorpio is Ophiuchus, the serpent bearer. The constellation Ophiuchus is a man holding a snake. Here one can see the serpent head and tail symbolism in v. 19. At the end of the southern horizon is Centaurus with Sagittarius at the southeast. Sagittarius and Centaurus are both centaurs. Half man and half horse, these two star clusters account for the imagery of the horse with a human face in v. 7.

Directly beside these signs of the zodiac, in the part of the sky called the sea, lies the Hydra. This constellation originally represented the re-breathing leviathan, a seven-headed serpent used by John and the prophet Daniel to symbolize Rome. In this constellation one can see the origin of the rebrand symbolism mentioned in vs. 17 and 19. As will be exhaustively shown in the remainder of the chapter, these attributes of the above mentioned constellations highlight important elements of the weaponry, war tactics and appearance of the Roman military.

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The fth angel sounded his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from the sky to the earth. The star was given

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the key to the shaft of the Abyss. When he opened the Abyss, smoke rose from it like the smoke from a gigantic furnace. The sun and sky were darkened by the

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smoke from the Abyss. And out of the smoke locusts came down upon the earth and were given power like that of scorpions of the earth.

Martin, John. The Eruption of Vesuvius.1789 – 1854

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: Was there a Volcanic Eruption in Campania in A.D. 69 at the Rise of the Flavian Dynasty?

As also implied in Revelation 9:1-3, 1 Enoch 10:4-7 reveals that the Abyss, like the ery magma of the earth’s core, is located under the earth (Numbers 16:31, Ezekiel 26:20, Luke 16:23 and 2 Peter 2:4). In Revelation 9:1-3 an angel opens the Abyss releasing smoke and re. This smoke is so dark that according to v. 2 it darkens the sun and sky. Revelation 9:1-3 appears to be describing a volcanic eruption. Volcanic eruptions often release so much smoke and ash that they can cover vast areas around the eruption in darkness so thick that it can blot out the sun sometimes hundreds of miles away as was the case with the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79.[7a] And like the eruption of Vesuvius which completely buried the town of Pompeii in ash, volcanic eruptions can also quickly bury a city in volcanic debris and hot ash. In his historical account of A.D. 69, the unusually calamitous year before the rise of the Flavian Dynasty, Tacitus writes, “Whole towns were burnt down or buried throughout the richest part of the coast of Campania [central, coastal Italy].”[7b] Could these towns in Campania have been burned down and buried from a volcanic eruption in explicit fulllment of Revelation 9:1-3?

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: Rome, the Beast, dies with Nero Caesar and rises from the Dead with the Flavian Dynasty–Vespasian, Titus and Domitian–Who together revived the Roman Empire by putting an End to Rome’s Civil War and the War with Israel.

Regardless of whether or not a volcano actually erupted in A.D. 69, Revelation 9:1-3 is replete with resurrection imagery pointing to the release of the beast from the Abyss, the underworld of the dead, at the rise of the Flavian Dynasty. In Revelation 9:2-3 a locust army is released from the Abyss. In Revelation 9:11 the king of this army is identied as “the angel of the Abyss, whose name . . . [is] Apollyon.” Apollyon is the beast that “once was, now is not, and will come up out of the Abyss” in Revelation 17:8. Because the Abyss is the spiritual realm of the dead, the expression “once was, now is not, and will come up out of the Abyss” is a cryptic way of saying, “This beast once was alive, now is dead, and yet will rise from the dead.” This beast who dies and then rises out of the Abyss is Rome represented by its Caesars.

After the death of Nero Caesar in June of A.D. 68, Rome collapsed because of civil war and the Roman legions withdrew from Israel. This period of civil war from the death of Nero in the summer of A.D. 68 to the rise of Vespasian in A.D. 70 represents the death of the beast. This period from A.D. 68 to A.D. 70 is the period of the fth trumpet of Revelation 9:1-12 and the fth bowl of Revelation 16:10-11. The fact that Rome, the beast, had been hurled into darkness in Revelation 9:2 and Revelation 16:10 during the fth trumpet and bowl implies that the beast had been cast into the Abyss, the dark underworld of the dead described in Job 10:19-22 as “the land of deepest night, of utter darkness” and called outer darkness by Jesus in the Gospels.[8]

Vespasian and Titus. The rise of the Flavian Dynasty is the beast that rises out of the Abyss also known as the beast whose wound has been healed.

As explained in Revelation 13:3, the Flavian Dynasty–Caesar Vespasian, Caesar Titus and Caesar Domitian–is the beast whose wound had been healed. At Vespasian’s coronation as emperor of Rome, Vespasian and his two sons and successors, Titus and Domitian, were simultaneously granted the title Caesar.[9] Thus the beast is embodied by Caesar Vespasian, Caesar Titus and Caesar Domitian who shortly after coming to power brought peace back to Rome after destroying Jerusalem. Having restored the unity of the empire by putting an end to the civil war at the fall of Jerusalem, the Flavian Dynasty brought the Roman beast which had died as a consequence of civil war back to life. In other words, the Roman Empire under the trinity of Flavian Caesars is the beast whose wound had been healed of Revelation 13:3 and the beast that rises out of the Abyss in Revelation 9:2-3, Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 17. See Revelation 11: A Preterist Commentary–Who are the Two Witnesses? and Revelation 17: A Preterist Commentary.

In Revelation 9:1-3, a star is given the key to the shaft of the Abyss. The fact that this star has the key to the Abyss shows that it has power over death itself. This star is Jesus Christ who is given authority over death in Revelation 1:18. This star opens the Abyss causing locusts to be released under the authority of Apollyon (Revelation 9:11). The ascent of Apollyon and his army of locusts from the Abyss is resurrection imagery. These verses are a metaphorical depiction of the resurrection of the Roman beast under the Flavians. But why is the resurrection of Rome also mentioned in Revelation 13:3, Revelation 11:7 and Revelation 17 portrayed as a locust army rising out of the Abyss, the dark underworld of the dead?

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: The Death and Resurrection of the Beast is also Illustrated by Titus’ and Vespasian’s Presence in Israel, the Earth, and Rome, the Sea or Abyss.

In the Book of Revelation, the Abyss is not just the land of the dead. Abyss also has a symbolic meaning. The Abyss represents foreign nations, in this case Rome, throughout the Apocalypse just as the earth symbolizes Israel (Revelation 17:15; Daniel 7; Psalm 65:7; 144:7; Isaiah 8:7-8; 17:12; 60:5; Jeremiah 46:7-8; 47:1-2; 51:55-56; Ezekiel 26:3). After the death of Nero Caesar, Rome ceased its assault on Judea and Titus and Vespasian left Israel not long after.[11] Thus around the time of the death of the beast, Vespasian and Titus left Israel, the earth, and went to Lebanon and Egypt in Gentile Rome, the sea or Abyss, in order to plot the overthrow of their rival for the emperor’s throne, Vitellius. Thus around the time in which the beast was “dead,” Vespasian and Titus were in the Abyss, Gentile Rome. Immediately after supplanting Vitellius and usurping the throne, Caesar Vespasian dispatched Titus back to Israel, the earth, with full control of the Roman military. Therefore, at the coronation of Vespasian which represents the resurrection of the beast, Titus and the Roman army leave the Abyss, Gentile Rome, and return to Israel. Put simply, when the beast, Vespasian and or Titus and the Roman army, was present on the earth, Israel, the beast was symbolically alive. When the beast departed to the sea or Abyss, representing both Gentile Rome and the realm of the dead simultaneously, the beast was metaphorically dead. When the beast rises out of the sea or Abyss, the beast is alive again. Thus the departure of the beast and the Roman army from Gentile Rome, the Abyss, to Israel, the earth, is symbolized in Revelation 9:1-3 as a locust army rising out of the Abyss. This imagery is appropriate because the return of the Roman army to Israel was roughly concurrent with the coronation of Vespasian which marked the resurrection of the beast.

Revelation 9:1-3 Commentary: Revelation 9 was also fullled Symbolically during the Reign of Caesar Titus (A.D. 79-81).

The Emperor Nero

As stated above, Revelation 9:1-3 were fullled metaphorically from A.D. 68-A.D. 70 with the death of Nero and the rise of the Vespasian and the Flavian Dynasty which represented the resurrection of the beast. That having been said, it should be noted that an interesting historical peculiarity may hint at the fact that the Flavian Dynasty; Caesar Vespasian, Caesar Titus and Caesar Domitian; signied the resurrection of the beast. During the reign of the second emperor of the Flavian dynasty; Titus, Vespasian’s son and successor; a man resembling Nero, the beast with the wounded head of Revelation 13:3, appeared in Rome. Describing this man, Cassius Dio writes:

In his reign also the False Nero appeared, who was an Asiatic named Terentius Maximus. He resembled Nero both in appearance and in voice (for he too sang to the accompaniment of the lyre). He gained a few followers in Asia, and his advance to the Euphrates attached a far greater number, and nally sought refuge with Artabanus, the Parthian leader, who . . . both received him and set about making preparations to restore him to Rome.[12]

As indicated in Revelation 13: A Preterist Commentary, Nero, Vespasian and Titus are all represented by the 666 cryptogram. In the Book of Revelation these three men symbolically represent a beast who dies and resurrects from the dead. Vespasian and Titus represent the beast whose wound had been healed while Nero represents the beast with the wounded head. If the Nero imposter was not the actual miraculous resurrection of Nero and thus a literal fulllment of Revelation 13:3, he at least represents a kind of counterfeit resurrection, a symbol pointing to Titus, one of the Flavians, as the beast who rises from the dead. Called Apollyon in Revelation 9:11 and the beast that comes out of the Abyss in Revelation 17:8, Titus like his father, Vespasian, is also seen as a kind of resurrected devil.

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They were told not to harm the grass of the earth or any plant or tree, but only those people who did not have the

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seal of God on their foreheads. They were not given power to kill them, but only to torture them for ve months. And the agony they suered was like that of the sting of a scorpion when it

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strikes a man. During those days men will seek death, but will not nd it; they will long to die, but death will elude them.

Revelation 9:5 Commentary: The Siege of Jerusalem lasted Five Months in Fulllment of v. 5.

In v. 5 the locusts of the Abyss are given power to torture mankind for ve months. This is the time period in which God had historically destroyed heaven and earth, rst during the ood in Genesis 7:24 and later during the Babylonian siege of Israel according to the Septuagint version of Ezekiel 4. Once again God destroys the land in ve months, this time using the Roman army.

The initial purpose of the fth trumpet of A.D. 68-70 was to prepare the Roman legions for war. In v. 5 these soldiers are given power to torture the people of Jerusalem for ve months, a power they will soon exercise at the blowing of the seventh trumpet. After the sounding of this trumpet, Titus’ vast army, described here, tortured the inhabitants of Jerusalem. For ve months, from the middle of Nisan to the middle of Elul, Titus’ army induced famine and plague in the closed quarters of the city before nally breaking through the last fortications and putting thousands of people out of their misery.[25] This ve month interval from the middle of Nisan to the middle of Elul in which Titus and his army besieged Jerusalem is also the same ve month timeframe in which locusts typically appear in Israel.[25a] This fact is one more piece of evidence pointing to the Roman army as the locusts of Revelation 9.

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The locusts looked like horses prepared for battle. On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.

Revelation 9:7 Commentary: The Roman Calvary is described in the Likeness of Sagittarius.

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Sagittarius, the centaur, and Corona Australis, the crown. “The locusts looked like horses prepared for battle. On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.”

As stated above, people of the ancient Middle East sometimes described the anatomical features of locusts in a chimeric fashion (using characteristics of other animals). In Revelation 9, John also describes Roman soldiers chimerically using various features of those constellations that were visible in the night sky on the day in which the Romans began their siege of Jerusalem. In this verse, John describes soldiers on horseback wrapped-up in the likeness of the constellation Sagittarius, the constellation seen on southeastern horizon at the start of the siege. Having the face of a man and the lower body of a horse, Sagittarius, like the locusts in this verse, also wears a crown, the constellation Corona Australis.[26] Here one can see how the locust cavalry of Revelation 9:7 wore a crown, had the face of a man and the body of a horse.

Revelation 9:7 Commentary: Locusts also represent an Invading Army in the Book of Joel.

As stated earlier, John follows the precedence set by the prophet Joel, who in a similar vision describes the Assyrian army invading Israel as a swarm of locusts. The rst half of this verse is a virtual quote of Joel 2:4. This fact suggests that these locusts may again refer to human soldiers on horseback. But having an earthly fulllment to the fth plague does not mean that there may not also be a spiritual one as well. The locusts of Revelation 9 are frequently seen to be a spiritual army because of the fact that these beings are released from the Abyss, the realm of the dead. For this reason, I believe that there is a dual fulllment of this plague, one that points rst to the Roman army under Titus’ leadership and then again in the mass-vision of spiritual beings seen in the ash of a famous eruption at the death of Vespasian. See Was Revelation 9 and Revelation 16:10-11 Fullled Literally in a Famous Volcanic Eruption?. It may also be possible that the spiritual army witnessed in the clouds over Israel at the start of the Jewish war in Iyyar of A.D. 66 is an earlier manifestation of this spiritual army. I believe that the combination of these two or three interpretations in this chapter is necessary to truly appreciate complete fulllment.

Moving to the next half of the verse, these locusts are said to wear crowns and have human faces. High ranking Roman cavalry often wore masks sometimes ornately adorned with crowns or laurel wreaths. Many of these masks were adorned with long hair, hence “the hair of women” in v. 8. Below is an example of one such mask worn in the middle of the rst century.

“On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.” Roman equestrian helmet. Valkhof Museum, Nijmegen.

Above one can see how the faces of these locust soldiers resembled that of a man wearing a golden crown.

Revelation 9:7 Commentary: Roman War Horses Sometimes Wore Helmets with Reliefs of Human Faces in Fulllment of v.7 in which the Horses are said to have Human Faces.

Roman war horses also wore armor guards over their heads. These armor guards made the horses appear as if they were wearing crowns in fulllment of v. 7. These armor guards could be very ornate containing reliefs of women, lion heads, or human faces with crowns just to name a few possibilities.

“On their heads they wore something like crowns of gold, and their faces resembled human faces.” Roman Horse Armor Straubing, Germany.

Their hair was like women’s hair, and their teeth were like lions’ teeth.

Revelation 9:8 Commentary: The Roman Calvary is described in the Likeness of Leo and Virgo.

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Scorpio (the scorpion) “They had tails and stings like scorpions . . .”

Here the tail of Scorpio may be a metaphor for the Roman spear, with its tail representing the shaft and its stinger the blade.

The Roman soldier with his standard-issue spear looks like a scorpion.

It is also possible that the scorpion image in v. 10 may refer to the Roman ballista, a siege engine that hurled darts or arrows, and even the onager also known as the catapult. The ballista was called the scorpio meaning scorpion. Thus it is perhaps not surprisingly that some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate the ballista as “scorpion.”[27a] According to Amminaus Marcellius, 4 century A.D., the Onager (Lat., ‘wild ass’) was [also] originally known as the ‘scorpion.’”[27b]

According to Brian Martin some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate this siege engine as “scorpion.”

They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is an Angel with a Human Counterpart.

Many commentators have identied Abaddon and Apollyon as an angel and rightly so. Abaddon is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for destruction and it is used virtually interchangeably with Sheol or the Abyss, the realm of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20).[27c] Thus Apollyon does appear to be an angel. However, there can be no doubt that this angel has a human counterpart.

As frequently stated and emphasized in this commentary, events in the Book of Revelation are often fullled both in heaven and on earth. In other words, events said to have transpired in the spiritual realms often have reections on earth that also fulll these predictions. The fact that Apollyon or Abaddon is said to be an angel does not preclude him from being a man. Each of the human pastors of the seven churches in the introduction to John’s vision are addressed as the “angel” of their church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). Other examples in the Bible in which saints or prophets are called angels or messengers of God include 2 Chronicles 36:15-16; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10; 24:31; Luke 7:24; 9:52; 1 Timothy 3:16; and Revelation 21:17. But why would a man be called “the angel of the Abyss?” Before answering this question, let us turn our attention to the implicit meaning behind the name Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Who is Apollyon?

The name Apollyon is a Greek play on words for Apollo and destroy.[28] The blending of these two words is meant to call attention to this agent’s identication with the Greek God Apollo and his active role as the destroyer of Israel. So who could this be, and why is he given the name Apollo?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is Titus the General of the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion.

The earthly reection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation.[29] As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: The Soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by Locusts, an Animal Sacred to Apollo.

At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulllment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is the Perfect Title for Titus.

The blending of the Greek words for Apollo–the god of death and plague–and destroy in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation, including the complete destruction of Jerusalem. That being said, an interesting coincidence occurred two months after Titus’ coronation further solidifying his link to Apollo, the God of death and plague: Mt. Vesuvius erupted causing a massive loss of life and later a terrible pestilence throughout Rome.[30] Below is a Roman coin representing Titus as Apollo.

Titus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Jan 1-June 30 80, A.D. (3.17g, 18.1m, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, tripod with llets, above dolphin; on tripod, two ravens, left and right, and wreath under the dolphin. RIC II 131. From the private collection of Lucas Harsh posted on Forvm Ancient Coins. Web. 1 June 2013. Used with permission.

On the front of the coin is the bust of Titus. On the back is a tripod, laurel wreath, a dolphin and two ravens: all symbols of Apollo. At the top of the coin are two ravens and a dolphin, both animals are sacred to Apollo. The tripod is Apollo’s most famous attribute representing his prophetic powers. Perhaps this is partially why Titus is also identied in Revelation as the false prophet (Revelation 19:20)?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Why is Caesar Titus called the Angel of the Abyss?

Having explained how the earthly counterpart or fulllment of Abaddon and Apollyon is

g , @g | p | g py p y

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[26a]

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11 Scorpio (the scorpion) “They had tails and stings like scorpions . . .”

Here the tail of Scorpio may be a metaphor for the Roman spear, with its tail representing the shaft and its stinger the blade.

The Roman soldier with his standard-issue spear looks like a scorpion.

It is also possible that the scorpion image in v. 10 may refer to the Roman ballista, a siege engine that hurled darts or arrows, and even the onager also known as the catapult. The ballista was called the scorpio meaning scorpion. Thus it is perhaps not surprisingly that some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate the ballista as “scorpion.”[27a] According to Amminaus Marcellius, 4 century A.D., the Onager (Lat., ‘wild ass’) was [also] originally known as the ‘scorpion.’”[27b]

According to Brian Martin some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate this siege engine as “scorpion.”

They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is an Angel with a Human Counterpart.

Many commentators have identied Abaddon and Apollyon as an angel and rightly so. Abaddon is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for destruction and it is used virtually interchangeably with Sheol or the Abyss, the realm of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20).[27c] Thus Apollyon does appear to be an angel. However, there can be no doubt that this angel has a human counterpart.

As frequently stated and emphasized in this commentary, events in the Book of Revelation are often fullled both in heaven and on earth. In other words, events said to have transpired in the spiritual realms often have reections on earth that also fulll these predictions. The fact that Apollyon or Abaddon is said to be an angel does not preclude him from being a man. Each of the human pastors of the seven churches in the introduction to John’s vision are addressed as the “angel” of their church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). Other examples in the Bible in which saints or prophets are called angels or messengers of God include 2 Chronicles 36:15-16; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10; 24:31; Luke 7:24; 9:52; 1 Timothy 3:16; and Revelation 21:17. But why would a man be called “the angel of the Abyss?” Before answering this question, let us turn our attention to the implicit meaning behind the name Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Who is Apollyon?

The name Apollyon is a Greek play on words for Apollo and destroy.[28] The blending of these two words is meant to call attention to this agent’s identication with the Greek God Apollo and his active role as the destroyer of Israel. So who could this be, and why is he given the name Apollo?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is Titus the General of the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion.

The earthly reection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation.[29] As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: The Soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by Locusts, an Animal Sacred to Apollo.

At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulllment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is the Perfect Title for Titus.

The blending of the Greek words for Apollo–the god of death and plague–and destroy in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation, including the complete destruction of Jerusalem. That being said, an interesting coincidence occurred two months after Titus’ coronation further solidifying his link to Apollo, the God of death and plague: Mt. Vesuvius erupted causing a massive loss of life and later a terrible pestilence throughout Rome.[30] Below is a Roman coin representing Titus as Apollo.

Titus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Jan 1-June 30 80, A.D. (3.17g, 18.1m, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, tripod with llets, above dolphin; on tripod, two ravens, left and right, and wreath under the dolphin. RIC II 131. From the private collection of Lucas Harsh posted on Forvm Ancient Coins. Web. 1 June 2013. Used with permission.

On the front of the coin is the bust of Titus. On the back is a tripod, laurel wreath, a dolphin and two ravens: all symbols of Apollo. At the top of the coin are two ravens and a dolphin, both animals are sacred to Apollo. The tripod is Apollo’s most famous attribute representing his prophetic powers. Perhaps this is partially why Titus is also identied in Revelation as the false prophet (Revelation 19:20)?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Why is Caesar Titus called the Angel of the Abyss?

Having explained how the earthly counterpart or fulllment of Abaddon and Apollyon is

g , @g | p | g py p y

1

2

3

4

5

6

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[26a]

9

10

th

11 Scorpio (the scorpion) “They had tails and stings like scorpions . . .”

Here the tail of Scorpio may be a metaphor for the Roman spear, with its tail representing the shaft and its stinger the blade.

The Roman soldier with his standard-issue spear looks like a scorpion.

It is also possible that the scorpion image in v. 10 may refer to the Roman ballista, a siege engine that hurled darts or arrows, and even the onager also known as the catapult. The ballista was called the scorpio meaning scorpion. Thus it is perhaps not surprisingly that some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate the ballista as “scorpion.”[27a] According to Amminaus Marcellius, 4 century A.D., the Onager (Lat., ‘wild ass’) was [also] originally known as the ‘scorpion.’”[27b]

According to Brian Martin some translations of The Wars of the Jews translate this siege engine as “scorpion.”

They had as king over them the angel of the Abyss, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek, Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is an Angel with a Human Counterpart.

Many commentators have identied Abaddon and Apollyon as an angel and rightly so. Abaddon is a transliteration of the Hebrew word for destruction and it is used virtually interchangeably with Sheol or the Abyss, the realm of the dead (Job 26:6; 28:22; 31:12; Psalm 88:11; Proverbs 15:11; 27:20).[27c] Thus Apollyon does appear to be an angel. However, there can be no doubt that this angel has a human counterpart.

As frequently stated and emphasized in this commentary, events in the Book of Revelation are often fullled both in heaven and on earth. In other words, events said to have transpired in the spiritual realms often have reections on earth that also fulll these predictions. The fact that Apollyon or Abaddon is said to be an angel does not preclude him from being a man. Each of the human pastors of the seven churches in the introduction to John’s vision are addressed as the “angel” of their church (Revelation 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14). Other examples in the Bible in which saints or prophets are called angels or messengers of God include 2 Chronicles 36:15-16; Haggai 1:13; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10; 24:31; Luke 7:24; 9:52; 1 Timothy 3:16; and Revelation 21:17. But why would a man be called “the angel of the Abyss?” Before answering this question, let us turn our attention to the implicit meaning behind the name Apollyon.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Who is Apollyon?

The name Apollyon is a Greek play on words for Apollo and destroy.[28] The blending of these two words is meant to call attention to this agent’s identication with the Greek God Apollo and his active role as the destroyer of Israel. So who could this be, and why is he given the name Apollo?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is Titus the General of the Fifteenth Apollonian Legion.

The earthly reection of Apollyon is Vespasian’s son Titus, the commander of the Legio XV Apollinaris (Fifteenth Apollonian Legion). Initially the commander of the Fifteenth Legion, Titus then went on to succeed his father as general over all the Roman legions during the Jewish War after his father had become Caesar, a title also bestowed on Titus at his father’s coronation.[29] As Caesar, Titus was entitled to worship as a god in the imperial cult, and like Apollo, the son of Zeus, could also be labeled the Son of God–a perfect title for the beast.

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: The Soldiers of the Apollonian Legion are represented by Locusts, an Animal Sacred to Apollo.

At the start of the Jewish War, Titus was the general of the Fifteenth Legion. With Apollo as its patron, the Fifteenth Legion was suitably nicknamed Apollinaris, a name meaning “devoted to Apollo.” The Fifteenth Legion would always carry an emblem of Apollo or one of his holy animals wherever it went. Not surprisingly, the locust was one of Apollo’s holy animals. Now it is easy to see why the author of Revelation chose locusts to symbolize the soldiers of the Roman army. So “devoted to Titus” was his army that at the taking of the Jewish temple, they unanimously declared him emperor of Rome in fulllment of v. 11 in which Apollyon is said to have been “king over them.”

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Apollyon is the Perfect Title for Titus.

The blending of the Greek words for Apollo–the god of death and plague–and destroy in the name Apollyon perfectly describes the man directly responsible for the remaining plagues of Revelation, including the complete destruction of Jerusalem. That being said, an interesting coincidence occurred two months after Titus’ coronation further solidifying his link to Apollo, the God of death and plague: Mt. Vesuvius erupted causing a massive loss of life and later a terrible pestilence throughout Rome.[30] Below is a Roman coin representing Titus as Apollo.

Titus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Jan 1-June 30 80, A.D. (3.17g, 18.1m, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, tripod with llets, above dolphin; on tripod, two ravens, left and right, and wreath under the dolphin. RIC II 131. From the private collection of Lucas Harsh posted on Forvm Ancient Coins. Web. 1 June 2013. Used with permission.

On the front of the coin is the bust of Titus. On the back is a tripod, laurel wreath, a dolphin and two ravens: all symbols of Apollo. At the top of the coin are two ravens and a dolphin, both animals are sacred to Apollo. The tripod is Apollo’s most famous attribute representing his prophetic powers. Perhaps this is partially why Titus is also identied in Revelation as the false prophet (Revelation 19:20)?

Revelation 9:11 Commentary: Why is Caesar Titus called the Angel of the Abyss?

Having explained how the earthly counterpart or fulllment of Abaddon and Apollyon is

g , @g | p | g py p y

1

2

3

4

5

6

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8

[26a]

9

10

th

11

Aliearia

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