Monthly Archives: October 2016

EBENEZER APOTHEOSIS 3

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POPE ARRIVES IN SWEDEN TO COMMEMORATE UNITY BETWEEN MARTIN LUTHER/LUTHERAN CHURCH & THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 10/30/2016

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POPE SAYS ALL ARE NOW CITIZENS, WITH REFUGEE ROOTS OCTOBER 31 2016

MATTHEW 23:17 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold?

23:1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,

23:2 Saying The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat:

23:3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.

23:4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.

23:5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,

(ISAIAH 4:1)

23:6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,

23:7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.

23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.

23:9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.

23:10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.

23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.

23:12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.

23:13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.

23:14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

23:15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

23:16 Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor!

23:18 And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty.

23:19 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?

23:20 Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.

23:21 And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.

23:22 And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.

23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

23:24 Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

23:25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

23:26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.

23:27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness.

23:28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.

23:29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous,

23:30 And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.

23:31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets.

23:32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.

23:33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

23:34 Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city:

23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

23:36 Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

23:37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

23:38 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

23:39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
———————–
MATTHEW 24:1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him the buildings of the temple.

24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.

24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?

24:4 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you.

24:5 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.

24:6 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.

24:7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.

24:8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.

24:9 Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name’s sake.

24:10 And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.

24:11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.

24:12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.

24:13 But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.

24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.

24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand)

24:16 Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:

24:17 Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house:

24:18 Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes.

24:19 And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!

24:20 But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day:

24:21 For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.

24:22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened.

24:23 Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.

24:24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

24:25 Behold, I have told you before.

24:26 Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.

24:27 For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:28 For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.

24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:

24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.

24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

24:32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh:

24:33 So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.

24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.

24:35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.

24:36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.

24:37 But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark,

24:39 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

24:41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

24:42 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.

24:43 But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.

24:44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.

24:45 Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?

24:46 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.

24:47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.

24:48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;24:49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;24:50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,

24:51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Matthew

A CHURCH DIVIDED CAN NOT STAND…

THE TRUE CHURCHES….

REVELATION 1:20

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MEASURE OF MAN, REED, PI, GOLDEN RATIO & FIBONNACI SEQUENCE

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Search Wikipedia

Measure of a Man may refer to:

The Measure of a Man, a sociopolitical and economic book by Martin Luther King, Jr.

The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography, a 2000 autobiographical work by Sidney Poitier

“The Measure of a Man”, a song from the 1990 album Rocky V, from artist Elton John

“Measure of a Man” (Jack Ingram song), 2007

“Measure of a Man” (Sam and Mark song), 2003

“The Measure of a Man”, a song from the 1996 4Him album The Message

Measure of a Man (Clay Aiken album), Clay Aiken’s debut album

Measure of a Man (Kevin Sharp album), the debut album of American country music artist Kevin Sharp

The Measure of a Man (1915 film), a 1915 silent drama film directed by Joe De Grasse and featuring Lon Chaney, Sr.

“The Measure of a Man” (Star Trek: The Next Generation), second-season episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation

The Measure of a Man (2015 film), a 2015 drama film directed by Stéphane Brizé.

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LUTHERAN CHURCH FAMILY GENEOLOGY

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LUTHERAN GENEOLOGY FAMILY TREE SITE

Got Lutheran ancestors? Our guide will show you how to trace them in Lutheran church records.

Lutheranism is probably the largest Christian denomination named for someone other than Jesus Christ. In the 16thcentury, Martin Luther tried to reform Roman Catholicism before founding the first substantial group inWestern Europe to remain independent of the Catholic church. While the starting principle of Lutheranism is that salvation comes from “faith not works,” genealogists with Lutheran ancestors can be thankful their forebears worked hard at producing loads of helpful records.

Luther was an Augustinian monk and professor who in 1517 challenged the medieval Catholic church’s materialism. He disputed, among other things, the ability to buy an “indulgence” as a way of obtaining pardon for the sins of the deceased.

Nonreligious events helped Luther’s cause. Many rulers of small German states seized upon religious discord as apath to greater independence from the Catholic-dominated Holy Roman Empire. Luther also used the newly invented printing press to widely disseminate his views.

Within a few decades, much of central and northern Germany had turned Lutheran. The faith soongained a foothold in Scandinavia, where national Lutheran churches were established by the early 1600s. Small Lutheran minorities existed across Europe from the British Isles to eastern Europe.

In the German states, subjects were to follow the religion of their ruler. The Peace of Augsburg allowed Lutheranism as a choice as early as 1555. The reality was more complicated, due to the existence of other Protestant groups such as the Reformed church.

During the early 1800s,the Kingdom of Prussia forcibly united Lutheran and Reformed worshippers under the name Evangelical. Congregations that dissented from this union became known as the “Old Lutherans.”

In America, Dutch Lutherans helped populate New Netherland (today’s New York) in the 1620s, though most people in this colony were Reformed. But the first New World settlement with a Lutheran majority was the New Sweden colony in the Delaware River region of what’s now Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey.

Lutherans made up the most prominent religious group among the large population of 18th-century German-speaking immigrants, most of whom settled in the Mid-Atlantic states. In the 1800s, many more German Lutherans came to America and settled the Midwestern territories and states. Joining them were increasing numbers of Lutheran Swedes, Danes, Norwegians and Finns. Some Eastern European Lutherans, mostly of German heritage,also came from areas of Russiaand Ukraine.

Lutherans themselves have splintered into smaller denominations. Around the world, some 250groups have a total membership estimated at 73 million. Lutheran congregations in America since the mid-1700s have joined in larger church bodies called “synods,” which are officiated by bishops.

Lutheran denominations run the gamut in both polity and politics; some are hierarchical and others more congregational. Records are kept on the congregational level, but denominational archives in many cases have microfilmed copies.

Today in the United States, the largest Lutheran denomination is the moderate-to-liberal Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, with about 4.2 million members. The ultraconservative Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod is the second-largest with about 2.5 million.

Records generated by and about Lutherans abound. Be aware that many of the records in the 1700s and 1800s are written in the language of the Lutheran immigrant group (and just to confuse youfurther, they often use an archaic cursive script). As a rule of thumb, city churches began recording in English earlier than in countryside areas, which often were settled by ethnically distinct groups.

In many cases, you’ll access records on Family History Library (FHL) microfilm or by contacting the church or an administrative archives. But also check the subscription genealogy website Archives.com, which has announced a project to digitize and index the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America’s 1,000 reels of microfilm containing millions of baptism, confirmation, marriage and funeral records. The parish register ledger books document Lutheran congregations throughout the United States from 1793 to 1940.

Among the best records for Lutheran genealogy research:

Baptism:Lutheran groups practice infant baptism. Nearly all congregations keep registers listing the names of the child, parents and sponsors (the “godparents,” who often are close relatives or friends), as well as dates of birth and baptism. Occasionally, you’ll find additional notations, such as the illegitimacy of the child or maiden name of the mother. Many 18th-and 19th-century registers have been abstracted (and some have been published), but because of the potential for transcription errors, your best bet whenever possible is to access the original. Look for FHL microfilm or contact either the local congregation or, if it no longer exists,a denominational archive.

Marriages: Records show the date of the marriage, couple’s names and sometimes their residences before marriage. Some also give the names of the bride’s and groom’s parents. Because many American Lutheran congregations shared ministers who “rode a circuit,” it’s not uncommon to find several churches’ marriages in the records of whatever congregation was considered the “seat” of the multicongregation parish at the time. It’s important to learn the history of the congregation and what churches it shared a minister with.

Burials: Relatively fewer congregations kept registers of those its ministers buried, but some do exist. The burial register usually recounts the funerals performed by that church’s minister, and the deceased wasn’t always achurch member. Those listed might have been of adifferent denomination and be buried in a different cemetery from church members.

Confirmations: Lutheran children were “confirmed” into the faith during their teens. These records generally list only the names of those confirmed, though some registers also give the confirmands’ ages and names of their fathers. Researchers most often use these when there’s a gap in the baptismal register.

Communions and membership lists: Membership in Lutheran congregations was far more fluid in the first centuries of US settlement than it is today. Churches didn’t frequently list their members; however, most congregations have at least a few preserved lists showing the names of those who communed and the date of communion, usually grouped by family.

Financial and minutes: Few congregations have preserved the earliest books showing the church’s accounting of funds. Likewise, minutes of their governing councils often don’t exist, but the rare ones that do offer keen insights into the running of the congregations.

Congregational and synodical histories:Lutherans loved to write histories, both of their congregations and the synods to which they belonged. Profiles of individual churches can be genealogical goldmines: They often include some of the pastoral records mentioned above and give information about the church’s member families throughout its history.

Newspapers: Some Lutheran synods published newspapers,primarily during the 19th century, that can serve as an alternate source for obituaries of church members. You also can glean a thick slice of life about the congregants during the time period. Find names and locations of these titles by entering Lutheran as a keyword in the Chronicling America newspaper directory.

Martin Luther is supposed to have nailed his 95 theses to the church door in Wittenberg,hoping the Catholic church would reform itself. Instead, areligion bearing his name was founded—and the centuries of documents this church generated may be the key to nailing down your Lutheran heritage.

Lists of Lutheran parish burials are less common than baptisms and marriages, but some do exist in the form of funerals the church’s minister performed. Keep in mind the deceased wasn’t always a church member, and might be buried in a different cemetery. In addition, much of the script in Lutheran church records of all types is in the language of the immigrant group that predominated in that particular parish—usually, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish or Slovakian. This burial register of the Trinity Lutheran Church in Reading, Pa., dates from 1811 and 1812. Although it’s written in German, the script is more Latin-looking than the writing you’ll find in many early church books of German-speaking Lutherans.

Union Churches

While Lutheranism has the cachet as the first breakaway Christian group to stick, further splintering followed in short order. Especially among German-speaking US immigrants, many early congregations shared church buildings in what were called “union churches,” some of which didn’t keep their early records distinct. Here’s the lowdown on two significant groups:

The religion known simply as “Reformed” was nurtured in German Switzerlandby Ulrich Zwingli and in French Switzerland by John Calvin. It became established in some German states and the Netherlands (Calvin’s teaching also led to Presbyterianism in Scotland),and was the second-largest religious group among 18th-century German-speaking US immigrants. Reformed churches’ “congregational” polity—in which their higher church bodies “speak to them, not for them”—resulted in less-standardized record-keeping and many private pastoral registers of baptisms and marriages. German Reformed congregations in the United States joined with Evangelicals in the 1930s and eventually became the United Church of Christ. Most records are on the congregational level, but the Evangelical and Reformed Historical Society archives in Lancaster, Pa., has many historical materials.

The Moravian Church (the denomination formally known as Unitas Fratrum or Unity of Brethren) dates to the teaching of JanHus, who was burned at the stake as a heretic in 1415. Inthe 1740s, Moravians founded Bethlehem, Pa., as their headquarters, and had a number of congregations in Mid-Atlantic and Southern states in Colonial times. Their carefully kept congregational diaries, detailed memoirs of members and other records are popular sources for researchers with ancestors in or near Moravian settlements. The MoravianArchives is in Bethlehem.

Tip: Find It With FamilySearch. Use the Family History Library online catalog to see what records the library might have for your ancestors’ Lutheran congregations. Run a place search for the county or town, then look for a church records listing for Lutheran congregations or their pastors. Note the microfilm number of relevant records, then visit your local FamilySearch Center to rent the film for a fee.

Lutheran Genealogy Records at a Glance

Baptisms Research tip: Nearly all congregations keep registers of this excellent birth record substitute. Most of the earliest (1700s) have been published; many from the 19th century have been abstracted; and FamilySearch has microfilmed many of the originals. Also check the collection of digitized Lutheran records on Archives.com.

Marriages Research tip: These records sometimes include names of the couple’s parents as well as their residences. In addition to records kept by individual congregations, pastors sometimes kept their ownregisters.

Congregational histories Research tip: Most congregations have celebrated landmark anniversaries with historical publications ranging from pamphlets to hardbound books. These often are chock-full of names and photos of people from the church’s days gone by.

Lutheran Genealogy Toolkit

Websites Cyndi’s List: Lutheran Genealoger: Lutheran Genealogy Lutheran Historical Society of the Mid-Atlantic Lutherans Online Genealogy

Publications A Brief History of the Lutheran Church in Americaby Juergen Ludwig Neve (Nabu Press) Early Lutheran Baptisms and Marriages in Southeastern Pennsylvania (Genealogical Publishing Co.) A History of Lutheranism by Eric W. Gritsch (Fortress Press) Understanding and Using Baptismal Records by John T. Humphrey (Humphrey Publications)

Organizations and Archives Concordia Historical Institute (Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod) 804 Seminary Place, St. Louis, MO 63105, (314) 505-7900 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Archives 321 Bonnie Lane, Elk Grove Village, IL 60007,(847) 690-9410 Lutheran Archives Center at Philadelphia 7301 Germantown Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19119,(215) 248-6383 Norwegian American Genealogical Center andNaeseth Library 415 W. Main St., Madison, WI53703-3116, (608) 255-2224

Timeline

1517 | Martin Luther nails his 95theses to a church door in Germany 1521 | Edict of Worms excommunicates Luther and his followers 1534 | Luther’s translation gives Germans the Bible in their own language 1555 | Peace of Augsburg allows German states’ rulers to choose Lutheranism 1624 | America’s first Lutherans help settle New Netherland 1638 | New Sweden is first American settlement with a Lutheran majority 1648| Catholics, Lutherans and Reformed are on equal footing after the Thirty Years’ War 1694 | University of Halle founded; it becomes the center of the Lutheran Pietism movement 1748 | Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlenbergforms the first Lutheran synod in America 1817 | Lutheran and Reformed in Prussia are united under the name Evangelical 1847 | Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod is founded in Chicago 1988 | ELCA becomes the largest US Lutheran denomination

From the July/August 2012 Family Tree Magazine

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POPE ARRIVES IN SWEDEN TO COMMEMORATE UNITY BETWEEN MARTIN LUTHER/LUTHERAN CHURCH & THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 10/30/2016

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POPE SAYS ALL ARE NOW CITIZENS, WITH REFUGEE ROOTS OCTOBER 31 2016

MATTHEW 23:17 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold?

23:1 Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,

23:2 Saying The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat:

23:3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.

23:4 For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.

23:5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,

(ISAIAH 4:1)

23:6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,

23:7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.

23:8 But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.

23:9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.

23:10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.

23:11 But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.

23:12 And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.

23:13 But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.

23:14 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.

23:15 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.

23:16 Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor!

23:18 And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty.

23:19 Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?

23:20 Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.

23:21 And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.

23:22 And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.

23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

23:24 Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

23:25 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

23:26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.

23:27 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness.

23:28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.

23:29 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous,

23:30 And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.

23:31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets.

23:32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.

23:33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?

23:34 Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city:

23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

23:36 Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

23:37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

23:38 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

23:39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
———————–
MATTHEW 24:1 And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him the buildings of the temple.

24:2 And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.

24:3 And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?

24:4 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you.

24:5 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.

24:6 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.

24:7 For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.

24:8 All these are the beginning of sorrows.

24:9 Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name’s sake.

24:10 And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.

24:11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.

24:12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.

24:13 But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.

24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.

24:15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand)

24:16 Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:

24:17 Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house:

24:18 Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes.

24:19 And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!

24:20 But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day:

24:21 For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.

24:22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened.

24:23 Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.

24:24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

24:25 Behold, I have told you before.

24:26 Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.

24:27 For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:28 For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.

24:29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:

24:30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.

24:31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

24:32 Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh:

24:33 So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.

24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.

24:35 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.

24:36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.

24:37 But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark,

24:39 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

24:40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

24:41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.

24:42 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.

24:43 But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.

24:44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.

24:45 Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?

24:46 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.

24:47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.

24:48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;24:49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;24:50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,

24:51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Matthew

A CHURCH DIVIDED CAN NOT STAND…

THE TRUE CHURCHES….

REVELATION 1:20

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MAYAN CALENDAR (complete)

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The Maya calendar is a system of calendars used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and in many modern communities in the Guatemalan highlands, [1] Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico. [2]

The essentials of the Maya calendar are based upon a system which had been in common use throughout the region, dating back to at least the 5th century BCE. It shares many aspects with calendars employed by other earlier Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Zapotec and Olmec, and contemporary or later ones such as the Mixtec and Aztec calendars. [3]

By the Maya mythological tradition, as documented in Colonial Yucatec accounts and reconstructed from Late Classic and Postclassic inscriptions, the deity Itzamna is frequently credited with bringing the knowledge of the calendar system to the ancestral Maya, along with writing in general and other foundational aspects of Maya culture. [4]

The Maya calendar consists of several cycles or counts of different lengths. The 260-day count is known to scholars as the Tzolkin, or Tzolk’in. [5] The Tzolkin was combined with a 365-day vague solar year known as the Haab’ to form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haab’, called the Calendar Round. The Calendar Round is still in use by many groups in the Guatemalan highlands. [6]

A different calendar was used to track longer periods of time, and for the inscription of calendar dates (i.e., identifying when one event occurred in relation to others). This is the Long Count. It is a count of days since a mythological starting-point. [7]

According to the correlation between the Long Count and Western calendars accepted by the great majority of Maya researchers (known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson, or GMT, correlation), this starting-point is equivalent to August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or 6 September in the Julian calendar (−3113 astronomical). The GMT correlation was chosen by John Eric Sydney Thompson in 1935 on the basis of earlier correlations by Joseph Goodman in 1905 (August 11), Juan Martínez Hernández in 1926 (August 12), and Thompson himself in 1927 (August 13). [8] By its linear nature, the Long Count was capable of being extended to refer to any date far into the past or future. This calendar involved the use of a positional notation system, in which each position signified an increasing multiple of the number of days. The Maya numeral system was essentially vigesimal (i.e., base-20), and each unit of a given position represented 20 times the unit of the position which preceded it. An important exception was made for the second-order place value, which instead represented 18 × 20, or 360 days, more closely approximating the solar year than would 20 × 20 = 400 days. It should be noted however that the cycles of the Long Count are independent of the solar year.

Many Maya Long Count inscriptions contain a supplementary series, which provides information on the lunar phase, number of the current lunation in a series of six and which of the nine Lords of the Night rules.

Less-prevalent or poorly understood cycles, combinations and calendar progressions were also tracked. An 819-day Count is attested in a few inscriptions. Repeating sets of 9 days (see below “Nine lords of the night”) [9]

associated with different groups of deities, animals, and other significant concepts are also known.

Main article: Tzolk’in

The tzolk’in (in modern Maya orthography; also commonly written tzolkin) is the name commonly employed by Mayanist researchers for the Maya Sacred Round or 260-day calendar. The word tzolk’in is a neologism coined in Yucatec Maya, to mean “count of days” (Coe 1992). The various names of this calendar as used by precolumbian Maya peoples are still debated by scholars. The Aztec calendar equivalent was called Tonalpohualli, in the Nahuatl language.

The tzolk’in calendar combines twenty day names with the thirteen day numbers to produce 260 unique days. It is used to determine the time of religious and ceremonial events and for divination. Each successive day is numbered from 1 up to 13 and then starting again at 1. Separately from this, every day is given a name in sequence from a list of 20 day names:

Some systems started the count with 1 Imix’, followed by 2 Ik’, 3 Ak’b’al, etc. up to 13 B’en. The day numbers then start again at 1 while the named-day sequence continues onwards, so the next days in the sequence are 1 Ix, 2 Men, 3 K’ib’, 4 Kab’an, 5 Etz’nab’, 6 Kawak, and 7 Ajaw. With all twenty named days used, these now began to repeat the cycle while the number sequence continues, so the next day after 7 Ajaw is 8 Imix’. The repetition of these interlocking 13- and 20-day cycles therefore takes 260 days to complete (that is, for every possible combination of number/named day to occur once).

Main article: Haab’

The Haab’ was made up of eighteen months of twenty days each plus a period of five days (“nameless days”) at the end of the year known as Wayeb’ (or Uayeb in 16th-century orthography). The five days of Wayeb’ were thought to be a dangerous time. Foster (2002) writes, “During Wayeb, portals between the mortal realm and the Underworld dissolved. No boundaries prevented the ill-intending deities from causing disasters.” To ward off these evil spirits, the Maya had customs and rituals they practiced during Wayeb’. For example, people avoided leaving their houses and washing or combing their hair. Bricker (1982) estimates that the Haab’ was first used around 550 BCE with a starting point of the winter solstice. [15]

The Haab’ month names are known today by their corresponding names in colonial-era Yukatek Maya, as transcribed by 16th-century sources (in particular, Diego de Landa and books such as the Chilam Balam of Chumayel). Phonemic analyses of Haab’ glyph names in pre-Columbian Maya inscriptions have demonstrated that the names for these twenty-day periods varied considerably from region to region and from period to period, reflecting differences in the base language(s) and usage in the Classic and Postclassic eras predating their recording by Spanish sources. [16]

Each day in the Haab’ calendar was identified by a day number in the month followed by the name of the month. Day numbers began with a glyph translated as the “seating of” a named month, which is usually regarded as day 0 of that month, although a minority treat it as day 20 of the month preceding the named month. In the latter case, the seating of Pop is day 5 of Wayeb’. For the majority, the first day of the year was 0 Pop (the seating of Pop). This was followed by 1 Pop, 2 Pop as far as 19 Pop then 0 Wo, 1 Wo and so on.

The Haab’ year had exactly 365 days, and ignored the extra quarter of day (approximately) in the actual tropical year. This meant that the seasons moved with respect to the calendar year by a quarter of a day each year, so that the calendar months named after particular seasons no longer corresponded to these seasons after a few centuries.

A Calendar Round date is a date that gives both the Tzolk’in and Haab’. This date will repeat after 52 Haab’ years or 18,980 days, a Calendar Round. For example, the current creation started on 4 Ahau 8 Kumk’u. When this date recurs it is known as a Calendar Round completion.

Arithmetically, the duration of the Calendar Round is the least common multiple of 260 and 365; 18,980 is 73 × 260 Tzolk’in days and 52 × 365 Haab’ days. [17]

Not every possible combination of Tzolk’in and Haab’ can occur. For Tzolk’in days Imix, Kimi, Chwen and Kib’, the Haab’ day can only be 4, 9, 14 or 19; for Ik’, Manik’, Eb’ and Kab’an, the Haab’ day can only be 0, 5, 10 or 15; for Akb’al’, Lamat, B’en and Etz’nab’, the Haab’ day can only be 1, 6, 11 or 16; for K’an, Muluk, Ix and Kawak, the Haab’ day can only be 2, 7, 12 or 17; and for Chikchan, Ok, Men and Ajaw, the Haab’ day can only be 3, 8, 13 or 18.

Year Bearer

A “Year Bearer” is a Tzolk’in day name that occurs on the first day of the Haab’. If the first day of the Haab’ is 0 Pop, then each 0 Pop will coincide with a Tzolk’in date, for example, 1 Ik’ 0 Pop. Since there are twenty Tzolk’in day names and the Haab’ year has 365 days (20*18 + 5), the Tzolk’in name for each succeeding Haab’ zero day will be incremented by 5 in the cycle of day names like this:

1 Ik’ 0 Pop 2 Manik’ 0 Pop 3 Eb’ 0 Pop 4 Kab’an 0 Pop 5 Ik’ 0 Pop…

Only these four of the Tzolk’in day names can coincide with 0 Pop, and these four are called the “Year Bearers”.

“Year Bearer” literally translates a Mayan concept. [18] Its importance resides in two facts. For one, the four years headed by the Year Bearers are named after them and share their characteristics; therefore, they also have their own prognostications and patron deities. [19] Moreover, since the Year Bearers are geographically identified with boundary markers or mountains, they help define the local community. [20]

The classic system of Year Bearers described above is found at Tikal and in the Dresden Codex. During the Late Classic period a different set of Year Bearers was in use in Campeche. In this system, the Year Bearers were the Tzolk’in that coincided with 1 Pop. These were Ak’b’al, Lamat, B’en and Edz’nab. During the Post-Classic period in Yucatán a third system was in use. In this system the Year Bearers were the days that coincided with 2 Pop: K’an, Muluc, Ix and Kawak. This system is found in the Chronicle of Oxkutzcab. In addition, just before the Spanish conquest in Mayapan the Maya began to number the days of the Haab’ from 1 to 20. In this system the Year Bearers are the same as in the 1 Pop –Campeche system. The Classic Year Bearer system is still in use in the Guatemalan highlands [21] and in Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico. [22]

East side of stela C, Quirigua with the mythical creation date of 13 baktuns, 0 katuns, 0 tuns, 0 uinals, 0 kins, 4 Ahau 8 Cumku – August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

Main article: Mesoamerican Long Count calendar

Since Calendar Round dates repeat every 18,980 days, approximately 52 solar years, the cycle repeats roughly once each lifetime, so a more refined method of dating was needed if history was to be recorded accurately. To specify dates over periods longer than 52 years, Mesoamericans used the Long Count calendar.

The Maya name for a day was k’in. Twenty of these k’ins are known as a winal or uinal. Eighteen winals make one tun. Twenty tuns are known as a k’atun. Twenty k’atuns make a b’ak’tun.

The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days from the Mayan creation date 4 Ahaw, 8 Kumk’u (August 11, 3114 BC in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or September 6 in the Julian calendar). But instead of using a base-10 (decimal) scheme like Western numbering, the Long Count days were tallied in a modified base-20 scheme. Thus 0.0.0.1.5 is equal to 25, and 0.0.0.2.0 is equal to 40. As the winal unit resets after only counting to 18, the Long Count consistently uses base-20 only if the tun is considered the primary unit of measurement, not the k’in; with the k’in and winal units being the number of days in the tun. The Long Count 0.0.1.0.0 represents 360 days, rather than the 400 in a purely base-20 (vigesimal) count.

There are also four rarely used higher-order cycles: piktun, kalabtun, k’inchiltun, and alautun.

Since the Long Count dates are unambiguous, the Long Count was particularly well suited to use on monuments. The monumental inscriptions would not only include the 5 digits of the Long Count, but would also include the two tzolk’in characters followed by the two haab’ characters.

Misinterpretation of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar was the basis for a popular belief that a cataclysm would take place on December 21, 2012. December 21, 2012 was simply the day that the calendar went to the next b’ak’tun, at Long Count 13.0.0.0.0. The date on which the calendar will go to the next piktun (a complete series of 20 b’ak’tuns), at Long Count 1.0.0.0.0.0, will be on October 13, 4772.

Sandra Noble, executive director of the Mesoamerican research organization Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI), notes that “for the ancient Maya, it was a huge celebration to make it to the end of a whole cycle”. She considers the portrayal of December 2012 as a doomsday or cosmic-shift event to be “a complete fabrication and a chance for a lot of people to cash in.” [23]

Many Classic period inscriptions include a series of glyphs known as the Supplementary Series. The operation of this series was largely worked out by John E. Teeple (1874–1931). The Supplementary Series most commonly consists of the following elements:

Lords of the Night

Main article: Lords of the Night

Each night was ruled by one of the nine lords of the underworld. This nine-day cycle was usually written as two glyphs: a glyph that referred to the Nine Lords as a group, followed by a glyph for the lord that would rule the next night.

Lunar Series

A lunar Series generally is written as five glyphs that provide information about the current lunation, the number of the lunation in a series of six, the current ruling lunar deity and the length of the current lunation.

Moon age

The Maya counted the number of days in the current lunation. They used two systems for the zero date of the lunar cycle: either the first night they could see the thin crescent moon or the first morning when they could not see the waning moon. [24] The age of the moon was depicted by a set of glyphs that mayanists coined glyphs D and E:

A new moon glyph was used for day zero in the lunar cycle.

D glyphs were used for lunar ages for days 1 through 19, with the number of days that had passed from the new moon.

For lunar ages 20 to 30, an E glyph was used, with the number of days from 20.

Count of Lunations

The Maya counted the lunations. This cycle appears in the lunar series as two glyphs that modern scholars call the ‘C’ and ‘X’ glyphs. The C glyph could be prefixed with a number indicating the lunation. No prefixing number meant one, whereas the numbers two through six indicated the other lunations. [25][26]

There was also a part of the C glyph that indicated where this fell in a larger cycle of 18 lunations. Accompanying the C glyph was the ‘X’ glyph that showed a similar pattern of 18 lunations. [27][28]

Lunation length

The present era lunar synodic period is about 29.5305877 mean solar days or about 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 2+ 7 /9 seconds. As a whole number, the number of days per lunation will be either 29 or 30 days, with the 30-day intervals necessarily occurring slightly more frequently than the 29-day intervals. The Maya wrote whether the lunar month was 29 or 30 days as two glyphs: a glyph for lunation length followed by either a glyph made up of a moon glyph over a bundle with a suffix of 9 for a 29-day lunation or a moon glyph with a suffix of 10 for a 30-day lunation. Since the Maya didn’t use fractions, lunations were approximated by using the formula that there were 149 lunations completed in 4400 days, which yielded a rather short mean month of exactly 4400 /149 = 29+ 79 /149 days = 29 days 12 hours 43 minutes and 29+ 59 /149 seconds, or about 29.5302 days. [29]

Some Mayan monuments include glyphs that record an 819-day count in their Initial Series. These can also be found in the Dresden codex. [30] This is described in Thompson. [31] More examples of this can be found in Kelley. [32] Each group of 819 days was associated with one of four colors and the cardinal direction with which it was associated — black corresponded to west, red to east, white to north, and yellow to south.

The 819-day count can be described several ways: Most of these are referred to using a “Y” glyph and a number. Many also have a glyph for K’awill — the god with a smoking mirror in his head. K’awill has been suggested as having a link to Jupiter. [33] In the Dresden codex almanac 59 there are Chaacs of the four colors. The accompanying texts begin with a directional glyph and a verb for 819-day-count phrases. Anderson [34]

provides a detailed description of the 819-day count.

During the late Classic period the Maya began to use an abbreviated short count instead of the Long Count. An example of this can be found on altar 14 at Tikal. [35] In the kingdoms of Postclassic Yucatán, the Short Count was used instead of the Long Count. The cyclical Short Count is a count of 13 k’atuns (or 260 tuns), in which each k’atun was named after its concluding day, Ahau (‘Lord’). 1 Imix was selected as the recurrent ‘first day’ of the cycle, corresponding to 1 Cipactli in the Aztec day count. The cycle was counted from katun 11 Ahau to katun 13 Ahau, with the coefficients of the katuns’ concluding days running in the order 11 – 9 – 7 – 5 – 3 – 1 – 12 – 10 – 8 –6 – 4 – 2 – 13 Ahau (since a division of 20 × 360 days by 13 falls 2 days short). The concluding day 13 Ahau was followed by the re-entering first day 1 Imix. This is the system as found in the colonial Books of Chilam Balam. In characteristic Mesoamerican fashion, these books project the cycle onto the landscape, with 13 Ahauob ‘Lordships’ dividing the land of Yucatán into 13 ‘kingdoms’. [36]

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AARON’S BREASTPLATE 12 Tribes=12 Zodiac Signs

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“Urim” redirects here. For other uses, see Urim (disambiguation).

In the Hebrew Bible, the Urim and Thummim (Hebrew: האורים והתומים, Standard ha-Urim veha-Tummim Tiberian hā Ûrîm wəhatTummîm) are associated with the hoshen (High Priest’s breastplate), divination in general, and cleromancy in particular. Most scholars suspect that the phrase refers to specific objects involved in the divination. [1]

Yale University Shield With a caption of “Urim and Thummim” in Hebrew letters

In accordance with the belief that Urim and Thummim translates to “Light and Truth”, the Latin equivalent Lux et Veritas has been used for several university mottoes. Lux et Veritas is the motto of Indiana University and the University of Montana; similarly, Northeastern University’s motto is Lux, Veritas, Virtus (Light, Truth, Virtue). Though Urim and Thummim itself is emblazoned across the open book pictured on the Yale University coat of arms, Lux et Veritas appears below on a banner.

The Urim and Thummim are also afforded some value as artifacts in some modern fiction:

Thomas Mann has elaborated greatly on the definition of this term in Joseph the Provider, the fourth book of his tetralogy Joseph and His Brothers. [citation needed]

A treasure hunt for the Urim and Thummim forms the central plot of the John Bellairs novel The Revenge of the Wizard’s Ghost [citation needed]

Their apparent desecration by an unknown vandal is a theme in the Arthur Conan Doyle short story “The Jew’s Breastplate”. [citation needed]

In the Christian fiction novel The Face of God, by Bill Myers, the pastor Daniel Lawson and terrorist Ibrahim el-Magd race to find the Urim and Thummim, as well as the twelve stones of the sacred breastplate, in order to hear God’s voice. [citation needed]

In the novel The Alchemist, by Paulo Coelho, page 30 the king of Salem gives the main character Santiago two stones that the king calls Urim and Thummim. One of the stones is black, which is said to signify yes, and the other is white, said to signify no; a significance applicable when the stones are asked an appropriate question and drawn from a bag. The king himself had removed the stones from his shining golden breastplate. [citation needed]

Urim and Thummim were the names given to two objects of mystical technology in the Prosopopeia transmedia series, culminating in the International Emmy Award-winning participatory drama series The Truth About Marika by SVT The company P. [32][not in citation given]

In the television series Dig, the breastplate that is a part of the mystery is said to be the breastplate of the High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem and used to communicate with God.

The traditional rabbinical descriptions of the function of Urim and Thummim—transmitting messages by glowing—have been claimed by some proponents of paleocontact hypothesis to be evidence in support of that hypothesis. [citation needed]

Cleromancy: the drawing of lots for the purpose of divination

Divination: ascertaining information by supernatural means

Dice: polyhedral objects used to randomize decisions

Oracle: person or object used to obtain information via prophecy or clairvoyance

Scrying: obtaining supernatural knowledge by means of an object

1. ^ a b c d Peake’s commentary on the Bible

2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Jewish Encyclopedia

3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica

4. ^ 1 Samuel 14:37

5. ^ Exodus 28:13-30

6. ^ Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Exodus 28:30

7. ^ Yoma 73a-b

8. ^ Yoma 44c in the Jerusalem Talmud

9. ^ Sifre, Numbers 141

10. ^ Yoma 73b

11. ^ 1 Samuel 28:3-6

12. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed

13. ^ Exodus 28:30

14. ^ Hosea 3:4

15. ^ Sanhedrin 16a

16. ^ Yoma 41b (Jerusalem Talmud)

17. ^ Shebbit 2-3, and 16a

18. ^ Shebbit 33d (Jerusalem Talmud)

19. ^ Sanhedrin 19b (Jerusalem Talmud)

20. ^ Yoma 7; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Exodus 28:30

21. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia .p.56

22. ^ Josephus Antiquities of the Jews (volume 3) 8:9

23. ^ Sotah 9:10

24. ^ Yoma 21b

25. ^ Tamid 65b (Jerusalem Talmud)

26. ^ Ezra 2:63 , which is also Nehemiah 7:65

27. ^ Joseph Smith–History . The Urim and Thummim were said to have been found with the golden plates, the aforementioned breastplate, and the Sword of Laban.

28. ^ Smith, Lucy Mack (1853). “Biographical sketches of Joseph Smith the prophet, and his progenitors for many generations.” . Brigham Young University Religious Education Archive. p. 101. Retrieved 2006-02-02. “It [Joseph’s Urim and Thummim]; also at EMD, 1: 328-29.”

29. ^ Section 9

30. ^ There are seven references to the Urim and Thummim in the Masoretic Text (the basis of most English translations of the Old Testament): Exodus 28:30 , Leviticus 8:8 ,

Numbers 27:21 , Deuteronomy 33:8 , 1 Samuel 28:6 , Ezra 2:63 , Nehemiah 7:65 . The Septuagint version (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the Old Testament) and some English translations of 1 Samuel 14:41 also references them.

31. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 130:8–10 .

32. ^ The Truth About Marika , The company P

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“Urim” redirects here. For other uses, see Urim (disambiguation).

In the Hebrew Bible, the Urim and Thummim (Hebrew: האורים והתומים, Standard ha-Urim veha-Tummim Tiberian hā Ûrîm wəhatTummîm) are associated with the hoshen (High Priest’s breastplate), divination in general, and cleromancy in particular. Most scholars suspect that the phrase refers to specific objects involved in the divination. [1]

Yale University Shield With a caption of “Urim and Thummim” in Hebrew letters

In accordance with the belief that Urim and Thummim translates to “Light and Truth”, the Latin equivalent Lux et Veritas has been used for several university mottoes. Lux et Veritas is the motto of Indiana University and the University of Montana; similarly, Northeastern University’s motto is Lux, Veritas, Virtus (Light, Truth, Virtue). Though Urim and Thummim itself is emblazoned across the open book pictured on the Yale University coat of arms, Lux et Veritas appears below on a banner.

The Urim and Thummim are also afforded some value as artifacts in some modern fiction:

Thomas Mann has elaborated greatly on the definition of this term in Joseph the Provider, the fourth book of his tetralogy Joseph and His Brothers. [citation needed]

A treasure hunt for the Urim and Thummim forms the central plot of the John Bellairs novel The Revenge of the Wizard’s Ghost [citation needed]

Their apparent desecration by an unknown vandal is a theme in the Arthur Conan Doyle short story “The Jew’s Breastplate”. [citation needed]

In the Christian fiction novel The Face of God, by Bill Myers, the pastor Daniel Lawson and terrorist Ibrahim el-Magd race to find the Urim and Thummim, as well as the twelve stones of the sacred breastplate, in order to hear God’s voice. [citation needed]

In the novel The Alchemist, by Paulo Coelho, page 30 the king of Salem gives the main character Santiago two stones that the king calls Urim and Thummim. One of the stones is black, which is said to signify yes, and the other is white, said to signify no; a significance applicable when the stones are asked an appropriate question and drawn from a bag. The king himself had removed the stones from his shining golden breastplate. [citation needed]

Urim and Thummim were the names given to two objects of mystical technology in the Prosopopeia transmedia series, culminating in the International Emmy Award-winning participatory drama series The Truth About Marika by SVT The company P. [32][not in citation given]

In the television series Dig, the breastplate that is a part of the mystery is said to be the breastplate of the High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem and used to communicate with God.

The traditional rabbinical descriptions of the function of Urim and Thummim—transmitting messages by glowing—have been claimed by some proponents of paleocontact hypothesis to be evidence in support of that hypothesis. [citation needed]

Cleromancy: the drawing of lots for the purpose of divination

Divination: ascertaining information by supernatural means

Dice: polyhedral objects used to randomize decisions

Oracle: person or object used to obtain information via prophecy or clairvoyance

Scrying: obtaining supernatural knowledge by means of an object

1. ^ a b c d Peake’s commentary on the Bible

2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Jewish Encyclopedia

3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica

4. ^ 1 Samuel 14:37

5. ^ Exodus 28:13-30

6. ^ Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Exodus 28:30

7. ^ Yoma 73a-b

8. ^ Yoma 44c in the Jerusalem Talmud

9. ^ Sifre, Numbers 141

10. ^ Yoma 73b

11. ^ 1 Samuel 28:3-6

12. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed

13. ^ Exodus 28:30

14. ^ Hosea 3:4

15. ^ Sanhedrin 16a

16. ^ Yoma 41b (Jerusalem Talmud)

17. ^ Shebbit 2-3, and 16a

18. ^ Shebbit 33d (Jerusalem Talmud)

19. ^ Sanhedrin 19b (Jerusalem Talmud)

20. ^ Yoma 7; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Exodus 28:30

21. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia .p.56

22. ^ Josephus Antiquities of the Jews (volume 3) 8:9

23. ^ Sotah 9:10

24. ^ Yoma 21b

25. ^ Tamid 65b (Jerusalem Talmud)

26. ^ Ezra 2:63 , which is also Nehemiah 7:65

27. ^ Joseph Smith–History . The Urim and Thummim were said to have been found with the golden plates, the aforementioned breastplate, and the Sword of Laban.

28. ^ Smith, Lucy Mack (1853). “Biographical sketches of Joseph Smith the prophet, and his progenitors for many generations.” . Brigham Young University Religious Education Archive. p. 101. Retrieved 2006-02-02. “It [Joseph’s Urim and Thummim]; also at EMD, 1: 328-29.”

29. ^ Section 9

30. ^ There are seven references to the Urim and Thummim in the Masoretic Text (the basis of most English translations of the Old Testament): Exodus 28:30 , Leviticus 8:8 ,

Numbers 27:21 , Deuteronomy 33:8 , 1 Samuel 28:6 , Ezra 2:63 , Nehemiah 7:65 . The Septuagint version (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the Old Testament) and some English translations of 1 Samuel 14:41 also references them.

31. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 130:8–10 .

32. ^ The Truth About Marika , The company P

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Ceramic replica of the High Priest’s breastplate

The priestly breastplate (Hebrew: ןֶׁשֹח ošen) was a sacred breastplate worn by the High Priest of the Israelites, according to the Book of Exodus. In the biblical account, the breastplate is sometimes termed the breastplate of judgment, because the Urim and Thummim were placed within it. These stones were, at times, used to determine God’s will in a particular situation (see Exodus 28:30). It should be noted that using these stones did not always determine God’s will (see 1 Samuel 28:6). If any other way was not given by God, the high priest would find God’s guidance. [1][Note 1]

Illustration of priestly breastplate

According to the description in Exodus, this breastplate was attached to the ephod by gold chains/cords tied to the gold rings on the ephod’s shoulder straps, and by blue ribbon tied to the gold rings at the belt of the ephod. [3]

The biblical description states that the breastplate was also to be made from the same material as the Ephod -embroidery of 3 colors of dyed wool and linen – and was to be 1/3 of a cubit squared, two layers thick, and with four rows of three engraved gems embedded in gold settings upon it, one setting for each stone. [3] The description states that the square breastplate was to be formed from one rectangular piece of cloth – 1/3 of a cubit by 2/3 of a cubit, folded so that it formed a pouch to contain the Urim and Thummim. The term for the breastplate, hoshen, appears to be connected either to its function or to its appearance; some scholars think that it is probably derived from Hebrew hasuna, meaning “beautiful,” while others think that it is more likely to derive from Hebrew sinus, meaning “a fold for containing something.” [4]

According to the Talmud, the wearing of the Hoshen atoned for the sin of errors in judgement on the part of the Children of Israel. [5]

Artist’s conception of Jewish high priest wearing a hoshen in ancient Judah.

The twelve jewels in the breastplate were each, according to the Biblical description, to be made from specific minerals, none of them the same as another, and each of them representative of a specific tribe, whose name was to be inscribed on the stone. According to a rabbinic tradition, the names of the twelve tribes were engraved upon the stones with what is called in Hebrew: שמיר = shamir, which, according to Rashi, was a small, rare creature which could cut through the toughest surfaces, [6] but according to Rabbi David Kimhi and Rabbi Jonah ibn Janah, was a stone stronger than iron (possibly Naxian stone). [7][8] The word has its equivalent in the Greek, σμήρις (smeris). [9]

There are different views in classical rabbinical literature as to the order of the names; the Jerusalem Targum, for example, argued that the names appeared in the order according to which they were born. Maimonides describes the jewel stones arranged in four rows, saying that on the first stone belonging to Reuben were also engraved the names of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, while on the last stone belonging to Benjamin were also engraved the words, the tribes of God; [10] kabbalistic writers such Hezekiah ben Manoah and Bahya ben Asher argued that only six letters from each name was present on each stone, together with a few letters from the names of Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob, or from the phrase [these are] the tribes of Jeshurun, so that there were 72 letters in total (72 being a very significant number in Kabbalistic thought). [1]

There was also a different order for the names inscribed on the two “onyx” stones, carried on the High Priest’s shoulders. One opinion suggests that the names of the twelve tribes were arranged in groups after their mothers: Leah’s six sons aligned one after the other on one stone, with Judah heading this list, followed by Rachel’s sons with the names of the concubines’ sons interposed between the two sons of Rachel. [11]

Unfortunately, the meaning of the Hebrew names for the minerals, given by the masoretic text, are not clear, [1]

and though the Greek names for them in the Septuagint are more clear, some scholars believe that it cannot be completely relied on for this matter because the breastplate had ceased to be in use by the time the Septuagint was created, and several Greek names for various gems have changed meaning between the classical era and modern times. [1] However, although classical rabbinical literature argues that the names were inscribed using a Shamir worm because neither chisels nor paint nor ink were allowed to mark them out, [12][13] a more naturalistic approach suggests that the jewels must have had comparatively low hardness in order to be engraved upon, and therefore this gives an additional clue to the identity of the minerals. [4] Others suggest that they were engraved with emery, having the similar property of a diamond used in cutting other stones and which was called in Greek σμήρις (smeris).

Explanation of the symbolic meaning of the jewels generated a great deal of both Jewish and Christian writing, and was a staple component of the tradition of lapidaries or books on gemology.

The jewel stones are as follows (the first item in each row is probably the right hand side, as Hebrew is a right to left script):

First row

Odem ( םֶדֹא = in the masoretic text) /Sardios (in the Septuagint) – both names mean red (Odem is cognate with Adam), and probably refers to Sard, an immensely common stone in classical cultures. [4] All authors agree that this stone was of a red colour. [14] With due respect to the Septuagint, Odem might also refer to Carnelian, which was flesh-coloured, or to Jasper, which was usually a deep blood-red, was valued as a charm against bleeding, and was common in the surrounding nations of Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria. [1] The Chinese Union Version refers to this stone as being a ruby.

Pit’dah ( הָדְטִּפ = in the masoretic text) / Topazios (in the Septuagint) – despite the suggestion of the Septuagint that it was Topaz, Topaz was scarcely known at the time the Book of Exodus was written (according to both the traditional dating of the book and that by textual scholars); [4] in the classical era, topazios referred to Topazos Island on which a particular yellow mineral was mined (topazios means to seek, in reference to the difficulty in finding the island). [1] Others suggest that topaz was merely peridot, a light green semi-precious stone, and which stone in the ancient world was found primarily on Topazos Island as well as on St. John’s Island (Zabargad) in the Egyptian Red Sea. The word pit’dah is thought by scholars to be connected with the Assyrian word hipindu, which refers to something that flashed (presumably meaning shimmered), and thus the jewel in question would fit the description of Chrysolite, a translucent greenish yellow mineral, common throughout the Levant, [1] and particularly found on a particular island in the Red Sea, under the control of the Egyptian Pharaoh. [4]

Bare et ( תֶקֶרָּב = in the masoretic text) / Smaragdos (in the Septuagint) -Bareketh etymologically means shimmering/shiny; Smaragdos is cognate with Emerald, and literally means green stone, but is somewhat of a false friend as it was used to refer to a number of different green gems, not just the Emerald in particular. Bareket doesn’t refer to any particular colour, while Smaragdos was often used in Greek literature to refer to an intensely bright crystal found in columnar formations. [1] The only minerals fitting these details are heliodor (taking into account the implication of Smaragdos that it was green) and rock crystal (ignoring the literal meaning of Smaragdos, since the masoretic text doesn’t appear to specify colour); [4]

there is much to be said for Smaragdos being either of those. [4] Although “emerald” is the most common form used to describe the Hebrew word, bare et, in other sources (e.g. the Septuagint on Ezek. 28:13), the word bare et is rendered as “onyx.” Aquilas the proselyte (Onkelos), in his Aramaic translation of the Pentateuch, writes ןָקרָב = bar an, for this word. According to the Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7), the stone called bare et had veins or parallel bands of colours white, black and red running through it, suggesting that it may have actually been a kind of agate or onyx. This may explain why in some French translations the word is rendered as “agate.” In the South Arabian dialect spoken in Yemen during the Middle Ages, ba arani (believed to be a corruption of bar an) was an exceptionally beautiful and rare onyx stone mined on Mount Anis, in Yemen, one variety of which having a red surface with a vein of white over another of black running through it. [Note 2] Symmachus, an ancient Jewish translator whose Greek translation of the Pentateuch appeared in Origen’s Hexapla, has also written κεραύνιος (= onyx) for the Hebrew stone known as bare et in Exo. 28:17. [Note 3]

Second row

Nofekh ( ֶפֹנ = in the masoretic text) /Anthrax (in the Septuagint) – while Anthrax simply means coal (presumably here referring to the colour of burning coal), the Vulgate here has Carbunculus, referring to the Carbuncle, which was red. [4] Philo of Alexandria, when writing about this stone, says that it was red. He seems to be in agreement with Josephus, [17] the LXX, and the Jerusalem Targum, the latter saying that it is כדכדנא, explained by Saadia Gaon as meaning karkand, a red variety of precious stone. Nofekh appears to be a loan word; it may derive from the Egyptian term m-f-k-t, referring to Malachite or Turquoise, both of which are a greenish blue; [4] it may instead derive from lupakku, a term appearing in the Amarna letters, referring to a mineral of unknown colour which was sent in tribute to Akhnaten from Ashkalon. In classical rabbinical literature there is some debate between whether Nofekh was red or greenish blue; Exodus Rabbah and the second Jerusalem Targum favour it being red, while the Babylonian Targum and first Jerusalem Targum favour it being green. [1]

Sapir ( ריִּפַס = in the masoretic text) /Sapphiros (in the Septuagint) – despite appearing to refer to Sapphire, Sapphire was essentially unknown before the era of the Roman Empire and its use in Greek texts is believed to be a mere transliteration of the Hebrew. Once it became more known, it was treated as merely being a form of hyacinth or of jacinth. [1] It is more likely that the term Sapir referred to a mineral of similar colour to Sapphires, and that the name gradually came to refer to the latter mineral, on account of its colour; scholars think the most likely candidate is lapis lazuli, a stone with a deep, ocean-blue colour which was frequently sent as a gift to Akhenaten from Babylon. [1][4] Theophrastus mentions the stone sapphirus as being “dark” and having the “colour of verdigris,” as well as being “speckled as of with gold.” [18]

By all accounts, his description fits the lapis-lazuli.

Yahalom ( םֳהָי = in the masoretic text) / Onychion (in the Septuagint) – in some other places the Septuagint instead has Beryllios where the masoretic reads Yahalom. [4] The word Yahalom appears to be connected with the Hebrew meaning strike hard, and possibly with the word hallamish meaning flint; [4] hallamish is connected to the Assyrian word elmeshu, referring to a precious stone which was hard, and possibly white, or at least with an insignificant colour, and from which whole rings were sometimes made. [4] A few scholars have suggested that Yahalom may refer to diamonds, owing to their hardness, though the skill of cutting diamonds had not been discovered before the classical era. [1]

Although the Septuagint’s Onychion is the Greek term for Onyx, Onyx was not mined prior to the era of classical Greece. Onyx is derived from the Greek for fingernail, due to the pink-white veining. [Note 4] In the Syriac Peshitta of the sixth or seventh century (MS. B.21, Inferiore of the Ambrosian Library in Milan, Italy), the word used to describe this stone is = naq’atha, [19] a word which is sometimes transliterated into Arabic as it is pronounced in Aramaic, mainly by Arabic-speaking Christians. Bar-Ali, a 9th-century Arab author, brings down two opinions about this stone, the naq’atha, saying, by one opinion, that it is “honey-coloured,” and by the other opinion that it is “turquoise, a blue-coloured stone.” [20] In some versions of the Peshitta, the Aramaic word rendered for the same stone is shabzez, translated as “diamond.” This may account for today’s understanding of this word, although in ancient times yahalom may have meant something else. Of the well-known honey-coloured gemstones, we find Citrene and Hessonite garnet (both, from Sri Lanka), while in Africa (Tanzania) we find Imperial Zircon, a honey-coloured stone with an extreme brilliance. Spanish Jewish scholar, Abraham ibn Ezra says the yahalom was a white stone.

Third row

Lešem ( םֶׁשֶל = in the masoretic text) /Ligurios (in the Septuagint) – the names here seem to refer to places – Leshem and Liguria, respectively. [4]

Theophrastus mentions the fossilized pine resin, amber, called in Greek liggourrion or lyngurium, [21] as does Dioscorides and Aëtius. [22][Note 5] In Greek antiquity, this stone was believed to have been the solidified urine of lynxes, and its name a mere corruption of lykos ouron, [4] meaning white urine, presumably in reference to its colour. [24]

Pliny (who did not believe the stone existed) described the Ligurios as having certain electrical properties, which a number of scholars have taken to imply that it referred to amber. [1]

Amber was one of the first items to have been discovered to have electrical properties (see Thales); the English stem electric- derives from the Latin word for amber (elektrum). In the Latin Vulgate the name was given as ligure, a Latinization apparently invented by Flavius Josephus, and equated with lyngurium, but Luther used hyacinth (jacinth), and during the Renaissance belief in lyngurium died away. [25][Note 6]

Modern scholars are inclined to think that the stone must have been similar to the pale colour of natural gold (as opposed to the colour known as gold); [1]

The Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7) states that the mineral had a black colour, and is there named כוחלין, meaning the antimony known as stibium. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, and other medieval rabbinical commentators, argued that the gem itself was an onyx (Judeo-Arabic: עזג = عَﺰَﺟ ), although Abraham ibn Ezra casts doubt on the accuracy of Rabbi Saadia’s tradition. [26]

Modern English translations use either amber or jacinth. [27]

Ševo ( וֹבְׁש = in the masoretic text) /Achates (in the Septuagint) – Achates definitely refers to agate, and Ševo may be cognate with the Assyrian term Subu, meaning agate. [1][4] Agates were common in Egypt and Assyria, and were regarded as a potent talismans. Isidore of Seville lists the agate as being among the black gems. [28] The Midrash Rabba (Numbers 2:7) appears to argue for the jewel in question having been a grey variety. [1] Conversely, in Rabbi Saadia Gaon’s (882-942 CE) Judeo-Arabic translation of the Pentateuch, as well as in the medieval Samaritan Arabic translation, the stone is rendered as ﺞﺒﺳ , meaning, obsidian.

A lamah ( הָמָלְחאַ = in the masoretic text) / Amethystos (in the Septuagint) -Amethystos refers to Amethyst, a purple mineral which was believed to protect against getting drunk from alcohol (Amethyst’s name refers to this belief, and literally translates as not intoxicating), [1] and was commonly used in Egypt. [4] A lamah appears to be derived from a term meaning strong, though it may equally be derived from Ahlamu, a place where Amethysts were found; [1] in the Babylonian Targum, A lamah is translated into a term meaning strong drinking, which appears to reference beliefs about the Amethyst, but in the Jerusalem Targum, it is translated into a term meaning calf’s eye. [1] The Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7), while describing the stone’s colour, says: “[It is] similar to clear wine whose redness is not too strong.”

Fourth row

Taršīš ( ִׁשיִׁשְרַּת = in the masoretic text) / Chrysolithos (in the Septuagint) – in some other places the Septuagint instead has Anthrax (meaning Coal) where the masoretic reads Tarshish. [1]

Taršīš is thought by scholars to refer to Tarshish, in reference to the main source of the mineral being Tarshish. [1][4] Chrysolithos does not refer specifically to Chrysolite, which was named much later, but is an adjective which translates as gold-stone, meaning either that it was golden, or that it contained flecks of gold. [4] With golden flecks it could refer to lapis lazuli, [4] which would fit the Targums’ description of the gem being the colour of the sea. [1] As a golden material if translucent, it could refer to Topaz [4] or to amber, [1] and since Chrysolithos came to mean Topaz in particular by the classical era, some scholars favour this as being the most likely use, though it would be jarring for there to be two different translucent yellow gemstones so close to one another on the breastplate. [4] If an opaque golden material, it could refer to a yellow form of Jasper or of serpentine, which were commonly used in Egypt and Babylon. [4] It may even be the case that the Septuagint is mistaken, and the masoretic text’s Taršīš is a corruption of Asshur (they are similar when spelt using the Hebrew alphabet), referring to Assyria’s quintessential exported mineral – flint. [4] The 2nd century Jewish translator, Symmachus, renders the word as yakinthos, meaning “jacinth,” or “hyacinth.” [29] There is little certainty among scholars in regard to which of these is the most likely to be the jewel in question. [1]

Šoham ( םַהֹׁש =in the masoretic text) /Beryllios (in the Septuagint) – in some other places the Septuagint instead has Onychion, [Note 7] or Smaragdos, or the phrase leek-green stone, where the masoretic reads Šoham; [4][Note 8]

Beryllios refers to Beryl but earlier to the blue-green colour of the sea, Onychion refers to Onyx, and Smaragdos literally means green stone and refers to a bright columnar crystal (either beryl or rock crystal). Onyx is an opaque and banded stone, while Smaragdos is translucent, and Beryl is cloudy, and all these come in several colours. Šoham could be derived from the Assyrian word Samtu, meaning dark or cloudy; [4]

it could be derived from the Arabic word meaning pale, in which case it fits more with Onyx and certain forms of Beryl, excluding the Emerald, [4] with Heliodor being the form of Beryl fitting the leek green description; it could be derived from the Arabic word musahham, meaning striped garment, and therefore very definitely describing something like Onyx; [4] or it could be a place name, for example there is a place in the Yemen named Soheim. [4] Jewish tradition generally favours leek-green Beryl (Heliodor) as the likely meaning of Šoham, though scholars think it is more likely to be Malachite, which can be green enough to be compared to Smaragdos and the blue-green colour of the sea (the original meaning of beryllios), is cloudy enough to be compared to a cloudy form of Beryl, and is striped and opaque enough to be confused for a form of Onyx. [1][4]

According to Epiphanius’ Treatise on the Twelve Stones (Epiphanius de Gemmis), the beryl was “white like a cloud.” [Note 9] Scholars point out that the Syriac form of the word is berūlā and/or belūra, the latter evidently going back to a Pahlevi form (the old Persian tongue), and all in turn to the Sanskrit वैडूय = vai ūrya (Pali: ve uriya ), the gemstone which is called in English, “cat’s eye, beryl,” [30] a variety of chalcedonic quartz that has a chatoyant lustre resembling the eye of a cat when cut.

Yašfeh ( הֵפְׁשָי = in the masoretic text) /Iaspis (in the Septuagint) – in reference to the Septuagint and Josephus, [Note 10]

scholars suspect that Yasepheh may be the original reading. [1][4] Although Yasepheh and Iaspis are cognate to Jasper, they don’t quite have the same meaning; while Jasper is usually red, the mineral which the Greeks called Iaspis was generally a richly green one (the most prized form of Jasper), and scholars think this is most likely to be the colour referred to by Yasepheh; [1]

the ambiguity of the term is present in the Targums, where the jewel is variously identified as a ruby (which is red), as a hyacinth (which is yellow), or as an emerald (which is green). [1] In the Babylonian Talmud, [31] one opinion states that the gemstone was the same as kadkhod, [32] a stone described by Bar-Ali as being al-karkahan = ﻦﮭﻛﺮﻜﻟا (the Baghdadi onyx), “a kind of gemstone from which they cut [smaller] stones for setting in ouches.” [33] Rabbi Saadia Gaon, however, in his Judeo-Arabic translation of Isaiah, [34]

translates kadkhod as karkand, a red variety of precious stone. Josephus, quoting from one version of the Septuagint, says that it was a beryl. [35]

The Midrash Rabba (Numbers Rabba 2:7) says that the stone was varicolored, meaning, all of the colours combined were to be found in the Yašfeh.

12 Jewels in New Testament

In the New Testament Book of Revelation is the description of a city wall, with each layer of stones in the wall being from a different material; in the original Koine Greek, the layers are given as iaspis, sapphiros, chalcedon, smaragdos, sardonyx, sardion, chrysolithos, beryllos, topazion, chrysoprason, yacinthos, amethystos. [36] This list appears to be based on the Septuagint’s version of the list of jewels in the Breastplate – if the top half of the breastplate was rotated by 180 degrees, and the bottom half turned upside down, with Onchion additionally swapping places with Topazion, the lists become extremely similar; there are only four differences:

Onchion (literally Onyx) has become Sardonyx (red Onyx)

Anthrax has become Chalcedon (literally meaning Chalcedony, of which the red variety is the most common). Anthrax literally means coal, presumably meaning the red colour of burning coal, while Chalcedon literally means Chalcedony, of which the red variety is the most common.

Ligurios has become Chrysoprason. Scholars suspect that Ligurios was a pale yellowish mineral, and although Chrysoprase now refers to a specific gemstone – Chrysoprase – which is generally apple-green in colour, in earlier times it referred to gems of a yellowish leek-green, such as Peridot; Chrysoprase literally means golden leek. [4]

Achates (Agate) has been replaced by Yacinthos (Jacinth). According to classical rabbinical literature, the specific agate was of a sky-blue colour, and though Jacinth now refers to a red-tinted clear gem – the Jacinth – this wasn’t the case at the time the Book of Revelation was written, and at that time Jacinth appears to have referred to a bluish gem; Pliny describes Jacinth as a dull and blueish amethyst, while Solinus describes it as a clear blue tinted gem –the modern Sapphire. [4]

Whether there is any pattern to the choice of gemstones depends on their identity. Taking the majority view of scholars in regard to the identity of the gems, and including the implication from the Book of Revelation that the Onyx at the end of the fourth row was a Sardonyx, there are four colours – red, green, yellow, and blue – each represented by a clear gem (red –Carbuncle, green – Heliodor, yellow –Chrysolite, blue – Amethyst), an opaque gem (red – Carnelian/red Jasper, green – green Jasper, yellow – yellow Jasper/yellow Serpentine, blue – Lapis Lazuli), and a striped gem (red – Sardonyx, green – Malachite, yellow – pale golden Agate, blue – sky-blue Agate). [4] The four colours of red, green, yellow, and blue, are the first four colours (apart from black and white) distinguished by languages, and are distinguished in all cultures with at least six colour distinctions (the other two being black and white); [37] these colours roughly correspond to the sensitivities of the retinal ganglion cells (the retinal ganglia process colour by positioning it within a blue to yellow range, and separately positioning it within a red to green range). [37]

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Aliearia

LIGHTBEARERS: STARS/PEOPLE

JOHN 1:

1

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

The same was in the

2

beginning with God.

All things were made by him;

3

and without him was not any thing made that was made.

In him was life; and the life

4

was the light of men.

And the light shineth in

5

darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.

There was a man sent from

6

God, whose name was John.

The same came for a

7

witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.

He was not that Light, but

8

was sent to bear witness of that Light.

That was the true Light,

9

which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.

He was in the world, and the

10

world was made by him, and the world knew him not.

He came unto his own, and

11

his own received him not.

But as many as received

12

him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

Which were born, not of

13

blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

And the Word was made

14

flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

image

ISAIAH 53:11

International Standard Version

Out of the suffering of his soul he will see light and find satisfaction. And through his knowledge his servant, the righteous one, will make many righteous, and he will bear their iniquities

King James Bible

He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.

New American Standard Bible

As a result of the anguish of His soul, He will see it and be satisfied; By His knowledge the Righteous One, My Servant, will justify the many, As He will bear their iniquities.

image

Holman Christian Standard Bible

He will see it out of His anguish, and He will be satisfied with His knowledge. My righteous Servant will justify many, and He will carry their iniquities.

image

ISAIAH 13:10 For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.

THE MOON IS KNOWN AS “HER!”

image

John 1:5 He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that Light.

MATTHEW 11:30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

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BREASTPLATES, ARMOUR & TALISMANS

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One side of the box had to be repolished and sanded after I accidentally scratched it with my drill. I cleaned this up as best as possible, see the last image above. The rest of the box looks perfect and contains all working components and is fully functional. This is the last monastery I have in inventory so gets your now at this special lower price while you still can.

Get your own personal monastery!

What you Get:

1 – IDL22 Monastery Core 12 – Aaron’s Breastplate Stones 1 – Andara Crystal 1- Shungite Crystal 1 – IDL22 Monastery Box 5”x5”x5” with 294 Cones gilded with 24kt gold 1 – Sterling Silver 24kt Gold Plated Ankh Pendant 2 – RCA Ports and 1 RCA Cable 1 – User Manual

Neo Monastery IDL-22

The Neo Monastery IDL-22 meditation cube was designed based on specs from Saint Germain. The Monastery core contains a Blue Diamond, Purple Amethyst, and a Red Ruby along with a 24kt gold plated Ankh pendant, Aaron’s stones, Andara Crystal, and Shungite and much more all inside a IDL22 layered core consisting of gold, platinum, silver, copper, and aluminum. Saint Germain was known as the ‘Wonderman of Europe.’ He was known to write with both hands at the same time, he could teleport, turns rocks into diamonds, and lead into gold. He sported a magical elixir of life which allowed him to never to age past the age of 30. According to Germain, “It is the activity of our nerves, the flame of our desire, the acid of our fears, which daily consume our organism. He who succeeds in raising himself above his emotions, in suppressing in himself anger and the fear of illness, is capable of overcoming the attrition of the years and attaining an age at least double that at which men now die of old age.” And now with your own personal monastery you can attain increased power to access treasures once thought to be impossible.

While meditating, the 24kt gold gilded cones produce chi energy which pumps into the core of the device and creates a star gate; shifting you into another timeline and or parallel reality containing the desires of your heart. Gold gilded cones are higher vibration, enhancing health and manifestation. Because this device is a consciousness generator the effects created is dependent on the psychic ability and intent of the operator. It is the operators responsibility to be of positive mind and intention when playing around with consciousness technology as the device manifests more of who you are. It is also conscious and just like a person, needs to be respected for it to function properly. Thirty percent of all people are not energy sensitive and may not feel or manifest anything until the DNA begins to relax and unwind after many hours of meditation usage.

Unit Core

The monastery core contains a blue diamond which is the frequency of wealth, value, and energy transmission. This along with a combination of Amethyst and Ruby will allow your monastery to decode and energize the transmissions within your meditation experience. According to Saint Germain this configuration will help calm our minds, activate our DNA, and allow users to synchronize to the wisdom of the ruby ray and the coordinate systems of cosmic energy from Orion. For stronger transmissions we recommend that you face the north star system of Orion during your meditation and visualize your desired manifestations inside a dodecahedron.

Aaron’s Gemstones

The 12 stones on Aaron’s breastplate was used as a way to channel entities. These stones are Sard, Peridot, Emerald, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli, Moonstone, Hyacinth, Agate, Amethyst, Chrysolite, Carnelian, Jasper. Priests would line all 12 stones up and when you gazed through all 12 stones entities would appear and provide messages from the other side. Likewise the vibration frequency of these stones inside the cube can help you contact the astral realm during your meditation to help aid you in the answers you seek.

Andara Crystal

Andara crystals first originated in the High Sierras of Northern California following an earthquake in the mid-1960’s. It is believed they were created through an interdimensional energy implosion in a no-time hyper dimensional field by beings known as the “Time Walkers.” They are composed on monoatomic glass which is the etheric state minerals before it entered this third dimensional reality of duality, or more specifically, meditating with these stones will create a kinsothemitic time continuum (a moving time field) which is not constricted or affected by Earth’s positive/negative polarity field. This will help bring love into your life and lives of those all over the world in a giant manifestation wave of wellness.

Ankh Pendant

Inside your core is a sterling silver 24kt gold plated Ankh pendant. After Atlantis was destroyed due to experiments and the misuse of powers; groups of inhabitants fled to other continents. The Atlanteans arriving in Egypt brought with them the Atlantean Ankh and the knowledge of the effect of this geometrical form with them. The Ankh symbolizes life and has a “human” form to it, with its head, arms, and body; it holds both the female energy (circle at the head) and the male energy (extending legs or phallus). Thus it reflects the basic Polarity of Existence. We are all polarized between gathering within the psyche or soul (the female circle) and radiating out into physical “reality” (the male focused line). By focusing and transmitting of these various energies a user can enhance the healing process of the mind, body, and spirit.

Shungite

Shungite is a rare stone that originates from the Karelia region in Russia. The stone contains Fullerenes which are know to strengthen the immune system , contribute to youthful appearance, relieve rheumatic pains and headaches, help to cope with insomnia, stress and depression, and protection from harmful EMF radiation. Shungite is sometimes called the “Stone of Life” due to it’s healing and antibacterial properties as well as its ability to alleviate a wide variety of physical complaints such as heart difficulty, allergies, skin diseases, arthritis, hair and skin rejuvenation. “Shungite cures, rescues, purifies, heals, protects, normalizes, restores and even stimulates the growth. Amazing rock: it kills and devours anything that harms people and other living beings, and concentrates and restores all that is good. The scholars who have studied shungite in one voice declare, it is a miracle! ” -From the book by A. Doronina “Shungite – the stone-savior”

The Fullerene is one of 4 known crystalline modifications of carbon (except diamond, graphite and carbon). Only recently discovered, fullerenes were among the scientific sensations of the 20th century. A fullerene is any molecule composed entirely of carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid or tube. Fullerenes in our bodies behave as the most powerful and most long acting antioxidant as a means to fight free radicals. It is a natural antioxidant that can increase human immunity against many illnesses and diseases and suppresses the development of many allergies and systemic illnesses.

The Fullerenes react readily and at a high rate with free radicals in your body, which are often the cause of cell damage or cell death. They are known to behave like a “radical sponge” as they can sponge-up and neutralize 20 or more free radicals per Fullerene molecule and have shown performances 100 times more effective than the current leading antioxidants such as Vitamin E . The major advantage of using Fullerenes as a medical antioxidant is their ability to localize within the cell to mitochondria and other cell compartment sites, where in diseased states the production of free radicals takes place. Fullerenes are water insoluble and when used in cosmetics help to negate the harmful effects of UV rays from the sun.

RCA Cable and Ports

Plug multiple Neo meditation devices together in a daisy chain effect.

Additionally inside the core of your cube is Bismuth which helps promote concentration, visualization, and shamanic journeying. It helps move reality from chaos to order and promote cooperation in groups and relationships. All of these stones are found within your IDL22 layered core consisting of gold, platinum, silver, copper, and aluminum . Each unit contains human hair from psychic individuals fortified with our proprietary mix of crystals including lemurian quartz, topaz, tourmaline, onyx, moldovite, agate; as well as rare earth monatomic elements such as iridium, palladium, rhodium, and much much more. The core is surrounded by multiple layers of crystal powders . For added power the cone panels are gilded with 24kt gold for a higher vibration.

Weighs approximately 2.5 pounds.

Please Read Before Buying

PAYMENT

We accept Visa, MasterCard, and Discover credit and debit card payment, as well as international money orders in the mail via Western Union, USPS, and Canadian postal money orders. We also offer PayPal and Google checkout using our online shopping cart. Please note some international credit/debit cards are country restricted so if you have not made a purchase in the United States before we recommend you use the paypal payment option if your card is denied. If you like to use the Google Checkout option, please follow these simple directions. Click add to cart, checkout , select your shipping method, then click on the Google Checkout button instead of the proceed to checkout button. You will then be taken to a separate website operated by Google to process your order.

SHIPPING

Free domestic shipping within the United States! Canadian, AK, HI, and APO addresses please select USPS Priority. Tracking numbers are available by request only . Orders that are in inventory will ship within three business days unless otherwise notified with a expected date of shipment. International buyers: We offer USPS Priority (5 to 10 days) and USPS Express International (3-7 days shipping) which comes with a customs tracking number. International parcels that use the priority mail shipping method are only insured for $500. Feel free to contact us if you have any special instructions to put on the customs form as some countries may hit you with a vat tax or a import tax if you choose full insurance value. All return shipping and insurance is the responsibility of the purchaser.

DISCLAIMER

Neological Technologies and James Rink is to be held harmless by all third parties. All portals opened and not closed properly is of the owners sole responsibility. By using and trusting the Neo device completely you agree that you are ready to face your own subconscious vectors and transcend them through the power of meditation.

We guarantee the neo device to be new and free of defects for one year from date of purchase. We offer refunds up to 30 days after you receive your unit but only for returned defective merchandise such as from damage in shipping. If your returned item is not defective we reserve the right to charge a 15% restocking fee, for sanitary reasons we cannot accept returned units which have had its plastic wrap removed. Please allow 2 to 4 weeks to process your refund. If you are not satisfied with your order you must first contact us within 30 days of your purchase to begin the return process. This guarantee gives you certain rights and all rights are reserved. As always we offer free support and as with any “spiritual” device static or electronic or otherwise. We encourage you to share your experiences and reserve the right to post your experiences with only your first name and city/state unless otherwise directed in your conveyance.

Neo Monastery IDL-144 1 comment • 3 years ago• Merovingian V Quinto — WOW!!!!! THE ULTIMATE NEO! It would be amazing if you could do a long video about this …

Neo IDL-44 Monastery 2 comments • 3 years ago• James Rink — Dennis i love the monastery 22 and personally use it everyday. The energy is super strong due to the gold …

Neo IDL-Technoshaman – Power and Athletic Performance 3 comments • 2 years ago• jamesrink — Shamael the product development costs for this device has not been released to the public. I am …

PREORDER ONLY Jan 2013 – Neo Skullem IDL-13 2 comments • 4 years ago• Nate Grey — I own http://www.supersoldierforum.comalso I would like to say I have a Skullem and it …

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PINEAL 3rd EYE & FUNCTION OF LIGHT

Our existence is multi-leveled and complex. It is both physical, spiritual, finite, and infinite. Yogic teachings about anatomy therefore are meant to help us understand all levels and avoid “a lower-dimensional definition of what it is to be human.” The ancients understood that each of us can consciously link to God, and that this flow happens through the temple body, through channels that are both physical and metaphysical (beyond physical).

On the following pages you will find the basic concepts of yogic anatomy and the realm of the spirit. In the next chapter, I have invited Katy Willis RN (Siri Dharma Kaur) to give you some basics about functional western anatomy and Kundalini Yoga’s influence on these systems. As you deepen your Kundalini Yoga practice, you can return again and again to these sections and find that there is more to discover each time.

THE NADIS

The nadis are energy conduits that bring vital energy (prana) through the body. The nadis are similar to acupuncture meridians, but while there are only twelve meridians, there are seventy-two thousand nadis. They connect the chakras and branch out to the entire body. The nadis may be considered an ethereal counterpart to the nervous system, with its expansive web of nerves, and the nadis do influence and work in conjunction with the nerves. For example, in Meditation as Medicine, the authors write:

The nadis appear to physically affect the nature and quality of nerve transmission from the brain and spinal cord to the outlying peripheral nerves. Therefore, energy blockage among the nadis seems to be associated with pathological changes in the nervous system, and with the closely associated endocrine and immune systems. For example, a decreased flow of energy through the nadis to the throat chakra might result in decreased energy to the thyroid. The physical manifestation of this might be hypothyroidism. [1]

For centuries, healers and yogis––and even early LDS writers, like Parley P. Pratt [2]—have known about this inner spiritual nerve network and its influence. However, there has not been any solid evidence of the nadis’ existence until recently. Now, through sophisticated technology, it is possible to detect the fluid-like flow of energy moving along the channels of the body. [3]

As discussed in the “Prana” chapter, this flow of energy is the Light of Christ. This energy flow has profound healing effects on the body and can even be directed toward others. The pranic body depends on the nadis to aid in this healing flow.

Of the seventy-two thousand nadis, seventy-two are major surs, or zones, through which the nadis flow. Three are of particular importance: shushmana, ida, and pingala. The shushmana is the nadi that runs up the central spinal channel. This nadi is the straight and narrow path of the spine through which the Kundalini rises. The ida and pingala coil in a serpentine fashion from the base of the spine and end at the left and right nostril, with the ida on the left and the pingala on the right.[4]

THE FIVE TATTVAS

The tattvas are the basic elements of which we are made. The human body is a microcosm of the entire cosmos; therefore, everything the universe is made of is found in the human body: earth, water, fire, air, and ether. Each element gives the body vital energy, but if the energy inspired by the five tattvas is not filtered through the light of consciousness, a person will manifest the most base aspects of the tattvas: greed, lust, anger, attachment, and pride (negative ego). Yogi Bhajan said, “If you are made of mud, how can you get rid of mud? If you are made of earth, how can you get rid of earth? Nobody can get rid of the five elements of which he is composed. All he can do is channel their projections. . . . You can divert this energy to positive ends.”[5] When we examine, discipline, and drink the five tattvas through the cup of meditation and consciousness, they can occur in their highest form, including love, steadfastness, service, and grace.

Below are examples of diverting the tattvas to positive ends:

Greed: Earth (Pritvi tattva)––Instead of being greedy to possess things, you can be greedy to possess a higher vibration (seeking more holiness) or to be a noble teacher and spread truth to all people.[6]

Lust: Water (Apas tattva)––Instead of being lustful to exploit bodies, you can be lustful to live like God and serve others.[7]

Anger: Fire (Agni tattva)––Anger is a destroying emotion; it has great power. Rather than being angry at others, you can channel this power to destroy your own weaknesses.[8]

Attachment: Air (Vayu tattva)––Instead of being attached to earthly possessions or possessive of people, you can be attached to God and the divine path. [9]

Pride/negative ego: Ether (Akasha tattva)––Instead of being an egomaniac, you can have pride and gratitude that God made you. Identify with the Infinite.[10]

Each tattva is associated with one of the first five chakras and has an energy function. The sixth through eighth chakras are beyond the elements and associated with light. Each tattva is also associated with one of the five senses and one of the fingers or the thumb. Meditations like Kirtan Kriya or Ganputi Kriya that use the fingers and the thumb, as well as the five primal sounds, balance the energy of the tattvas.

An imbalance in one of the tattvas can cause a great deal of disruption, pain, and emotional distress. For example, Jennifer was a perpetual love junkie. She would be crying over a breakup one week and then high in love the next. She would often swear off dating, but it only lasted a few days. She was so attached to not being alone, and the pattern had gone on so long, that it was causing many other problems in her life. When she undertook a daily practice of Kirtan Kriya for the forty-day meditation challenge, she found for the first time in her life that she was okay being alone. She didn’t go on a date or even think about dating for the whole forty days, and she also began to release her attachment to excess material things. On day thirty she said to me, “I think I am having a spiritual awakening. Is that normal?”

I explained that it was her True Self being revealed. This self is normal in the heavenly realms, but on this earthly plane, it is an exceptional transformation to witness.

[1] Dharma Singh Khalsa and Cameron Stouth, Meditation as Medicine: Activate the Power of Your Natural Healing Force (New York: Fireside, 2001), 23. [2] Parley P Pratt, Key to the Science of Theology, 9th ed. (1965), 100, 110. Pratt writes about the spiritual fluid, that it contains healing powers, and that it is transferable to parts of the body and to others via the nerves. [3] Khalsa and Stouth, Meditation as Medicine, 23. [4] Yogi Bhajan, The Aquarian Teacher: KRI International Teacher Training Manual, Level 1 (Santa Cruz, NM: Kundalini Research Institute, 2007), 175. [5] Bhajan, The Aquarian Teacher, 210. [6] See Mosiah 4:15; 3 Nephi 12:48; 3 Nephi 27:27. [7] See 1 John 2:16; Mormon 9:28. [8] See 2 Nephi 4:27–29; Ether 12:27. [9] See Matthew 19:29; Luke 12:15. [10] See Psalm 8:3–5; Psalm 82:6; Isaiah 2:11; Ephesians 2:10.

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Nam Joti Kaur (Felice Austin)

I write about the intersection of religion and spirituality, meditation, the mind-body connection, life after childhood, and whatever inspires me at the moment. I also write about birth and motherhood. I am privileged to be one of the authors of the spiritual birth book The Gift of Giving Life. I am also the author of Awake As In Ancient Days: The Christ Centered Kundalini Yoga Experience. I am a mother, writer, hypnotherapist (trance-former), Kundalini yoga and meditation teacher, story teller, listener, eater of Rhubarb pie, prophetess, lover of nerds, ocean enthusiast, child of God, vegetarian, Mormon, Jew inside, Sikh (and seeker), Jesus lover, African American inside, chain breaker, meditator, Princess of Power, beach goer, hiker, indian food lover, and pusher of boundaries into brave unknowns. View my complete profile

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12 TRIBES, ORION & SIRIUS

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GENESIS 37
And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan.

These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives: and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report.

Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours.

And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.

And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren: and they hated him yet the more.

And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed:

For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf.

And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words.

And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me.

And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?

And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying.

And his brethren went to feed their father’s flock in Shechem.

And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here am I.

And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.

And a certain man found him, and, behold, he was wandering in the field: and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou?

And he said, I seek my brethren: tell me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks.

And the man said, They are departed hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan.

And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him.

And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh.

Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams.

And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands; and said, Let us not kill him.

And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again.

And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him;

And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it.

And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.

And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood?

Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content.

Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt.

And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes.

And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I go?

And they took Joseph’s coat, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood;

And they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their father; and said, This have we found: know now whether it be thy son’s coat or no.

And he knew it, and said, It is my son’s coat; an evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces.

And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days.

And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave unto my son mourning. Thus his father wept for him.

And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, and captain of the guard.

NOSTRADAMUS CLAIMS TO BE OF THE HOUSE OF ISSACHAR

CANCER Joseph rules Cancer. The sun enters Cancer at the height of its ascent when Orion the hunter with its bow can be seen upright. In the zodiac circle, Cancer is opposite Sagittarius, so allegorically they are in opposition. The archers’ attack comes from Sagittarius the archer shooting across the divide from the winter solstice to the summer solstice. 22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a spring; his branches run over the wall. 23 The archers fiercely attacked him, shot at him, and harassed him sorely; 24 yet his bow remained unmoved, his arms were made agile by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob (by the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel).(Gen. 49:22-24) Orion is not one of the twelve zodiac constellations, but next to the sun, it is the most important constellation in Jewish and Christian mythology. He is the favorite son and the only one who receives God’s blessings. Starting at Genesis 37, Genesis devotes more space to Joseph than any of the other brothers. Joseph’s brothers didn’t like him, so they left him in a pit to be picked up by a caravan and sold as a slave in Egypt. In Christian mythology, Orion is personified as the Son of man. 25 by the God of your father who will help you, by God Almighty who will bless you with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that couches beneath, blessings of the breasts and of the womb. 26 The blessings of your father are mighty beyond the blessings of the eternal mountains, the bounties of the everlasting hills; may they be on the head of Joseph, and on the brow of him who was separate from his brothers. (Gen. 49:25-26)

CAPRICORN Benjamin rules Capricorn as a ravenous wolf when Sirius the Dog Star rises above the horizon in early January. It is the brightest of all the stars. In Christian mythology, it is the Star of Bethlehem. 27 Benjamin is a ravenous wolf, in the morning devouring the prey, and at even dividing the spoil.”(Gen. 49:27) A hint of Paul’s dishonesty comes from his claim to be a descendant of the nonexistent tribe of Benjamin. After the Jews were exiled in 586 BCE, tribal names became extinct. 1 I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe of Benjamin. (Rom. 11:1)

EPILOGUE Allegorically, when the sun dies, it is in full descent at the darkest months of winter, and is said to be in a cave. Thus, Jacob is buried in a cave. By a remarkable coincidence, Jesus was also carried to a cave after he died. 28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel; and this is what their father said to them as he blessed them, blessing each with the blessing suitable to him. 29 Then he charged them, and said to them, “I am to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 30 in the cave that is in the field at Machpelah, to the east of Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite to possess as a burying place. 31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah-32 the field and the cave that is in it were purchased from the Hittites.” 33 When Jacob finished charging his sons, he drew up his feet into the bed, and breathed his last, and was gathered to his people. WHAT’S IN A NAME If we want to get sticky about names, even the Bible doesn’t agree on all of them. Exodus 1 agrees with Genesis 49. 1 These are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob, each with his household: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5 All the offspring of Jacob were seventy persons; Joseph was already in Egypt. (Ex. 1:1-5) Judges 5 misses two tribes: Simeon and Levi. Two of them, Meroz and Machir, were added. Considering the importance of the tribe of Levi in the Exodus, this is not a minor omission-Moses and Aaron were supposed to be a Levites. 14 From Ephraim they set out thither into the valley, following you, Benjamin, with your kinsmen; from Machir marched down the commanders, and from Zebulun those who bear the marshal’s staff; 15 the princes of Issachar came with Deborah, and Issachar faithful to Barak; into the valley they rushed forth at his heels. Among the clans of Reuben there were great searchings of heart. 16 Why did you tarry among the sheepfolds, to hear the piping for the flocks? Among the clans of Reuben there were great searchings of heart. 17 Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan; and Dan, why did he abide with the ships? Asher sat still at the coast of the sea, settling down by his landings. 18 Zebulun is a people that jeoparded their lives to the death; Naphtali too, on the heights of the field. 23 “Curse Meroz, says the angel of the LORD, curse bitterly its inhabitants, because they came not to the help of the LORD, to the help of the LORD against the mighty. (Judges 5:14-18, 23) In Deuteronomy 33, only eleven tribes are named; Simeon’s name is missing. 6 “Let Reuben live, and not die, nor let his men be few.” 7 And this he said of Judah: 8 And of Levi he said, 12 Of Benjamin he said, 13 And of Joseph he said, such are the ten thousands of Ephraim, and such are the thousands of Manasseh.” 18 And of Zebulun he said, “Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out; and Issachar, in your tents. 20 And of Gad he said, 22 And of Dan he said, 23 And of Naphtali he said, 24 And of Asher he said, (Deut. 33)

REFERENCES Kabbalistic Astrology by Rabbi Joel C. Dobin. Alan Oken’s Complete Astrology by Alan Oken. Christianity Before Christ by John G. Jackson. The New Patterns in the Sky by Julius D. W. Staal The Oxford History of the Biblical World edited by Michael D. Coogan. The Bible Unearthed by Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman. Star Names, Their Lore and Meaning by Richard Hinkley Allen End

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“Urim” redirects here. For other uses, see Urim (disambiguation).

In the Hebrew Bible, the Urim and Thummim (Hebrew: האורים והתומים, Standard ha-Urim veha-Tummim Tiberian hā Ûrîm wəhatTummîm) are associated with the hoshen (High Priest’s breastplate), divination in general, and cleromancy in particular. Most scholars suspect that the phrase refers to specific objects involved in the divination. [1]

Name and meaning

Thummim ( םיִמוּת ) is widely considered to be derived from the consonantal root ת.ם.ם (t-m-m), meaning innocent, [1][2][3]

while Urim ( םיִרוּא ) has traditionally been taken to derive from a root meaning lights; these derivations are reflected in the Neqqudot of the Masoretic Text. [3] In consequence, Urim and Thummim has traditionally been translated as lights and perfections (by Theodotion, for example), or, by taking the phrase allegorically, as meaning revelation and truth, or doctrine and truth (it appears in this form in the Vulgate, in the writing of St. Jerome, and in the Hexapla). [2]

Although at face value the words are plural, the context suggests they are pluralis intensivus—singular words which are pluralised to enhance their apparent majesty. [2] The singular forms —ur and tumm—have been connected by some early scholars with the Babylonian terms urtu and tamitu, meaning oracle and command, respectively. [2] Many scholars now believe that םיִרוּא (Urim) simply derives from the Hebrew term םיִררּ (Arrim), meaning curses, and thus that Urim and Thummim essentially means cursed or faultless, in reference to the deity’s judgment of an accused person— in other words, Urim and Thummim were used to answer the question innocent or guilty. [1][3]

Form and function

1 Samuel 14:41 is regarded by biblical scholars as key to understanding the Urim and Thummim; [2] the passage describes an attempt to identify a sinner via divination, by repeatedly splitting the people into two groups and identifying which group contains the sinner. In the version of this passage in the Masoretic Text, it describes Saul and Jonathan being separated from the rest of the people, and lots being cast between them; the Septuagint version, however, states that Urim would indicate Saul and Jonathan, while Thummim would indicate the people. In the Septuagint, a previous verse [4] uses a phrase which is usually translated as inquired of God, which is significant as the grammatical form of the Hebrew implies that the inquiry was performed by objects being manipulated; scholars view it as evident from these verses and versions that cleromancy was involved, and that Urim and Thummim were the names of the objects being cast. [3][disputed ]

The description of the clothing of the Hebrew high priest in the Book of Exodus portrays the Urim and Thummim as being put into the sacred breastplate, worn by the high priest over the Ephod. [5] Where the biblical text elsewhere describes an Ephod being used for divination, scholars presume that it is referring to use of the Urim and Thummim in conjunction with the Ephod, as this seems to be intimately connected with it; [2] similarly where non-prophets are portrayed as asking HaShem for guidance, and the advice isn’t described as given by visions, scholars think that Urim and Thummim were the medium implied. [3] In all but two cases (1 Samuel 10:22 and 2 Samuel 5:23 ), the question is one which is effectively answered by a simple yes or no; [3] a number of scholars [who?] believe that the two exceptions to this pattern, which give more complex answers, were originally also just sequences of yes/no questions, but became corrupted by later editing. [3]

There is no description of the form of the Urim and Thummim in the passage describing the high priest’s vestments, and a number of scholars [who?] believe that the author of the passage, which textual scholars attribute to the priestly source, wasn’t actually entirely aware of what they were either. [3] Nevertheless, the passage does describe them as being put into the breastplate, which scholars think implies they were objects put into some sort of pouch within it, and then, while out of view, one (or one side, if the Urim and Thummim was a single object) was chosen by touch and withdrawn or thrown out; [3] since the Urim and Thummim were put inside this pouch, they were presumably small and fairly flat, and were possibly tablets of wood or of bone. [3] Considering the scholars’ conclusion that Urim essentially means guilty and Thummim essentially means innocent, this would imply that the purpose of the Urim and Thummim was an ordeal to confirm or deny suspected guilt; if the Urim was selected it meant guilt, while selection of the Thummim would mean innocence.

According to classical rabbinical literature, in order for the Urim and Thummim to give an answer, it was first necessary for the individual to stand facing the fully dressed high priest, and vocalise the question briefly and in a simple way, though it wasn’t necessary for it to be loud enough for anyone else to hear it. [2] The Talmudic rabbis argued that Urim and Thummim were words written on the sacred breastplate. [6]

Most of the Talmudic rabbis, and Josephus, following the belief that Urim meant lights, argued that divination by Urim and Thummim involved questions being answered by great rays of light shining out of certain jewels on the breastplate; each jewel was taken to represent different letters, and the sequence of lighting thus would spell out an answer (though there were 22 letters in the Hebrew alphabet, and only 12 jewels on the breastplate); [7][8][9] two Talmudic rabbis, however, argued that the jewels themselves moved in a way that made them stand out from the rest, or even moved themselves into groups to form words. [10]

[According to Islamic sources, there was a similar form of divination among the Arabs before the beginning of Islam. [3] There, two arrow shafts (without heads or feathers), on one of which was written command and the other prohibition or similar, were kept in a container, and stored in the Kaaba at Mecca; [3] whenever someone wished to know whether to get married, go on a journey, or to make some other similar decision, one of the Kaaba’s guardians would randomly pull one of the arrow shafts out of the container, and the word written upon it was said to indicate the will of the god concerning the matter in question. [3] Sometimes a third, blank, arrow shaft would be used, to represent the refusal of the deity to give an answer. [3] This practice is called rhabdomancy, after the Greek roots rhabd- “rod” and -mancy (“divination”).]

History of use

A passage of the Books of Samuel mentions three methods of divine communication – dreams, prophets, and the Urim and Thummim; [11] the first two of these are also mentioned copiously in Assyrian and Babylonian literature, and such literature also mentions Tablets of Destiny, which are similar in some ways to the Urim and Thummim. [2] The Tablets of Destiny had to rest on the breast of deities mediating between the other gods and mankind in order to function, [2] while the Urim and Thummim had to rest within the breastplate of the priest mediating between God and mankind. [2] Marduk was said to have put his seal on the Tablets of Destiny, [2] while the Israelite breastplate had a jewelled stone upon it for each of the Israelite tribes, which may derive from the same principle. [2]

Like the Urim and Thummim, the Tablets of Destiny came into use when the fate of king and nation was concerned. [2] According to some archaeologists, the Israelites emerged as a subculture from within Canaanite society, and not as an invading force from outside, and therefore it would be natural for them to have used similar religious practices to other Semitic nations, [12] and these scholars suspect that the concept of Urim and Thummim was originally derived from the Tablets of Destiny. [2]

The first reference to Urim and Thummim in the Bible is the description in the Book of Exodus concerning the high priest’s vestments; [13] the chronologically earliest passage mentioning them, according to textual scholars, is in the Book of Hosea, [14]

where it is implied, by reference to the Ephod, that the Urim and Thummim were fundamental elements in the popular form of the Israelite religion, [3]

in the mid 8th century BC. [2] Consulting the Urim and Thummim was said to be permitted for determining territorial boundaries, and was said to be required, in addition to permission from the king or a prophet, if there was an intention to expand Jerusalem or the Temple in Jerusalem; [15][16][17][18]

however, these rabbinical sources did question, or at least tried to justify, why Urim and Thummim would be required when a prophet was also present. [19]

The classical rabbinical writers argued that the Urim and Thummim were only permitted to be consulted by very prominent figures such as army generals, the most senior of court figures, and kings, and the only questions which could be raised were those which were asked for the benefit of the people as a whole. [20] Abiathar joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1 Sam. 22:20-23; 23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader (1 Sam. 30:7). When David ascended the throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed High Priest (1 Chr. 15:11; 1 Kings 2:26) and the “king’s counselor” (1 Chr. 27:33-34). Meanwhile, Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made High Priest. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia Abiathar was deposed from office when he was deserted by the Holy Spirit without which the Urim and Thummin could not be consulted. [21]

Although Josephus argues that the Urim and Thummim continued to be used until the era of the Maccabees, [22]

Talmudic sources are unanimous in agreeing that the Urim and Thummim were lost much earlier, when Jerusalem was sacked by the Babylonians. [23][24][25] In a passage from the part of the Book of Ezra which overlaps with the Book of Nehemiah, it is mentioned that individuals who were unable to prove, after the Babylonian captivity had ended, that they were descended from the priesthood before the captivity began, were required to wait until priests in possession of Urim and Thummim were discovered; [26] this would appear to confirm the statements in the Talmud that the Urim and Thummim had by then been lost. [1][2][3]

Indeed, since the priestly source, which textual scholars date to a couple of centuries prior to the captivity, doesn’t appear to know what the Urim and Thummim looked like, and there is no mention of the Urim and Thummim in the deuteronomic history beyond the death of David, scholars suspect that use of them decayed some time before the Babylonian conquest, [3] probably as a result of the growing influence of prophets at that time. [2]

Latter Day Saint movement

Main articles: Urim and Thummim (Latter Day Saints) and Seer stone (Latter Day Saints)

Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, said that he used interpreters in order to translate the Book of Mormon from the golden plates. The interpreters he described as a pair of stones, fastened to a breastplate joined in a form similar to that of a large pair of spectacles. Smith later referred to this object as the Urim and Thummim. In 1823, Smith said that the angel Moroni, who had told him about the golden plates, also told him about the Urim and Thummim, “two stones in silver bows” fastened to a breastplate, and the angel intimated that they had been prepared by God to aid in the translation of the plates. [27] Smith’s mother, Lucy Mack Smith, described these Urim and Thummim as being like “two smooth three-cornered diamonds.” [28]

Smith also said he used the Urim and Thummim to assist him in receiving other divine revelations, including some of the sections of the Doctrine and Covenants and portions of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. Although many of Smith’s associates said they saw him use the devices, only Oliver Cowdery seems to have attempted to use them to receive his own revelation. [29] Latter Day Saints believe that Smith’s Urim and Thummim were functionally identical to the biblical Urim and Thummim. [30]

Smith extended the use of the term “Urim and Thummim” to describe the dwelling place of God, the earth in a future state, and the white stone mentioned in the Book of Revelation. [31]

In popular culture

Yale University Shield With a caption of “Urim and Thummim” in Hebrew letters

In accordance with the belief that Urim and Thummim translates to “Light and Truth”, the Latin equivalent Lux et Veritas has been used for several university mottoes. Lux et Veritas is the motto of Indiana University and the University of Montana; similarly, Northeastern University’s motto is Lux, Veritas, Virtus (Light, Truth, Virtue). Though Urim and Thummim itself is emblazoned across the open book pictured on the Yale University coat of arms, Lux et Veritas appears below on a banner.

The Urim and Thummim are also afforded some value as artifacts in some modern fiction:

Thomas Mann has elaborated greatly on the definition of this term in Joseph the Provider, the fourth book of his tetralogy Joseph and His Brothers. [citation needed]

A treasure hunt for the Urim and Thummim forms the central plot of the John Bellairs novel The Revenge of the Wizard’s Ghost [citation needed]

Their apparent desecration by an unknown vandal is a theme in the Arthur Conan Doyle short story “The Jew’s Breastplate”. [citation needed]

In the Christian fiction novel The Face of God, by Bill Myers, the pastor Daniel Lawson and terrorist Ibrahim el-Magd race to find the Urim and Thummim, as well as the twelve stones of the sacred breastplate, in order to hear God’s voice. [citation needed]

In the novel The Alchemist, by Paulo Coelho, page 30 the king of Salem gives the main character Santiago two stones that the king calls Urim and Thummim. One of the stones is black, which is said to signify yes, and the other is white, said to signify no; a significance applicable when the stones are asked an appropriate question and drawn from a bag. The king himself had removed the stones from his shining golden breastplate. [citation needed]

Urim and Thummim were the names given to two objects of mystical technology in the Prosopopeia transmedia series, culminating in the International Emmy Award-winning participatory drama series The Truth About Marika by SVT The company P. [32][not in citation given]

In the television series Dig, the breastplate that is a part of the mystery is said to be the breastplate of the High Priest of the Temple in Jerusalem and used to communicate with God.

The traditional rabbinical descriptions of the function of Urim and Thummim—transmitting messages by glowing—have been claimed by some proponents of paleocontact hypothesis to be evidence in support of that hypothesis. [citation needed]

See also

Cleromancy: the drawing of lots for the purpose of divination

Divination: ascertaining information by supernatural means

Dice: polyhedral objects used to randomize decisions

Oracle: person or object used to obtain information via prophecy or clairvoyance

Scrying: obtaining supernatural knowledge by means of an object Notes and citations

1. ^ a b c d Peake’s commentary on the Bible

2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Jewish Encyclopedia

3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica

4. ^ 1 Samuel 14:37

5. ^ Exodus 28:13-30

6. ^ Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Exodus 28:30

7. ^ Yoma 73a-b

8. ^ Yoma 44c in the Jerusalem Talmud

9. ^ Sifre, Numbers 141

10. ^ Yoma 73b

11. ^ 1 Samuel 28:3-6

12. ^ Israel Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed

13. ^ Exodus 28:30

14. ^ Hosea 3:4

15. ^ Sanhedrin 16a

16. ^ Yoma 41b (Jerusalem Talmud)

17. ^ Shebbit 2-3, and 16a

18. ^ Shebbit 33d (Jerusalem Talmud)

19. ^ Sanhedrin 19b (Jerusalem Talmud)

20. ^ Yoma 7; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan on Exodus 28:30

21. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia .p.56

22. ^ Josephus Antiquities of the Jews (volume 3) 8:9

23. ^ Sotah 9:10

24. ^ Yoma 21b

25. ^ Tamid 65b (Jerusalem Talmud)

26. ^ Ezra 2:63 , which is also Nehemiah 7:65

27. ^ Joseph Smith–History . The Urim and Thummim were said to have been found with the golden plates, the aforementioned breastplate, and the Sword of Laban.

28. ^ Smith, Lucy Mack (1853). “Biographical sketches of Joseph Smith the prophet, and his progenitors for many generations.” . Brigham Young University Religious Education Archive. p. 101. Retrieved 2006-02-02. “It [Joseph’s Urim and Thummim]; also at EMD, 1: 328-29.”

29. ^ Section 9

30. ^ There are seven references to the Urim and Thummim in the Masoretic Text (the basis of most English translations of the Old Testament): Exodus 28:30 , Leviticus 8:8 ,

Numbers 27:21 , Deuteronomy 33:8 , 1 Samuel 28:6 , Ezra 2:63 , Nehemiah 7:65 . The Septuagint version (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the Old Testament) and some English translations of 1 Samuel 14:41 also references them.

31. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 130:8–10 .

32. ^ The Truth About Marika , The company P

External links

The Urim and Thummim by Reb Chaim HaQoton

Mormon views of Urim and Thummim and Seer Stones

Commentary on Exodus 28:30 by John Wesley

Commentary on Exodus 28:30 by Cyrus Scofield

The Urim V’tumim: The History of Yale’s Insignia and Jewish Thought Today at westvilleshul.org, by Beth Hamedrosh Hagodol – B’nai Israel, the Westville Synagogue, New Haven, Connecticut

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Urim and Thummim

Last edited on 1 September 2016, …

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