THE FLESH HEALERS (flesh healers)


ACTS 14:11 And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.

14:12 And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker.

14:13 Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people.

14:14 Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out, Acts












A death in the gymnasium

Here’s a story of death from over-exertion from the classical world—and in the process some reflections on ancient training practices, at Olympia and elsewhere.

The death of Gerenos

One of our most important sources for what went on in ancient gymnasia is Philostratus’ Gymnasticus (early third century AD). It’s a kind of manual of athletic training techniques, which gives a highly idealised vision of the job of the athletic trainer and the history of the discipline.

It’s a difficult text in many ways, but it’s full of good anecdotes about trainers at the Olympics. Here’s one:

Evidence against the tetrad system, which I have already rejected, also comes from the great error made in the case of the wrestler Gerenos, whose tomb lies in Athens on the right of the road to Eleusis. For this man was from Naukratis, and was one of the best wrestlers, as demonstrated by the victories he won in competition. He happened to win at Olympia, and two days after later he celebrated his victory and gave a feast for some of his friends, eating more luxuriously than he was used to, and was deprived of sleep. When he came to the gymnasium the next day he admitted to his trainer that he was suffering from indigestion and that he felt unwell in some way. The trainer became angry and listened furiously and was irritable with him on the grounds that he was relaxing his training and interrupting the tetrads, until he actually killed the athlete through his training, out of ignorance, by not prescribing the exercises he should have chosen even if the athlete had said nothing about his condition [in other words the trainer should have been perceptive enough to work out Gerenos’ condition from his outward bodily appearance]. The damage which is caused by this kind of tetrad system and by a trainer who is so untrained and uneducated is not inconsiderable. How can it not be a bad thing that the stadia should lose an athlete of that calibre? (Gymnasticus 54)

We can’t be absolutely sure that the story is true—this athlete isn’t mentioned in any other ancient text. But it does look entirely plausible. The recent cases of Piermario Morosini and Claire Squires are desperately sad reminders of that—these things still happen in sport today, and there’s no reason to think that that wouldn’t have been the case in the ancient world too.

Training facilities at Olympia

But even if the story is a fabrication by Philostratus or one of his sources, it can still tell us a lot about the Olympics and about ancient conceptions of training.

For one thing it gives us a glimpse of how important the training facilities at Olympia must have been. There was a big gymnasium building on the north-eastern edge of the Olympic site with a practice running track (top left in this map, labelled ‘Palaestra’—with the temple of Zeus and other temples in the centre, and the stadium stretching away on the right-hand side):

It must have been packed with athletes during the days around the contests.

It’s particularly interesting to see this athlete training in the Olympic gymnasium after the Olympic events have finished. He has stayed on for several days after the contests, in order to celebrate his victory. The contests themselves took place on the fourth day of the festival, with the fifth day set aside for prize-giving and official banquets, which is why Gerenos has to wait for two days after the victory to have his own private party. Presumably he is heading off to compete at another festival soon in some other part of the Mediterranean world, which is why he needs to keep in good condition.

Principles of training

Even more interesting, I think, is what this reveals about ancient conceptions of training.

Philostratus, like other ancient authors, stresses the importance of adapting training to the needs of the individual. That means responding carefully to the distinctive physiological make-up of each individual athlete, or in this case to temporary alterations in the body (caused here by recent overindulgence), rather than imposing the same blanket training regime on everyone. (The ‘tetrad’ system, heavily criticised by Philostratus here, was a system for training athletes on a rigid four-day cycle, with different types and intensities of exercise on each of the four days of the cycle). Presumably most modern trainers would agree about the importance of adapting to the individual (e.g. see here or here or on the ‘Individual differences principle’ in modern training).

In the process the passage also puts a lot of emphasis on the responsibilities of the athletic trainer himself. Philostratus suggests that the trainer needs to know his athlete as well as the athlete knows himself—he should have spotted that there was something wrong with Gerenos without being told. In this anecdote at least, getting the relationship between trainer and athlete right is crucial for an athlete’s future.

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In “Philostratus’ Gymnasticus”


Armand D’Angour on April 27, 2012 at 4:56 pm

Thanks for this excellent and informative site. Would athletes have been solely from elite classes, or do you think the Greeks saw the value of training men who had natural brawn (such as even some slaves must have had) regardless of class?

 Reply

jpk3 on April 30, 2012 at 4:21 pm

Thanks Armand–good question! It’s not an easy one to answer–it has been one of the most controversial issues of all in the scholarship on ancient athletes over the last few decades. Athletic competition was strongly linked with elite identity in the ancient imagination. But we do also have some evidence dotted around for athletes from low-income backgrounds doing well–the question is really how significant that evidence is for the big picture. I’ll post something later this week which has some relevance to all of that, and might help a little…

 Reply

giovanni Federici on September 13, 2012 at 4:08 pm

I was interested in Gerenos. It is possible to receive the original greek or latin test?

 Reply

andy on May 22, 2016 at 7:37 am

The key words in this article are trainer and ignorance. Rejecting a form of any training due to trainer ignorance are rediculous in my view. Everything an athlete needs to achieve is about 4 things. Endurance, some sort of ics training, (ic)training ie plyometric, isokinetic etc, speed and lactate. The block training the Greeks and Romans did on a 4 day turnaround is still the same today. EXCEPT that after block training the athlete puts some form of all four together for maintenance

Any fool can become fit, the big trick is maintaining it, improving it, and peaking at the right time.

Instead of four days we now cram a thread of the four part block training into a number of single days with rest days in between. Sometimes a day apart for the recreational athlete, two days on 1 day off for the amateur athlete, 3 days on 1 day off for the professional athlete, different athletes need more work in different areas depending upon ability and distance, strength or speed or lactate resilience. A thread of each maintains the fabric of the athletic blanket the trainer and athlete have together weaved.

If I were you I would not use I because some one like me will reject your rejection, at 60 yrs and a health care specialist and trainer myself, and, having been involved with medaling olympians national, state, local champions, most of my life one might wonder who in the he’ll could this be.

That doesn’t matter now you are on the right track that’s what matters

So how do you spell team…….. not with an I, real trainers and athletes become we.

 Reply



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