Monthly Archives: November 2016

STONE’S ORIGINAL STORY

The Coronation Stone: Jacob’s Pillow

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Study Outline Jacob’s Pillar: A Time Line The Coronation Chair ___________________________________________________________________

WHO OWNS THE ROCK?

The coronation stone which sat in Westminster Abbey, England, is the coronation stone of the Hebrew nation called Israelites. This stone was named Beth-el (house of God) by the patriarch Israel (sometimes called Jacob) roughly 2000 BC and remained with his descendents. It travelled with them for forty years in the wilderness, supplying their water, and was preserved and brought to Ireland in 583 BC by the prophet Jeremiah; eventually being transferred to Scotland, then England, and now resides in Scotland.

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STUDY OUTLINE

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STONE HISTORY

In 1950 BC a man lays his head on a rock, has a dream of God, and calls the rock “House of God.” His family carries that rock around for the next 38 centuries. It becomes their symbolic throne, their water supply, the type of their coming Deliverer, their coronation symbol, and it even roars when the proper king is crowned.

Gen 28:10-14 Jacob puts his pillows on a rock, dreams of a ladder to heaven. Gen 28:18-22 He sets up the rock for a pillar (of witness), anoints it with oil, naming it “Beth-el”; Jacob also names the place Beth-el (House of God) Gen 31:13 God validates Jacob’s “Bethel” name and anointing. Gen 35:9-15 Jacob’s name is changed to Israel, God reconfirms His promises, Jacob again anoints and names the place Bethel. Gen 49:24 The Stone of Israel (Jacob); the Shepherd is passed on to Joseph Josh 24:24-27 Joshua sets up the Stone at Shechem for a witness. I Kin 12:1 Rehoboam goes to Shechem (in Ephraim) to be crowned king of Judah. I Kin 12:25 Shechem is established as the capitol of the kingdom of Israel. II Kin 11:13-14( II Chr 23:13) Joash is crowned by a pillar, “as the manner was.” II Kin 23:3(II Chr 34:31) Josiah’s covenant by a pillar. Jud 9:1,6 Abimelech is Gideon’s son; he is crowned by the pillar at Shechem. Hos 3:4 Israel is to be without a standing pillar.

REJECTION

1. Coronation stone rejected for Solomon’s temple–Ency. Freemasonry, 1921 2. Mt 21:42; Mk 12:10; Lu 20:17 Jesus quotes Psalm 118 3. Ps 118:22 The stone which the builders refused…… 4. Acts 4:11 Peter says Jesus was the stone refused 5. I Cor 10:4 “And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that went with them: and that Rock was Christ.”

JACOB RE-CAP

He dreams at Moriah. He anoints and names the stone Bethel. Later God confirms Jacob’s anointing and naming. Jacob calls the stone the Shepherd of Israel and gives Joseph the birthright; Gen 49:24.

Who gets all Jacob’s fine jewelry?—– Joseph. Who gets Jacob’s treasured ointments?—– Joseph Who gets all Jacob’s revered relics?—– Joseph Who gets Beth-el?—– Joseph What tribe retains all Jacob’s good stuff when Joseph dies?—– Ephraim To whom, logically, will the places named Bethel belong?—– Ephraim Josh 16:1-2; 5-8 Mt. Bethel belongs to the tribe of Ephraim

THE DESERT TRIP

OVERVIEW: Exodus under Moses, 1453 BC. Multitude of 2.5-3.25 million. A hurried departure. At Sinai, the Ten Commandments. Refusal to act in faith at Kadesh-Barnea. Forty years in the wilderness. Joshua is made leader. Conquest of Canaan.

1. Deut 29:5 Shoes hath not waxen old upon thy foot 2. Ex 16:35 children of Israel did eat manna forty years 3. Ex 15:23-25; :27 bitter waters turned sweet at Marah; 12 wells at Elim 4. Ex 17:1-6 at Horeb/Rephidim. God stands on the rock. Before all, Moses strikes the rock once and all drink from the issuing waters 5. Num 20:7-11 at Kadesh, Moses strikes the rock twice 6. Num 20:17-19 Moses writes a letter to Edom asking passage through the land, without drinking water. 7. Num 21:21-22 Moses writes same to Sihon, King of the Ammorites; at Arnon 8. Location and size of Edom and Ammon: below and northeast of the Dead Sea, roughly 75 miles thourgh each country.

THE ROCK

ALL references are to a specific rock. Not “a” rock, not “some” rock, not “rock”, but THE rock. 1. Ex 17:1-6 God stands on THE rock 2. Num 20:7-11 THE rock(four times) at tabernacle door. 3. Deut 8:15 THE rock of flint 4. Deut 32:13-15 Honey/oil of THE rock 5. Neh 9:15 water from THE rock 6. Ps 78:15-16 streams out of THE rock 7. Ps 78:20 smote THE rock 8. Ps 81:16 honey out of THE rock 9. Ps 105:41 he opened THE rock 10.Ps 114:8 turned THE rock 11.Is 48:21 clave THE rock (twice) 12.I Cor 10:4 spiritual Rock; THAT Rock was Christ

THE GROOVE AND THE ROAR

Notice the groove worn deeply into the Rock between the two metal rings. This would have to result from many years of carrying the Rock on a pole. And this had to have happened before 583 BC when Jeremiah brought the Rock to Ireland, because it has been moved a very few miles in the last 2500 years. This groove is the result of being carried around the wilderness for forty years. Irish legend says that any imposter or unrightful heir to the throne would be known by the fact that the stone would roar ONLY when the rightful king stood on it.

TWO KINGDOMS, TWO HOUSES, TWO ROCKS

Birthright House of Israel: Joseph gets Bethel Rock, Bethel mountain, 10 Tribed kingdom

Sceptre House of Judah: Judah gets the Spiritual Rock, Jesus. Both Rocks were rejected. Bethel so it could travel to be with The People, Israel, in the British Isles.

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THE STONE LINE

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ENGLAND’S CORONATION CHAIR

Jeremiah and Tea Tephi All the kings of Israel, the whole nation, then the Kingdom of Judah, were crowned standing on or beside this Stone. See the story of Queen Athaliah’s overthrow in II Kings 11:14. Upon Jeremiah’s arrival in Ireland, 583 BC, with the Stone, the Stone was again put in use to crown the Royalty of Israel. Eochaide and Tea Tephi were the complete fulfillment of Jacob’s command that Judah should rule over the people of the twelve tribes. Eochaide was a descendent of the Zarah line of Judah, while Tea Tephi was of the Pharez line of Judah. The Zarah line, as firstborn, ruled in Egypt after the death of Joseph. Non-ruling princes of the family migrated over the next 150 years, founding the city-states of Troy, Athens, Miltetus, and others along the northern Mediterranean. Then about 150 years before the Exodus, when the King of Upper (southern) Egpyt conquered the Hyksos(Zarahite) rulers, the ruling family fled leaving the Pharez line of Judah in Egypt. This “first” Exodus out of Egypt is mentioned by the historian Diodorus. Brutus of Troy went in 1103 BC and founded New Troy, later renamed London. The Milesians migrated west establishing settlements in Spain and then Ireland. With the arrival of Tea Tephi, and her subsequent marriage to the Milesian king Eochaide, the two lines of Zarah and Pharez were brought together. From this first marraige, all the kings and queens of northwest Europe would descend. Notice that the three times the Stone moved is the fulfillment of Ezekiel’s prophecy regarding the three overturns mentioned in chapter 21, verses 25-27. However, now that the Stone has been moved back to Scotland, some have discounted the prophecy. This mistake is made because the Stone has been equated with the Throne of David. The Stone is only a symbol of the Throne. The actual Throne still remains with Queen Elizabeth. The Throne will remain with Britain until Jesus returns, according to the prophecy; “until he comes whose right it is.” The latest descendant of the Zarah/Pharez line of Judah is Queen Elizabeth II. She also happens to be the current fulfillment of the prophecy of Nathan to King David in II Samuel 7:10-17. In that passage, David is p romised that he would have a direct bloodline descendent ruling over the people of Israel forever. Psalm 89 confirms that this would be the case as long as the sun and moon can be seen in the sky.

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STONE OF DESTINY & RATIOCINATION (666 Consciousness Rejected)

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This article is about the human faculty of reason or rationality. For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation).

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. [1] It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a definitive characteristic of human nature. [2]

Reason, or as aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality.

Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning. Along these lines, a distinction is often drawn between discursive reason, reason proper, and intuitive reason, [3] in which the reasoning process—however valid—tends toward the personal and the opaque. Although in many social and political settings logical and intuitive modes of reason may clash, in others contexts, intuition and formal reason are seen as complementary, rather than adversarial as, for example, in mathematics, where intuition is often a necessary building block in the creative process of achieving the hardest form of reason, a formal proof.

Reason, like habit or intuition, is one of the ways by which thinking comes from one idea to a related idea. For example, it is the means by which rational beings understand themselves to think about cause and effect, truth and falsehood, and what is good or bad. It is also closely identified with the ability to self-consciously change beliefs, attitudes, traditions, and institutions, and therefore with the capacity for freedom and self-determination. [4]

In contrast to reason as an abstract noun, a reason is a consideration which explains or justifies some event, phenomenon, or behavior. [5] The field of logic studies ways in which human beings reason formally through argument. [6]

Psychologists and cognitive scientists have attempted to study and explain how people reason, e.g. which cognitive and neural processes are engaged, and how cultural factors affect the inferences that people draw. The field of automated reasoning studies how reasoning may or may not be modeled computationally. Animal psychology considers the question of whether animals other than humans can reason.

Etymology and related words

In the English language and other modern European languages, “reason”, and related words, represent words which have always been used to translate Latin and classical Greek terms in the sense of their philosophical usage.

The original Greek term was “λόγος” logos, the root of the modern English word “logic” but also a word which could mean for example “speech” or “explanation” or an “account” (of money handled). [7]

As a philosophical term logos was translated in its non-linguistic senses in Latin as ratio. This was originally not just a translation used for philosophy, but was also commonly a translation for logos in the sense of an account of money. [8]

French raison is derived directly from Latin, and this is the direct source of the English word “reason”. [5]

The earliest major philosophers to publish in English, such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke also routinely wrote in Latin and French, and compared their terms to Greek, treating the words “logos”, “ratio”, “raison” and “reason” as inter-changeable. The meaning of the word “reason” in senses such as “human reason” also overlaps to a large extent with “rationality” and the adjective of “reason” in philosophical contexts is normally “rational”, rather than “reasoned” or “reasonable”. [9] Some philosophers, Thomas Hobbes for example, also used the word ratiocination as a synonym for “reasoning”.

Philosophical history

Francisco de Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (El sueño de la razón produce monstruos), c. 1797

The proposal that reason gives humanity a special position in nature has been argued to be a defining characteristic of western philosophy and later western modern science, starting with classical Greece. Philosophy can be described as a way of life based upon reason, and in the other direction reason has been one of the major subjects of philosophical discussion since ancient times. Reason is often said to be reflexive, or “self-correcting,” and the critique of reason has been a persistent theme in philosophy. [10] It has been defined in different ways, at different times, by different thinkers about human nature.

Classical philosophy

For many classical philosophers, nature was understood teleologically, meaning that every type of thing had a definitive purpose which fit within a natural order that was itself understood to have aims. Perhaps starting with Pythagoras or Heraclitus, the cosmos is even said to have reason. [11] Reason, by this account, is not just one characteristic that humans happen to have, and that influences happiness amongst other characteristics. Reason was considered of higher stature than other characteristics of human nature, such as sociability, because it is something humans share with nature itself, linking an apparently immortal part of the human mind with the divine order of the cosmos itself. Within the human mind or soul (psyche), reason was described by Plato as being the natural monarch which should rule over the other parts, such as spiritedness (thumos) and the passions. Aristotle, Plato’s student, defined human beings as rational animals, emphasizing reason as a characteristic of human nature. He defined the highest human happiness or well being (eudaimonia) as a life which is lived consistently, excellently and completely in accordance with reason. [12]

The conclusions to be drawn from the discussions of Aristotle and Plato on this matter are amongst the most debated in the history of philosophy. [13]

But teleological accounts such as Aristotle’s were highly influential for those who attempt to explain reason in a way which is consistent with monotheism and the immortality and divinity of the human soul. For example, in the neo-platonist account of Plotinus, the cosmos has one soul, which is the seat of all reason, and the souls of all individual humans are part of this soul. Reason is for Plotinus both the provider of form to material things, and the light which brings individuals souls back into line with their source. [14] Such neo-Platonist accounts of the rational part of the human soul were standard amongst medieval Islamic philosophers, and under this influence, mainly via Averroes, came to be debated seriously in Europe until well into the renaissance, and they remain important in Iranian philosophy. [13]

Subject-centred reason in early modern philosophy

The early modern era was marked by a number of significant changes in the understanding of reason, starting in Europe. One of the most important of these changes involved a change in the metaphysical understanding of human beings. Scientists and philosophers began to question the teleological understanding of the world. [15] Nature was no longer assumed to be human-like, with its own aims or reason, and human nature was no longer assumed to work according to anything other than the same “laws of nature” which affect inanimate things. This new understanding eventually displaced the previous world view that derived from a spiritual understanding of the universe.

René Descartes

Accordingly, in the 17th century, René Descartes explicitly rejected the traditional notion of humans as “rational animals,” suggesting instead that they are nothing more than “thinking things” along the lines of other “things” in nature. Any grounds of knowledge outside that understanding was, therefore, subject to doubt.

In his search for a foundation of all possible knowledge, Descartes deliberately decided to throw into doubt all knowledge – except that of the mind itself in the process of thinking:

This eventually became known as epistemological or “subject-centred” reason, because it is based on the knowing subject, who perceives the rest of the world and itself as a set of objects to be studied, and successfully mastered by applying the knowledge accumulated through such study. Breaking with tradition and many thinkers after him, Descartes explicitly did not divide the incorporeal soul into parts, such as reason and intellect, describing them as one indivisible incorporeal entity.

A contemporary of Descartes, Thomas Hobbes described reason as a broader version of “addition and subtraction” which is not limited to numbers. [17] This understanding of reason is sometimes termed “calculative” reason. Similar to Descartes, Hobbes asserted that “No discourse whatsoever, can end in absolute knowledge of fact, past, or to come” but that “sense and memory” is absolute knowledge. [18]

In the late 17th century, through the 18th century, John Locke and David Hume developed Descartes’ line of thought still further. Hume took it in an especially skeptical direction, proposing that there could be no possibility of deducing relationships of cause and effect, and therefore no knowledge is based on reasoning alone, even if it seems otherwise. [19][20]

Hume famously remarked that, “We speak not strictly and philosophically when we talk of the combat of passion and of reason. Reason is, and ought only to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey them.” [21] Hume also took his definition of reason to unorthodox extremes by arguing, unlike his predecessors, that human reason is not qualitatively different from either simply conceiving individual ideas, or from judgments associating two ideas, [22] and that “reason is nothing but a wonderful and unintelligible instinct in our souls, which carries us along a certain train of ideas, and endows them with particular qualities, according to their particular situations and relations.” [23] It followed from this that animals have reason, only much less complex than human reason.

In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant attempted to show that Hume was wrong by demonstrating that a “transcendental” self, or “I”, was a necessary condition of all experience. Therefore, suggested Kant, on the basis of such a self, it is in fact possible to reason both about the conditions and limits of human knowledge. And so long as these limits are respected, reason can be the vehicle of morality, justice and understanding.

Substantive and formal reason

In the formulation of Kant, who wrote some of the most influential modern treatises on the subject, the great achievement of reason is that it is able to exercise a kind of universal law-making. Kant was able therefore to re-formulate the basis of moral-practical, theoretical and aesthetic reasoning, on “universal” laws.

Here practical reasoning is the self-legislating or self-governing formulation of universal norms, and theoretical reasoning the way humans posit universal laws of nature. [24]

Under practical reason, the moral autonomy or freedom of human beings depends on their ability to behave according to laws that are given to them by the proper exercise of that reason. This contrasted with earlier forms of morality, which depended on religious understanding and interpretation, or nature for their substance. [25]

According to Kant, in a free society each individual must be able to pursue their goals however they see fit, so long as their actions conform to principles given by reason. He formulated such a principle, called the “categorical imperative”, which would justify an action only if it could be universalized:

In contrast to Hume then, Kant insists that reason itself (German Vernunft) has natural ends itself, the solution to the metaphysical problems, especially the discovery of the foundations of morality. Kant claimed that this problem could be solved with his “transcendental logic” which unlike normal logic is not just an instrument, which can be used indifferently, as it was for Aristotle, but a theoretical science in its own right and the basis of all the others. [27]

According to Jürgen Habermas, the “substantive unity” of reason has dissolved in modern times, such that it can no longer answer the question “How should I live?” Instead, the unity of reason has to be strictly formal, or “procedural.” He thus described reason as a group of three autonomous spheres (on the model of Kant’s three critiques):

1. Cognitive-instrumental reason is the kind of reason employed by the sciences. It is used to observe events, to predict and control outcomes, and to intervene in the world on the basis of its hypotheses;

2. Moral-practical reason is what we use to deliberate and discuss issues in the moral and political realm, according to universalizable procedures (similar to Kant’s categorical imperative); and

3. Aesthetic reason is typically found in works of art and literature, and encompasses the novel ways of seeing the world and interpreting things that those practices embody.

For Habermas, these three spheres are the domain of experts, and therefore need to be mediated with the “lifeworld” by philosophers. In drawing such a picture of reason, Habermas hoped to demonstrate that the substantive unity of reason, which in pre-modern societies had been able to answer questions about the good life, could be made up for by the unity of reason’s formalizable procedures. [28]

The critique of reason

Hamann, Herder, Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Foucault, Rorty, and many other philosophers have contributed to a debate about what reason means, or ought to mean. Some, like Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Rorty, are skeptical about subject-centred, universal, or instrumental reason, and even skeptical toward reason as a whole. Others, including Hegel, believe that it has obscured the importance of intersubjectivity, or “spirit” in human life, and attempt to reconstruct a model of what reason should be.

Some thinkers, e.g. Foucault, believe there are other forms of reason, neglected but essential to modern life, and to our understanding of what it means to live a life according to reason. [10]

In the last several decades, a number of proposals have been made to “re-orient” this critique of reason, or to recognize the “other voices” or “new departments” of reason:

For example, in opposition to subject-centred reason, Habermas has proposed a model of communicative reason that sees it as an essentially cooperative activity, based on the fact of linguistic intersubjectivity. [29]

Nikolas Kompridis has proposed a widely encompassing view of reason as “that ensemble of practices that contributes to the opening and preserving of openness” in human affairs, and a focus on reason’s possibilities for social change. [30]

The philosopher Charles Taylor, influenced by the 20th century German philosopher Martin Heidegger, has proposed that reason ought to include the faculty of disclosure, which is tied to the way we make sense of things in everyday life, as a new “department” of reason. [31]

In the essay “What is Enlightenment?”, Michel Foucault proposed a concept of critique based on Kant’s distinction between “private” and “public” uses of reason. This distinction, as suggested, has two dimensions:

Private reason is the reason that is used when an individual is “a cog in a machine” or when one “has a role to play in society and jobs to do: to be a soldier, to have taxes to pay, to be in charge of a parish, to be a civil servant.”

Public reason is the reason used “when one is reasoning as a reasonable being (and not as a cog in a machine), when one is reasoning as a member of reasonable humanity.” In these circumstances, “the use of reason must be free and public.” [32]

Reason compared to related concepts

Compared to logic

Main article: Logic

The terms “logic” or “logical” are sometimes used as if they were identical with the term “reason” or with the concept of being “rational”, or sometimes logic is seen as the most pure or the defining form of reason. For example in modern economics, rational choice is assumed to equate to logically consistent choice.

Reason and logic can however be thought of as distinct, although logic is one important aspect of reason. Author Douglas Hofstadter, in Gödel, Escher, Bach, characterizes the distinction in this way. Logic is done inside a system while reason is done outside the system by such methods as skipping steps, working backward, drawing diagrams, looking at examples, or seeing what happens if you change the rules of the system. [33]

Reason is a type of thought, and the word “logic” involves the attempt to describe rules or norms by which reasoning operates, so that orderly reasoning can be taught. The oldest surviving writing to explicitly consider the rules by which reason operates are the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, especially Prior Analysis and Posterior Analysis. [34] Although the Ancient Greeks had no separate word for logic as distinct from language and reason, Aristotle’s newly coined word “syllogism” (syllogismos) identified logic clearly for the first time as a distinct field of study. When Aristotle referred to “the logical” (hē logikē), he was referring more broadly to rational thought. [35]

Reason compared to cause-and-effect thinking, and symbolic thinking

Main articles: Causality and Symbols

As pointed out by philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke and Hume, some animals are also clearly capable of a type of “associative thinking”, even to the extent of associating causes and effects. A dog once kicked, can learn how to recognize the warning signs and avoid being kicked in the future, but this does not mean the dog has reason in any strict sense of the word. It also does not mean that humans acting on the basis of experience or habit are using their reason. [36]

Human reason requires more than being able to associate two ideas, even if those two ideas might be described by a reasoning human as a cause and an effect, perceptions of smoke, for example, and memories of fire. For reason to be involved, the association of smoke and the fire would have to be thought through in a way which can be explained, for example as cause and effect. In the explanation of Locke, for example, reason requires the mental use of a third idea in order to make this comparison by use of syllogism. [37]

More generally, reason in the strict sense requires the ability to create and manipulate a system of symbols, as well as indices and icons, according to Charles Sanders Peirce, the symbols having only a nominal, though habitual, connection to either smoke or fire. [38]

One example of such a system of artificial symbols and signs is language.

The connection of reason to symbolic thinking has been expressed in different ways by philosophers. Thomas Hobbes described the creation of “Markes, or Notes of remembrance” (Leviathan Ch.4) as speech. He used the word speech as an English version of the Greek word logos so that speech did not need to be communicated. [39] When communicated, such speech becomes language, and the marks or notes or remembrance are called “Signes” by Hobbes. Going further back, although Aristotle is a source of the idea that only humans have reason (logos), he does mention that animals with imagination, for whom sense perceptions can persist, come closest to having something like reasoning and nous, and even uses the word “logos” in one place to describe the distinctions which animals can perceive in such cases. [40]

Reason, imagination, mimesis, and memory

Main articles: Imagination, Mimesis, Memory, and Recollection

Reason and imagination rely on similar mental processes. [41] Imagination is not only found in humans. Aristotle, for example, stated that phantasia (imagination: that which can hold images or phantasmata) and phronein (a type of thinking that can judge and understand in some sense) also exist in some animals. [42] According to him, both are related to the primary perceptive ability of animals, which gathers the perceptions of different senses and defines the order of the things that are perceived without distinguishing universals, and without deliberation or logos. But this is not yet reason, because human imagination is different.

The recent modern writings of Terrence Deacon and Merlin Donald, writing about the origin of language, also connect reason connected to not only language, but also mimesis, [43] More specifically they describe the ability to create language as part of an internal modeling of reality specific to humankind. Other results are consciousness, and imagination or fantasy. In contrast, modern proponents of a genetic pre-disposition to language itself include Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker, to whom Donald and Deacon can be contrasted.

As reason is symbolic thinking, and peculiarly human, then this implies that humans have a special ability to maintain a clear consciousness of the distinctness of “icons” or images and the real things they represent. Starting with a modern author, Merlin Donald writes [44]

In classical descriptions, an equivalent description of this mental faculty is eikasia, in the philosophy of Plato. [45]

This is the ability to perceive whether a perception is an image of something else, related somehow but not the same, and therefore allows humans to perceive that a dream or memory or a reflection in a mirror is not reality as such. What Klein refers to as dianoetic eikasia is the eikasia concerned specifically with thinking and mental images, such as those mental symbols, icons, signes, and marks discussed above as definitive of reason. Explaining reason from this direction: human thinking is special in the way that we often understand visible things as if they were themselves images of our intelligible “objects of thought” as “foundations” (hypothēses in Ancient Greek). This thinking (dianoia) is “…an activity which consists in making the vast and diffuse jungle of the visible world depend on a plurality of more ‘precise’ noēta.” [46]

Both Merlin Donald and the Socratic authors such Plato and Aristotle emphasize the importance of mimesis, often translated as imitation or representation. Donald writes [47]

Mimēsis is a concept, now popular again in academic discussion, that was particularly prevalent in Plato’s works, and within Aristotle, it is discussed mainly in the Poetics. In Michael Davis’s account of the theory of man in this work. [48]

Donald like Plato (and Aristotle, especially in On Memory and Recollection), emphasizes the peculiarity in humans of voluntary initiation of a search through one’s mental world. The ancient Greek anamnēsis, normally translated as “recollection” was opposed to mneme or memory. Memory, shared with some animals, [50] requires a consciousness not only of what happened in the past, but also that something happened in the past, which is in other words a kind of eikasia [51] “…but nothing except man is able to recollect.” [52] Recollection is a deliberate effort to search for and recapture something once known. Klein writes that, “To become aware of our having forgotten something means to begin recollecting.” [53] Donald calls the same thing autocueing, which he explains as follows: [54] “Mimetic acts are reproducible on the basis of internal, self-generated cues. This permits voluntary recall of mimetic representations, without the aid of external cues – probably the earliest form of representational thinking.”

In a celebrated paper in modern times, the fantasy author and philologist J.R.R. Tolkien wrote in his essay “On Fairy Stories” that the terms “fantasy” and “enchantment” are connected to not only “….the satisfaction of certain primordial human desires….” but also “…the origin of language and of the mind.”

Logical reasoning methods and argumentation

Looking at logical categorizations of different types of reasoning the traditional main division made in philosophy is between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Formal logic has been described as the science of deduction. [55] The study of inductive reasoning is generally carried out within the field known as informal logic or critical thinking.

Deductive reasoning

Main article: Deductive reasoning

A subdivision of Philosophy is Logic. Logic is the study of reasoning. Deduction is a form of reasoning in which a conclusion follows necessarily from the stated premises. A deduction is also the conclusion reached by a deductive reasoning process. One classic example of deductive reasoning is that found in syllogisms like the following:

Premise 1: All humans are mortal.

Premise 2: Socrates is a human.

Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.

The reasoning in this argument is valid, because there is no way in which the premises, 1 and 2, could be true and the conclusion, 3, be false.

Inductive reasoning

Main article: Inductive reasoning

Induction is a form of inference producing propositions about unobserved objects or types, either specifically or generally, based on previous observation. It is used to ascribe properties or relations to objects or types based on previous observations or experiences, or to formulate general statements or laws based on limited observations of recurring phenomenal patterns.

Inductive reasoning contrasts strongly with deductive reasoning in that, even in the best, or strongest, cases of inductive reasoning, the truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion. Instead, the conclusion of an inductive argument follows with some degree of probability. Relatedly, the conclusion of an inductive argument contains more information than is already contained in the premises. Thus, this method of reasoning is ampliative.

A classic example of inductive reasoning comes from the empiricist David Hume:

Premise: The sun has risen in the east every morning up until now.

Conclusion: The sun will also rise in the east tomorrow.

Abductive reasoning

Main article: Abductive reasoning

Abductive reasoning, or argument to the best explanation, is a form of inductive reasoning, since the conclusion in an abductive argument does not follow with certainty from its premises and concerns something unobserved. What distinguishes abduction from the other forms of reasoning is an attempt to favour one conclusion above others, by attempting to falsify alternative explanations or by demonstrating the likelihood of the favoured conclusion, given a set of more or less disputable assumptions. For example, when a patient displays certain symptoms, there might be various possible causes, but one of these is preferred above others as being more probable.

Analogical reasoning

Main article: Analogical reasoning

Analogical reasoning is reasoning from the particular to the particular. It is often used in case-based reasoning, especially legal reasoning. [56] An example follows:

Premise 1: Socrates is human and mortal.

Premise 2: Plato is human.

Conclusion: Plato is mortal.

Analogical reasoning can be viewed as a form of inductive reasoning from a single example, but if it is intended as inductive reasoning it is a bad example, because inductive reasoning typically uses a large number of examples to reason from the particular to the general. [57] Analogical reasoning often leads to wrong conclusions. For example:

Premise 1: Socrates is human and male.

Premise 2: Beyoncé is human.

Conclusion: Therefore Beyoncé is male.

Fallacious reasoning

Main articles: Fallacy, Formal fallacy, and Informal fallacy

Flawed reasoning in arguments is known as fallacious reasoning. Bad reasoning within arguments can be because it commits either a formal fallacy or an informal fallacy.

Formal fallacies occur when there is a problem with the form, or structure, of the argument. The word “formal” refers to this link to the form of the argument. An argument that contains a formal fallacy will always be invalid.

An informal fallacy is an error in reasoning that occurs due to a problem with the content, rather than mere structure, of the argument.

Traditional problems raised concerning reason

Philosophy is sometimes described as a life of reason, with normal human reason pursued in a more consistent and dedicated way than usual. Two categories of problem concerning reason have long been discussed by philosophers concerning reason, essentially being reasonings about reasoning itself as a human aim, or philosophizing about philosophizing. The first question is concerning whether we can be confident that reason can achieve knowledge of truth better than other ways of trying to achieve such knowledge. The other question is whether a life of reason, a life that aims to be guided by reason, can be expected to achieve a happy life more so than other ways of life (whether such a life of reason results in knowledge or not).

Reason versus truth, and “first principles”

See also: Truth, First principle, and Nous

Since classical times a question has remained constant in philosophical debate (which is sometimes seen as a conflict between movements called Platonism and Aristotelianism) concerning the role of reason in confirming truth. People use logic, deduction, and induction, to reach conclusions they think are true. Conclusions reached in this way are considered more certain than sense perceptions on their own. [58] On the other hand, if such reasoned conclusions are only built originally upon a foundation of sense perceptions, then, our most logical conclusions can never be said to be certain because they are built upon the very same fallible perceptions they seek to better. [59]

This leads to the question of what types of first principles, or starting points of reasoning, are available for someone seeking to come to true conclusions. In Greek, “first principles” are archai, “starting points”, [60] and the faculty used to perceive them is sometimes referred to in Aristotle [61] and Plato [62] as nous which was close in meaning to awareness or consciousness. [63]

Empiricism (sometimes associated with Aristotle [64] but more correctly associated with British philosophers such as John Locke and David Hume, as well as their ancient equivalents such as Democritus) asserts that sensory impressions are the only available starting points for reasoning and attempting to attain truth. This approach always leads to the controversial conclusion that absolute knowledge is not attainable. Idealism, (associated with Plato and his school), claims that there is a “higher” reality, from which certain people can directly arrive at truth without needing to rely only upon the senses, and that this higher reality is therefore the primary source of truth.

Philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Aquinas and Hegel are sometimes said to have argued that reason must be fixed and discoverable —perhaps by dialectic, analysis, or study. In the vision of these thinkers, reason is divine or at least has divine attributes. Such an approach allowed religious philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas and Étienne Gilson to try to show that reason and revelation are compatible. According to Hegel, “…the only thought which Philosophy brings with it to the contemplation of History, is the simple conception of reason; that reason is the Sovereign of the World; that the history of the world, therefore, presents us with a rational process.” [65]

Since the 17th century rationalists, reason has often been taken to be a subjective faculty, or rather the unaided ability (pure reason) to form concepts. For Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz, this was associated with mathematics. Kant attempted to show that pure reason could form concepts (time and space) that are the conditions of experience. Kant made his argument in opposition to Hume, who denied that reason had any role to play in experience.

Reason versus emotion or passion

See also: Emotion and Passion (emotion)

After Plato and Aristotle, western literature often treated reason as being the faculty that trained the passions and appetites. [citation needed] Stoic philosophy by contrast considered all passions bad. [citation needed] After the critiques of reason in the early Enlightenment the appetites were rarely discussed or conflated with the passions. [citation needed] Some Enlightenment camps took after the Stoics to say Reason should oppose Passion rather than order it, while others like the Romantics considered Passion the ruler over Reason or to the exclusion of Reason, thus the Modern colloquy of “follow your heart”. [citation needed]

Reason has been seen as a slave, or judge, of the passions, notably in the work of David Hume, and more recently of Freud. [citation needed] Reasoning which claims that the object of a desire is demanded by logic alone is called rationalization. [citation needed]

Rousseau first proposed, in his second Discourse, that reason and political life is not natural and possibly harmful to mankind. [66] He asked what really can be said about what is natural to mankind. What, other than reason and civil society, “best suits his constitution”? Rousseau saw “two principles prior to reason” in human nature. First we hold an intense interest in our own well-being. Secondly we object to the suffering or death of any sentient being, especially one like ourselves. [67] These two passions lead us to desire more than we could achieve. We become dependent upon each other, and on relationships of authority and obedience. This effectively puts the human race into slavery. Rousseau says that he almost dares to assert that nature does not destine men to be healthy. According to Velkley, “Rousseau outlines certain programs of rational self-correction, most notably the political legislation of the Contrat Social and the moral education in Émile. All the same, Rousseau understands such corrections to be only ameliorations of an essentially unsatisfactory condition, that of socially and intellectually corrupted humanity.”

This quandary presented by Rousseau led to Kant’s new way of justifying reason as freedom to create good and evil. These therefore are not to be blamed on nature or God. In various ways, German Idealism after Kant, and major later figures such Nietzsche, Bergson, Husserl, Scheler, and Heidegger, remain pre-occupied with problems coming from the metaphysical demands or urges of reason. [68] The influence of Rousseau and these later writers is also large upon art and politics. Many writers (such as Nikos Kazantzakis) extol passion and disparage reason. In politics modern nationalism comes from Rousseau’s argument that rationalist cosmopolitanism brings man ever further from his natural state. [69]

Another view on reason and emotion was proposed in the 1994 book titled Descartes’ Error by Antonio Damasio. In it, Damasio presents the “Somatic Marker Hypothesis” which states that emotions guide behavior and decision-making. Damasio argues that these somatic markers (known collectively as “gut feelings”) are “intuitive signals” that direct our decision making processes in a certain way that cannot be solved with rationality alone. Damasio further argues that rationality requires emotional input in order to function.

Reason versus faith or tradition

Main articles: Faith, Religion, and Tradition

There are many religious traditions, some of which are explicitly fideist and others of which claim varying degrees of rationalism. Secular critics sometimes accuse all religious adherents of irrationality, since they claim such adherents are guilty of ignoring, suppressing, or forbidding some kinds of reasoning concerning some subjects (such as religious dogmas, moral taboos, etc.). [70] Though the theologies and religions such as classical monotheism typically do not claim to be irrational, there is often a perceived conflict or tension between faith and tradition on the one hand, and reason on the other, as potentially competing sources of wisdom, law and truth. [71][72]

Religious adherents sometimes respond by arguing that faith and reason can be reconciled, or have different non-overlapping domains, or that critics engage in a similar kind of irrationalism:

Reconciliation: Philosopher Alvin Plantinga argues that there is no real conflict between reason and classical theism because classical theism explains (among other things) why the universe is intelligible and why reason can successfully grasp it. [73][74]

Non-overlapping magisteria: Evolutionary biologist Stephen Jay Gould argues that there need not be conflict between reason and religious belief because they are each authoritative in their own domain (or “magisterium”). [75][76] For example, perhaps reason alone is not enough to explain such big questions as the origins of the universe, the origin of life, the origin of consciousness, [77] the foundation of morality, or the destiny of the human race. If so, reason can work on those problems over which it has authority while other sources of knowledge or opinion can have authority on the big questions. [78]

Tu quoque: Philosophers Alasdair MacIntyre and Charles Taylor argue that those critics of traditional religion who are adherents of secular liberalism are also sometimes guilty of ignoring, suppressing, and forbidding some kinds of reasoning about subjects. [79][80]

Similarly, philosophers of science such as Paul Feyaraband argue that scientists sometimes ignore or suppress evidence contrary to the dominant paradigm.

Some commentators have claimed that Western civilization can be almost defined by its serious testing of the limits of tension between “unaided” reason and faith in “revealed” truths—figuratively summarized as Athens and Jerusalem, respectively. [81][82] Leo Strauss spoke of a “Greater West” that included all areas under the influence of the tension between Greek rationalism and Abrahamic revelation, including the

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666 # of MAN/ATOM not ADAM/ MM MARY MAGDELENE JAchiM 2016 Decoded

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This article is about the biblical figure. For other uses, see Mary Magdalene (disambiguation).

Mary Magdalene (Hebrew: המגדלית מרים, original Biblical Greek: Μαρία Μαγδαληνή), [2] literally translated as Mary the Magdalene or Mary of Magdala, is a figure in Christianity who, according to the Bible, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers. She is said to have witnessed Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection. [3] Within the four Gospels she is named at least 12 times, [4] more than most of the apostles. Based off texts of the early Christian era in the third century, it seems that her status as an “apostle” rivals even Peter’s. [5][unreliable source?]

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The Gospel of Luke says seven demons had gone out of her, [Lk. 8:2] and the longer ending of Mark says Jesus had cast seven demons out of her. [Mk. 16:9]

She is most prominent in the narrative of the crucifixion of Jesus, at which she was present. She was also present two days later, immediately following the sabbath, [3] when, according to all four canonical Gospels, [Matthew 28:1–8]

[Mark 16:9–10] [Luke 24:10] [John 20:18]

she was, either alone or as a member of a group of women, the first to testify to the resurrection of Jesus. [6] John 20 and Mark 16:9 specifically name her as the first person to see Jesus after his resurrection.

Ideas that go beyond the gospel presentation of Mary Magdalene as a prominent representative of the women who followed Jesus have been put forward over the centuries. [3][4][7]

Mary Magdalene is considered to be a saint by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches—with a feast day of July 22. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith. The Eastern Orthodox churches also commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions. During the Middle Ages, Mary Magdalene was regarded in Western Christianity as a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman, [8]

accusations not found in any of the four canonical gospels. [3]

In historical fiction

Edgar Saltus’s historical fiction novel Mary Magdalene: A Chronicle (1891) depicts her as a heroine living in a castle at Magdala, who moves to Rome becoming the “toast of the tetrarchy”, telling John the Baptist she will “drink pearls… sup on peacock’s tongues”. [127][128]

Ki Longfellow’s novel The Secret Magdalene (2005) draws on the Gnostic gospels and other sources to portray Mary as a brilliant and dynamic woman who studies at the fabled library at Alexandria, and shares her knowledge with Jesus. [129]

In film

Gallery

Noli me tangere by Titian, c. 1512

Mary Magdalene by Juan Bautista Maino

Mary Magdalene by El Greco ca. 1580

Mary Magdalene by Artemisia Gentileschi

Mary Magdalene by José de Ribera

Noli me tangere fresco by Fra Angelico

Magdalen with the Smoking Flame by Georges de La Tour (c. 1640)

Mary Magdalene by Georges de La Tour

Mary Magdalene by Ambrosius Benson

Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalene by Pietro da Cortona

Mary Magdalene Reading by Piero di Cosimo

The Magdalene by George Romney

St Mary Magdalene in Ecstasy by Peter Paul Rubens

Acocella, Joan. “The Saintly Sinner: The Two-Thousand-Year Obsession with Mary Magdalene”. The New Yorker, February 13 & 20, 2006, p. 140–49. Prompted by controversy surrounding Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code.

Brock, Ann Graham. Mary Magdalene, The First Apostle: The Struggle for Authority. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-674-00966-5. Discusses issues of apostolic authority in the gospels and the Gospel of Peter the competition between Peter and Mary, especially in chapter 7, “The Replacement of Mary Magdalene: A Strategy for Eliminating the Competition”.

Burstein, Dan, and Arne J. De Keijzer. Secrets of Mary Magdalene. New York: CDS Books, 2006. ISBN 1-59315-205-1.

De Boer Esther A., Mary Magdalene, beyond the Myth (SCM Press London, 1997).

Jurgen Moltmann and E. Moltmann-Wendel, Humanity in God (London: SCM, 1984).

Jansen, Katherine Ludwig. The Making of the Magdalen: Preaching and Popular Devotion in the Later Middle Ages. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-691-05850-4.

Kripal, Jeffrey John. (2007). The Serpent’s Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-45380-4 ISBN 0-226-45381-2.

Pearson, Birger A. “Did Jesus Marry?”. Bible Review, Spring 2005, pp 32–39 & 47. Discussion of complete texts.

Picknett, Lynn, and Clive Prince. The Templar Revelation. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. ISBN 0-593-03870-3. Presents a hypothesis that Mary Magdalene was a priestess who was Jesus’ partner in a sacred marriage.

Shoemaker, Stephen J. “Rethinking the ‘Gnostic Mary’: Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Magdala in Early Christian Tradition”. in Journal of Early Christian Studies, 9 (2001) pp 555–595.

Thiering, Barbara. Jesus the Man: Decoding the Real Story of Jesus and Mary Magdalene. New York: Simon & Schulster (Atria Books), 2006. ISBN 1-4165-4138-1.

Wellborn, Amy. De-coding Mary

Magdalene: Truth, Legend, and Lies. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, 2006. ISBN 1-59276-209-3. A straightforward accounting of what is well-known of Mary Magdalene.

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ANIA / TANIA /TANYA

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Anna “Ania” Dąbrowska ([ˈaɲa dɔmˈbrɔvska]), usually referred to as Ania ([ˈaɲa]), is a Polish singer, songwriter, and composer performing pop music, born January 7, 1981.

Ania rose to stardom in 2004 with the release of Samotność po zmierzchu which was met with positive critical and commercial reception. The second album, Kilka historii na ten sam temat, was her first to fully incorporate retro style. Ania went on to explore the 1960s aesthetics on two more albums as well as in her visuals and personal image. She is one of the most nominated artists to Fryderyk, the most important music award in Poland, and has been awarded eight times. [1] Ania has released five studio albums, with four of them reaching number one position in Polish albums chart [2] and four going Platinum. [3] As of 2011, the singer has sold more than 200,000 albums in Poland. [4]

Dąbrowska was born in Chełm, Poland, and started her musical education as a teenager. When in high school, Ania also attended music school where she learned to play contrabass and participated in numerous vocal competitions. [5] She later studied in Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities. Dąbrowska first appeared publicly in 2002, as a participant of the vocal talent show Idol which was the first Polish edition of Pop Idol. She managed to reach the final top 10, but was eliminated while in eighth place. In the same year, she collaborated with Polish singer Krzysztof Krawczyk on his hit album …bo marzę i śnię. In 2003, Ania released her first solo single, “I See”, which was a very modest success.

In February 2004, Dąbrowska released her debut album, Samotność po zmierzchu, which was a blend of pop, soul and jazz. The record, preceded by a hit single “Tego chciałam”, was a commercial and critical success. The singer took part in National Festival of Polish Song in Opole with “Glory”, followed by even more successful singles, “Charlie, Charlie”, which was a cover of an A Camp song, and “Inna”, a song about an alienated girl. In the fall 2004, Samotność po zmierzchu achieved Gold certification in Poland [6]

for the overall sales exceeding 40,000 copies. [7] Dąbrowska earned the status of one of the most popular Polish singers and was awarded with three Fryderyks and one Eska Award.

Having contributed vocals and written songs for such artists as Maryla Rodowicz and Monika Brodka, Dąbrowska released her second album Kilka historii na ten sam temat in autumn 2006. The album referenced 1960s both musically and visually, with Ania introducing her retro-inspired image on the cover of the record as well as in the music video for the first single “Trudno mi się przyznać”. The song became a major radio hit in Poland and was followed by an equally successful “Czekam…”. The album matched the success of the debut record and was praised by both the critics and the public. It became Platinum by shifting more than 50,000 copies [7] and earned the singer four Fryderyks and one Eska Award.

Ania’s third album, W spodniach czy w sukience?, was released in June 2008. “Nigdy więcej nie tańcz ze mną” was chosen as the first single, with the music video directed by Dąbrowska herself, and enjoyed considerable success in Poland. The album reached number one in Polish albums chart and eventually went Platinum. [8] The title song and “Smutek mam we krwi” were released as singles and met with minor success. In 2009, Ania collaborated with a French band Nouvelle Vague and contributed vocals for their cover of Robert Palmer’s classic song “Johnny and Mary”. The song was a radio single in Poland and was included on the Polish edition of Nouvelle Vague’s album 3. [9] In the fall, her next solo single was released, “Nigdy nie mów nigdy”, from the movie of the same name, and became a radio hit.

In April 2010, Dąbrowska released her fourth studio album, Ania Movie, which included interpretations of her favourite movie and TV series tracks, and declared it her last retro-inspired album. [10] Ania Movie debuted at number one in Polish albums chart and remained atop for seven weeks. The first music video was shot for Cher’s “Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)” and second for Badly Drawn Boy’s “Silent Sigh”. The promotional Ania Movie tour was postponed due to a number of reasons, including pregnancy and health problems, [11] but eventually turned out a great success later in 2010. In July, her first child, Stanisław, was born. [12] In 2011, Ania became a judge in The Voice of Poland. [13]

Autumn 2012 saw the release of Ania’s fifth studio album, Bawię się świetnie. It received positive reviews and a Platinum certification, [14] although was her first not to reach the top of the chart. The first single became “Bawię się świetnie” which met with success on Polish radio and in March 2013 second official single was released, “Jeszcze ten jeden raz”. Ania’s second child, daughter Mela, was born later in 2013. 2014 saw her embark on a successful tour commemorating the 10th anniversary of the release of Samotność po zmierzchu.

Studio albums

EPs

Title EP details

Live

Released: April 10, 2010

Label: Jazzboy Records

Formats: CD

Bang Bang

Released: April 10, 2010

Label: Jazzboy Records

Formats: CD

Music videos

Other appearances

Song(s) Year Album

“Nothing Is Forever” “Now” “Eyes Without a Face” “So Close to Say I’m Happy”

2006

Silver Rocket -Unhappy Songs

“I Say a Little Prayer” Gala duetów (V/A)

“W biegu” Liroy – L Niño vol. 1

“Płyń”

2007

Jacek Lachowicz -Za morzami

“Bonnie & Clyde”

Tomasz Makowiecki -Ostatnie wspólne zdjęcie

“Johnny and Mary” 2009

Nouvelle Vague – 3

“Nigdy nie mów nigdy” Nigdy nie mów nigdy (soundtrack)

“Babskie gad-anie” 2011 Ania Rusowicz -Mój Big-Bit

“Niebieski parasol” 2012

Kielich – Dziecko szczęścia

“Waitin'” June – July Stars

“Leather and Lace” 2013 L.Stadt – You Gotta Move

1. ^ “Nominowani i laureaci :: Nagroda muzyczna – Fryderyk :: Związek Producentów Audio-Video” (in Polish). Zpav.pl. Retrieved 2011-04-10.

2. ^ a b “Ania – Music Charts” . acharts.us. Retrieved 2013-03-27.

3. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Platynowe płyty CD -Archiwum” (in Polish). bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 2009-04-23.

4. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska” (in Polish). podprad.com.pl. Retrieved 2011-04-04.

5. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska :: Biografia :: RMF FM” (in Polish). Rmf.fm. Retrieved 2009-10-13.

6. ^ “Gold certification awards” . Zpav.pl. Retrieved 2009-04-23.

7. ^ a b “Ania Dąbrowska – brak biletów” . trojmiasto.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2009-06-21.

8. ^ “Platynowa Ania” (in Polish). Wp.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-01.

9. ^ “Ania wśród wielkich gwiazd!” (in Polish). interia.pl. Retrieved 2009-07-21.

10. ^ “Ania filmowo żegna się z retro” (in Polish). interia.pl. Retrieved 2010-02-19.

11. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska: bycie mamą jest naprawdę fajne!” (in Polish). Gazetakrakowska.pl. Retrieved 2011-04-04.

12. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska urodziła” (in Polish). interia.pl. Retrieved 2010-08-24.

13. ^ “Dąbrowska, Kayah, Piasek i Nergal w jury “The Voice” TVP 2″ (in Polish). Wirtualnemedia.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-27.

14. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska znów platynowa!” (in Polish). interia.pl. Retrieved 2013-04-01.

15. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – Samotno po zmierzchu – Pyta – Muzyka w INTERIA.PL” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

16. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – Samotno po zmierzchu (edycja specjalna) – Pyta -Muzyka w INTERIA.PL” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

17. ^ “iTunes – Music – Samotnosc Po Zmierzchu by Ania” . iTunes. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

18. ^ “Polska: Sprzedaż płyt w 2004 r.” (in Polish). muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 28 August 2015.

19. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Złote płyty CD -Archiwum” . Bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

20. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – Kilka historii na ten sam temat – Pyta – Muzyka w INTERIA.PL” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

21. ^ “iTunes – Music – Kilka historii na ten sam temat by Ania” . iTunes. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

22. ^ “Drugi album […] publiczność doceniła go kupując ponad 50 000 egzemplarzy” [Second album has sold over 50,000 units] (in Polish). muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 28 August 2015.

23. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Platynowe płyty CD -Archiwum” . Bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

24. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – W spodniach czy w sukience? – Pyta – Muzyka w INTERIA.PL” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

25. ^ “iTunes – Music – W Spodniach, Czy W Sukience? by Ania” . iTunes. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

26. ^ “Brutalna rzeczywistość sceny muzycznej” (in Polish). magazyntrendy.pl. Retrieved 28 August 2015.

27. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Platynowe płyty CD -Archiwum” . Bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

28. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – Ania Movie -Pyta – Muzyka w INTERIA.PL” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

29. ^ “iTunes – Music – Movie by Ania” . iTunes. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

30. ^ “Nowy album Ani Dąbrowskiej” (in Polish). empik.com. Retrieved 28 August 2015.

31. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Platynowe płyty CD -Archiwum” . Bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

32. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – Bawi si wietnie -Pyta – Muzyka w INTERIA.PL” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

33. ^ “iTunes – Music – Bawie Sie Swietnie by Ania” . iTunes. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

34. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Regulamin” . Bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

35. ^ “ZPAV :: Bestsellery i wyróżnienia -Wyróżnienia – Platynowe płyty CD -Archiwum” . Bestsellery.zpav.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

36. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska – Nigdy nie mów nigdy” . Wideo.onet.pl. 7 October 2009.

Retrieved 15 January 2015.

37. ^ “Ania Dbrowska – Bang Bang” . tuba.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

38. ^ “Nowy klip i trasa Ani Dąbrowskiej” . Onet Muzyka. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

39. ^ “Ania Dąbrowska – informacje na tematy “Ania Dąbrowska” oraz “Bawię się świetnie” – Dziennik.pl” . Dziennik.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

40. ^ “Ania Dbrowska jeszcze ten jeden raz” . Muzyka.interia.pl. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

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ANIA/TANIA/TANYA WEBSITES

Aliearia

END OF DAYS APPAREL/ORION’S 3 STAR BELT VS RIGHTEOUS 7/PAUL=WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING, RENTS THE HOLY GHOST

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What Does the Bible Say About Proper Dress?

Frequently Asked Questions

Does the Bible have a dress code? Is it OK to wear shorts to church? Should women wear pants to church? What about hats and veils? Is it a sin for a woman to wear pants? What is proper to wear to church?

Background 1,2 The clothing worn in Biblical times was very different from what we wear today. Both men and women wore a loose, woolen, robe-like cloak or mantle as an outer garment. It was fastened at the waist with a belt or sash. A tunic or coat, a long piece of cloth, leather or haircloth with holes for arms and head, was worn under the cloak. Sandals were worn on the feet.

The difference between men’s and women’s clothing was small but distinctive. In addition, men often wore a turban to confine their hair, and women of some cultures wore a veil.

Old Testament

Cross-Dressing The book of Deuteronomy has a prohibition against dressing in clothing of the opposite sex:

A woman must not wear men’s clothing, nor a man wear women’s clothing, for the LORD your God detests anyone who does this. (NIV, Deuteronomy 22:5)

No one knows for sure whether this prohibition was intended as a general principle or was directed at some specific abuse among the ancient Hebrews. Cross-dressing was likely considered an affront to the natural distinction between the sexes (Genesis 1:27). It may also have been related to some deviant sexual practice, or more likely, to pagan worship. It is known that some pagan rituals of that time involved women wearing armor and men dressing as women, and the Hebrews were forbidden to do anything that had even the appearance of pagan worship.

Some people think this verse would prohibit women from wearing pants because pants have traditionally been worn by men. But, in light of the similarity of men’s and women’s clothing in Biblical times and the fact that pants were not worn by either sex at that time, that conclusion would be difficult to justify.

Mixed Materials There was also a prohibition against wearing clothes woven of wool and linen together:

Do not wear clothes of wool and linen woven together. (NIV, Deuteronomy 22:11)

Again, no one is sure why this would be wrong. It may have been to avoid mixing things that God has created separately (Deuteronomy 22:9-11, Leviticus 19:19). Or, these mixtures may have been related to some idolatrous practice that the Hebrews were forbidden to imitate.

Old Testament Rules Superseded It should be noted that the New Covenant initiated by Jesus supersedes Old Testament Law for Christians and frees us from strict observance of Old Testament rules. (Romans 8:1-2, 1 Corinthians 9:20-21, Galatians 5:13-14, James 2:8).

Related article: What Does the Bible Say About the Old Testament Law?

New Testament

Proper Dress for Women Two passages in the New Testament concern proper dress for women:

I also want women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or expensive clothes, but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God. (NIV, 1 Timothy 2:9-10)

Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, such as braided hair and the wearing of gold jewelry and fine clothes. Instead, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. For this is the way the holy women of the past who put their hope in God used to make themselves beautiful. (NIV, 1 Peter 3:2-5)

Many of the New Testament letters address specific abuses that occurred in the early Christian communities, and that may be the case here. Jesus had defied the standards of first-century male-dominated society by treating women as equals. Paul had declared all people equal in the family of God (Galatians 3:26-29). Many Bible scholars believe some women in the church had carried their “liberation” too far and adopted offensive styles of dress. Church leaders were anxious to avoid any hint of scandal in the churches, and these passages served that purpose.

Both of these passages also make the point that a person’s true beauty comes from within and is properly expressed by good deeds rather than showy clothing and jewelry.

A few Christians interpret these passages as a requiring women to dress very plainly and refrain from wearing jewelry or using makeup. But most Christians believe the advice is simply to dress modestly and in good taste, according to the standards of the society they live in.

Proper Headwear for Worship In his letters to the church at Corinth, Paul responded to a number of questions the Corinthian Christians had asked him (1 Corinthians 7:1). One of those questions involved proper headwear during worship services. No one knows what the exact question was or what situation prompted it, but Paul gave this reply:

Any man who prays or prophesies with something on his head disgraces his head, but any woman who prays or prophesies with her head unveiled disgraces her head–it is one and the same thing as having her head shaved. For if a woman will not veil herself, then she should cut off her hair; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or to be shaved, she should wear a veil. For a man ought not to have his head veiled, since he is the image and reflection of God; but woman is the reflection of man. (NRSV, 1 Corinthians 11:4-7)

In first century culture, it was considered a mark of respect for a man to remove his turban in the presence of a superior. Similarly, a man should remove his head covering when he came into God’s presence in prayer. Additionally, it was the custom of pagan men to cover themselves while praying, so as to avoid distractions. Thus, men should remove their head coverings to avoid any association with paganism.

Jewish women did not normally wear veils, but reputable Greek and Roman women did. A woman’s veil was a symbol of her modesty and respect for her husband. For a Corinthian woman to remove her veil in public would have been an insult to her husband and an affront to the Greek/Roman society in which she lived. Paul strongly discouraged any such rebellion or hint of scandal within the churches. In addition, some pagan priestesses removed their veils and wore their hair disheveled when prophesying. Thus, women should remain veiled while praying or prophesying to avoid any association with paganism.

It must have been a great disgrace for a woman to shave her head. So, Paul made the comparison that removing one’s veil while praying or prophesying would be an equally great disgrace.

Partiality, Discrimination Questions of proper dress for church may reflect a somewhat elitist attitude in affluent modern society. In Biblical times most people were laborers or farmers and could not afford fine clothing. They wore the same dirty clothing to church services that they wore to work because that is all they had. However, it is wrong to discriminate against people because of their status or clothing (James 2:1-9, 1 Corinthians 11:20-22, Galatians 3:28).

How Should One Dress for Church? The Bible’s teachings about dress cannot be applied directly to today’s situation. Attending church in biblical-era clothing: a cloak, tunic, sandals and a turban or veil, would cause quite a disruption in most churches! But the general principles of modesty and propriety can be applied. Standards of dress are different from church to church and change over time, but we should avoid any style of dress that sends a message opposing the church community’s values.

1 Herbert Lockyer, Sr., ed., Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1986. 2 Merrill F. Unger, The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary, Moody Press, 1988.

Aliearia

ESOTERIC date 11/29 (11/2+9=11 11/11)

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NOVEMBER

Numerologically, November is the 11th month of the year and carries the energies of the Master Number 11. The number 11 is a ‘karmic’ number, so throughout November pay attention to your repetitive thoughts and ideas as they are ‘answers’ to your prayers. Be aware that you will manifest your thoughts, therefore, do not think negative thoughts as these are what you will draw into your life.

During the month of November we have the date 11/11, which has great spiritual significance. On the 11th of the 11th focus and meditate upon your dreams, wants and desires as the Universe is open to whatever it is you truly want in your life. You could also meditate on whatever it is that is troubling you and ask for a quick resolution to the problem. Make the most of 11/11 in positive, life-affirming ways.

11 breaks down to the number 2 so November is also influenced by the vibrations of 2. The vibration of 2 is one of partnerships, relationships and deep emotions. November, with it’s spiritual vibration of 2, encourages you to trust your own intuition as your senses will be very strong at this time. The message of November is to listen to your inner-voice … and most of all … trust it. You will discover that most of your insights are spot-on!

November is the perfect month to have a good look at your relationships, particularly marriage and life partnerships, and put in extra effort to show how much you love them. November is a good time to look into ways to make your love life more happy and harmonious. The love you have in your life is a gift and needs to be cherished. This month find ways to be romantic and do things to spruce up your love life. Send flowers or write a lovely card telling them how much you love them.

November is a month when you need to know what you’re supposed to be learning right now so that you can move on to the next step.

November is a month for you to pamper yourself. Get a full body massage, have your hair done, or take a weekend trip. All the fun (and stress) of the holiday season is coming up and you want to be ready for it.

Look at the month of November as a time to really live in the moment!

NOVEMBER – The Month You Were Born If you were born in November, the number 11 (which is a higher vibration of 2) will be of great importance to you. You are psychic, empathic and positive. However sometimes you may get overwhelmed by your own sensitivity and develop stress related health and psychological problems such as chronic fatigue syndrome and depression.

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Repeating Number Sequences or Angel Numbers

Angel Number 11

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November 29 is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 32 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Thursday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Friday or Saturday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Monday or Wednesday (56).

561 – King Chlothar I dies at Compiègne. The Merovingian dynasty is continued by his four sons — Charibert I, Guntram, Sigebert I and Chilperic I —who divide the Frankish Kingdom.

618 – The Tang dynasty scores a decisive victory over their rival Xue Rengao at the Battle of Qianshuiyuan.

800 – Charlemagne arrives at Rome to investigate the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III.

903 – The Abbasid army under Muhammad ibn Sulayman al-Katib deals a crushing defeat to the Qarmatians at the Battle of Hama.

1394 – The Korean king Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Joseon dynasty, moves the capital from Kaesŏng to Hanyang, today known as Seoul.

1549 – The papal conclave of 1549–50 begins.

1612 – The Battle of Swally takes place, which loosens the Portuguese Empire’s hold on India.

1729 – Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Cumberland, Nova Scotia, comes to an end with the arrival of British reinforcements.

1777 – San Jose, California, is founded as Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe by José Joaquín Moraga. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.

1781 – The crew of the British slave ship Zong murders 133 Africans by dumping them into the sea to claim insurance.

1783 – A 5.3 magnitude earthquake strikes New Jersey.

1807 – Transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil: John VI of Portugal flees Lisbon from advancing Napoleonic forces during the Peninsular War, transferring the Portuguese court to Brazil.

1830 – November Uprising: An armed rebellion against Russia’s rule in Poland begins.

1847 – The Sonderbund is defeated by the joint forces of other Swiss cantons under General Guillaume-Henri Dufour.

1847 – Whitman massacre: Missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.

1850 – The treaty, Punctation of Olmütz, is signed in Olomouc. Prussia capitulates to Austria, which will take over the leadership of the German Confederation.

1864 – American Indian Wars: Sand Creek massacre – Colorado volunteers led by Colonel John Chivington massacre at least 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho noncombatants inside Colorado Territory.

1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Spring Hill – A Confederate advance into Tennessee misses an opportunity to crush the Union Army. General John Bell Hood is angered, which leads to the Battle of Franklin.

1872 – American Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.

1877 – Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.

1885 – End of Third Anglo-Burmese War and of the Burmese monarchy.

1890 – The Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan, and the first Diet convenes.

1893 – The Ziqiang Institute, today known as Wuhan University, is founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing dynasty China, after his memorial to the throne is approved by the Qing Government.

1899 – FC Barcelona Association football club is founded.

1902 – The Pittsburgh Stars defeated the Philadelphia Athletics, 11–0, at the Pittsburgh Coliseum, to win the first championship associated with an American national professional football league.

1929 – U.S. Admiral Richard E. Byrd leads the first expedition to fly over the South Pole.

1943 – World War II: The second session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ), held to determine the post-war ordering of the country, concludes in Jajce (present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina).

1944 – The first surgery (on a human) to correct blue baby syndrome is performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas.

1944 – World War II: Albania is liberated by partisan forces.

1945 – The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia is declared.

1946 – The All Indonesia Centre of Labour Organizations (SOBSI) is founded in Jakarta.

1947 – Partition Plan: The United Nations General Assembly approves a plan for the partition of Palestine.

1947 – First Indochina War: French forces carry out a massacre at Mỹ Trạch, Vietnam.

1950 – Korean War: North Korean and Chinese troops force United Nations forces to retreat from North Korea.

1952 – Korean War: U.S. President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfills a campaign promise by traveling to Korea to find out what can be done to end the conflict.

1961 – Project Mercury: Mercury-Atlas 5 Mission – Enos, a chimpanzee, is launched into space. The spacecraft orbits the Earth twice and splashes down off the coast of Puerto Rico.

1963 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

1963 – Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 831 crashes shortly after takeoff from Montreal-Dorval International Airport, killing all 118 people on board.

1965 – The Canadian Space Agency launches the satellite Alouette 2.

1967 – Vietnam War: U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara announces his resignation.

1972 – Atari announces the release of Pong, the first commercially successful video game.

1986 – The Surinamese military attacks the village of Moiwana during the Suriname Guerrilla War, killing at least 39 civilians, mostly women and children.

1987 – Korean Air Flight 858 explodes over the Thai–Burmese border, killing 115.

1990 – Gulf War: The United Nations Security Council passes two resolutions to restore international peace and security if Iraq does not withdraw its forces from Kuwait and free all foreign hostages by January 15, 1991.

2007 – The Armed Forces of the Philippines lay siege to the Peninsula Manila after soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes stage a mutiny.

2007 – A 7.4 magnitude earthquake occurs off the northern coast of Martinique. This affects the Eastern Caribbean as far north as Puerto Rico and as far south as Trinidad.

2009 – Maurice Clemmons shoots and kills four police officers inside a coffee shop in Lakewood, Washington.

2012 – The United Nations General Assembly voted to accord non-member observer state to Palestine.

1338 – Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Belgian-English politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (d. 1368)

1427 – Zhengtong Emperor of China (d. 1464)

1484 – Joachim Vadian, Swiss physician, scholar, and politician (d. 1551)

1627 – John Ray, English biologist and botanist (d. 1705)

1690 – Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (d. 1747)

1705 – Michael Christian Festing, English violinist and composer (d. 1752)

1752 – Jemima Wilkinson, American evangelist (d. 1819)

1781 – Andrés Bello, Venezuelan poet and philosopher (d. 1865)

1797 – Gaetano Donizetti, Italian composer (d. 1848)

1798 – Alexander Brullov, Russian painter and architect, designed the Pulkovo Observatory (d. 1877)

1799 – Amos Bronson Alcott, American philosopher and academic (d. 1888)

1802 – Wilhelm Hauff, German poet and author (d. 1827)

1803 – Christian Doppler, Austrian mathematician and physicist (d. 1853)

1803 – Gottfried Semper, German architect and academic, designed the Semper Opera House (d. 1879)

1816 – Morrison Waite, American jurist and politician, 7th Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1888)

1818 – George Brown, Scottish-Canadian journalist and politician, 10th Premier of West Canada (d. 1880)

1818 – William Ellery Channing American poet and author (d. 1901)

1823 – La Fayette Grover, American lawyer and politician, 4th Governor of Oregon (d. 1911)

1825 – Jean-Martin Charcot, French neurologist and psychologist (d. 1893)

1831 – Frederick Townsend Ward, American sailor and soldier (d. 1862)

1832 – Louisa May Alcott, American novelist and poet (d. 1888)

1835 – Empress Dowager Cixi of China (d. 1908)

1849 – John Ambrose Fleming, English physicist and engineer (d. 1945)

1856 – Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, German lawyer and politician, 5th Chancellor of Germany (d. 1921)

1857 – Theodor Escherich, German-Austrian pediatrician and academic (d. 1911)

1861 – Spyridon Samaras, Greek playwright and composer (d. 1917)

1874 – Francis Dodd, Welsh-English painter and academic (d. 1949)

1874 – Egas Moniz, Portuguese physician and neurologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955)

1876 – Nellie Tayloe Ross, American educator and politician, 14th Governor of Wyoming (d. 1977)

1878 – John Derbyshire, English swimmer and water polo player (d. 1938)

1879 – Jacob Gade, Danish violinist and composer (d. 1963)

1881 – Artur Phleps, Romanian-German general (d. 1944)

1881 – Abdülhalik Renda, Turkish civil servant and politician, 6th Turkish Minister of National Defence (d. 1957)

1882 – Henri Fabre, French pilot and engineer (d. 1984)

1888 – Joe Slater, Australian footballer and captain (d. 1917)

1891 – Julius Raab, Austrian engineer and politician, 19th Chancellor of Austria (d. 1964)

1895 – Busby Berkeley, American director and choreographer (d. 1976)

1895 – Yakima Canutt, American actor, stuntman, and director (d. 1986)

1895 – William Tubman, Liberian lawyer and politician, 19th President of Liberia (d. 1971)

1897 – John Alexander, American stage and film actor (d. 1982)

1898 – C. S. Lewis, British novelist, poet, and critic (d. 1963)

1899 – Andrija Artuković, Ustaše co-founder and Porajmos perpetrator; served as 1st Croatian Minister of Interior (d. 1988)

1899 – Emma Morano, Italian supercentenarian

1901 – Mildred Harris, American actress (d. 1944)

1904 – Egon Eiermann, German architect, designed the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church (d. 1970)

1905 – Marcel Lefebvre, French-Swiss archbishop and theologian (d. 1991)

1908 – Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., American pastor and politician (d. 1972)

1908 – Afet İnan, Turkish historian and sociologist (d. 1985)

1910 – Elizabeth Choy, Malaysian-Singaporean educator and politician (d. 2006)

1910 – Antanas Škėma, Lithuanian actor and director (d. 1961)

1915 – Ludu Daw Amar, Burmese journalist and author (d. 2008)

1915 – Billy Strayhorn, American pianist and composer (d. 1967)

1916 – Fran Ryan, American actress and comedian (d. 2000)

1917 – Pierre Gaspard-Huit, French director and screenwriter

1917 – Merle Travis, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1983)

1918 – Madeleine L’Engle, American author and poet (d. 2007)

1919 – Joe Weider, Canadian-American bodybuilder and publisher, co-founded the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (d. 2013)

1920 – Yegor Ligachyov, Russian engineer and politician

1920 – Joseph Shivers, American chemist and academic, developed spandex (d. 2014)

1922 – Michael Howard, English-American historian, author, and academic

1922 – Minnie Miñoso, Cuban-American baseball player and coach (d. 2015)

1923 – Chuck Daigh, American race car driver (b. 2008)

1924 – Jane Freilicher, American painter and poet (d. 2014)

1924 – Charles E. Mower, American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1944)

1926 – Beji Caid Essebsi, Tunisian lawyer and politician, President of Tunisia

1927 – Vin Scully, American sportscaster and game show host

1928 – Tahir Salahov, Azerbaijani painter and educator

1928 – Paul Simon, American soldier and politician, 39th Lieutenant Governor of Illinois (d. 2003)

1928 – Ernie Vossler, American golfer (d. 2013)

1929 – Derek Jameson, English journalist and radio host (d. 2012)

1929 – Woo Yong-gak, North Korean soldier

1930 – Shirley Porter, English politician, Lord Mayor of Westminster

1930 – Vladimir Šenauer, Croatian footballer (d. 2013)

1930 – Alan Lee Williams, English academic and politician

1931 – Shintaro Katsu, Japanese actor, singer, director, and producer (d. 1997)

1931 – André Noyelle, Belgian cyclist (d. 2003)

1932 – Jacques Chirac, French soldier and politician, 22nd President of France

1932 – Fernando Guillén, Spanish actor (d. 2013)

1932 – Marc Vaux, English painter

1933 – John Mayall, English singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer

1933 – James Rosenquist, American painter and illustrator

1934 – Willie Morris, American writer (d. 1999)

1935 – Diane Ladd, American actress

1935 – Thomas J. O’Brien, American bishop

1937 – Jan Mangerud, Norwegian geologist and academic

1938 – Gene Okerlund, American ring announcer and journalist

1938 – Kashiwado Tsuyoshi, Japanese sumo wrestler, the 47th Yokozuna (d. 1996)

1939 – Peter Bergman, American actor and screenwriter (d. 2012)

1939 – Meco, American record producer and musician

1940 – Denny Doherty, Canadian singer-songwriter (d. 2007)

1940 – Oscar Espinosa Chepe, Cuban-Spanish economist and journalist (d. 2013)

1940 – Chuck Mangione, American horn player and composer

1940 – Janet Smith, English lawyer and judge

1940 – Henry T. Yang, Taiwanese/Chinese-American engineer, Chancellor, University of California, Santa Barbara

1940 – Michael G. Crandall, American mathematician

1941 – Bill Freehan, American baseball player, coach, and sportscaster

1941 – Roberto Rodríguez, Venezuelan baseball player and coach (d. 2012)

1942 – Felix Cavaliere, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer

1942 – Ann Dunham, American anthropologist and academic (d. 1995)

1942 – Maggie Thompson, American author and critic

1942 – Chatrichalerm Yukol, Thai director, producer, and screenwriter

1942 – John Grillo, English actor and playwright

1943 – Janet Holmes à Court, Australian businesswoman and philanthropist

1943 – Bobbi Martin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2000)

1943 – Sue Miller, American novelist and short story writer

1945 – Csaba Pléh, Hungarian psychologist and linguist

1946 – Brian Cadd, Australian singer-songwriter, keyboard player and producer

1946 – Suzy Chaffee, American skier

1946 – Silvio Rodríguez, Cuban singer-songwriter and guitarist

1947 – Malcolm Grant, New Zealand-English lawyer and academic

1947 – Petra Kelly, German activist and politician (d. 1992)

1947 – Ronnie Montrose, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (d. 2012)

1948 – Yōichi Masuzoe, Japanese politician

1949 – Jerry Lawler, American wrestler and sportscaster

1949 – Dutch Mantel, American wrestler and manager

1949 – Stan Rogers, Canadian singer-songwriter (d. 1983)

1949 – Garry Shandling, American comedian, actor, and screenwriter (d. 2016)

1949 – Steve Smith, American lawyer and politician (d. 2014)

1950 – Kevin O’Donnell, Jr., American author (d. 2012)

1951 – Barry Goudreau, American guitarist and songwriter

1951 – Roger Troutman, American singer-songwriter and producer (d. 1999)

1951 – Don Walker, Australian singer-songwriter and pianist

1952 – Jeff Fahey, American actor and producer

1952 – Dusty Hare, English rugby player and cricketer

1953 – Jackie French, Australian author

1953 – Alex Grey, American painter, author, and educator

1953 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director, and screenwriter (d. 1996)

1954 – Joel Coen, American director, producer, and screenwriter

1954 – Steve Rogers, Australian rugby player and coach (d. 2006)

1955 – Howie Mandel, Canadian comedian, actor, and television host

1956 – Hinton Battle, German-American actor, dancer, and choreographer

1956 – Yvonne Fovargue, English lawyer and politician

1956 – Eric Laakso, American football player (d. 2010)

1956 – Katrin Saks, Estonian lawyer and politician

1957 – Jennifer Batten, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer

1957 – Janet Napolitano, American lawyer, academic, and politician, 3rd United States Secretary of Homeland Security

1957 – Matthew Rubel, American businessman

1957 – Mario Salieri, Italian director, producer, and screenwriter

1958 – Michael Dempsey, Zimbabwean-English bass player

1958 – John Dramani Mahama, Ghanaian historian and politician, 4th President of Ghana

1959 – Richard Borcherds, South African-English mathematician and academic

1959 – Neal Broten, American ice hockey player

1959 – Rich Camarillo, American football player and coach

1959 – Rahm Emanuel, American businessman and politician, 23rd White House Chief of Staff

1959 – Steve Hindalong, American drummer, songwriter, and producer

1960 – Marco Bucci, Italian discus thrower (d. 2013)

1960 – Howard Johnson, American baseball player, coach, and manager

1960 – Cathy Moriarty, American actress

1961 – Kim Delaney, American actress

1961 – Tom Sizemore, American actor and producer

1961 – Masayoshi Yamashita, Japanese bass player

1962 – Ronny Jordan, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2014)

1962 – Andy LaRocque, Swedish guitarist, songwriter, and producer

1962 – Andrew McCarthy, American actor and director

1962 – Michael Veitch, Australian comedian and actor

1963 – Will Downing, American singer-songwriter and producer

1963 – Lalit Modi, Indian businessman

1964 – Don Cheadle, American actor and producer

1964 – Cork Graham, American author and photographer

1964 – Ken Monkou, Surinamese-Dutch footballer

1965 – Ellen Cleghorne, American comedian and actress

1965 – Yutaka Ozaki, Japanese poet and pianist (d. 1992)

1966 – John Layfield, American wrestler and sportscaster

1968 – Hayabusa, Japanese wrestler (d. 2016)

1968 – Jonathan Knight, American singer-songwriter and dancer

1969 – Kasey Keller, American soccer player, manager, and sportscaster

1969 – Mariano Rivera, Panamanian-American baseball player

1969 – Pierre van Hooijdonk, Dutch footballer

1970 – Larry Joe Campbell, American actor and director

1970 – Mark Pembridge, Welsh footballer and coach

1970 – Ryu Seung-ryong, South Korean actor

1971 – Brad May, Canadian ice hockey player and sportscaster

1972 – Willie Bain, Scottish academic and politician

1972 – Brian Baumgartner, American actor and producer

1972 – Jamal Mashburn, American basketball player and sportscaster

1972 – Roger Shah, German electronic music producer

1972 – Minoru Tanaka, Japanese wrestler and boxer

1973 – Ryan Giggs, Welsh footballer and manager

1973 – Sarah Jones, American actress and playwright

1974 – Lin Chi-ling, Taiwanese model and actress

1974 – Pavol Demitra, Slovak ice hockey player (d. 2011)

1975 – Andreas Ioannides, Cypriot footballer

1976 – Chris Akins, American football player

1976 – Lindsay Benko, American swimmer

1976 – Anna Faris, American actress

1976 – Michalis Kakiouzis, Greek basketball player

1977 – Juan José Gurruchaga, Chilean actor

1977 – Eddie Howe, English footballer and manager

1977 – Younis Khan, Pakistani cricketer

1977 – Maria Petrova, Russian figure skater

1978 – Alessandro Fei, Italian volleyball player

1978 – Miho Fujima, Japanese actress

1978 – Lauren German, American actress

1978 – Dimitrios Konstantopoulos, Greek footballer

1978 – Ludwika Paleta, Polish-Mexican model and actress

1978 – Benjamín Vicuña, Chilean actor

1979 – Simon Amstell, English comedian, actor, and television host

1979 – Adam Barrett, English footballer

1979 – Francis Beltrán, Dominican baseball player

1979 – The Game, American rapper, producer, and actor

1979 – Neal Horgan, American-Irish footballer

1980 – Janina Gavankar, American actress and singer

1980 – Chun Jung-myung, South Korean actor

1980 – Ilias Kasidiaris, Greek soldier and politician

1980 – Brian Wolfe, American baseball player

1981 – Fawad Khan, Pakistani Actor and Singer

1982 – Paolo Ballesteros, Filipino actor, comedian, model and television personality

1982 – Lucas Black, American actor

1982 – Ashley Force, American race car driver

1982 – Ramya, Indian actress, singer, and politician

1982 – Imogen Thomas, Welsh-English model

1982 – Marthe Valle, Norwegian singer-songwriter

1983 – Tanner Glass, Canadian ice hockey player

1983 – Jennifer Oeser, German heptathlete

1984 – Sitti, Filipino singer and actress

1984 – Ji Hyun-woo, South Korean actor and guitarist

1985 – Evangelia Aravani, Greek model

1985 – Shannon Brown, American basketball player

1986 – Jerome Sala, Filipino singer

1987 – Stephen O’Halloran, Irish footballer

1988 – Dana Brooke, American wrestler and bodybuilder

1988 – Lee Hyun-ho, South Korean footballer

1988 – Nika Kiladze, Georgian footballer (d. 2014)

1988 – Russell Wilson, American football player

1990 – Sheldon Richardson, American football player

1991 – Terunofuji Haruo, Mongolian sumo wrestler

1991 – Becky James, Welsh cyclist

1994 – Shaun Lane, Australian rugby league player

1995 – Siobhan-Marie O’Connor, British swimmer

1996 – Akvilė Paražinskaitė, Lithuanian tennis player

1997 – Ye Qiuyu, Chinese tennis player

1998 – Ayumu Hirano, Japanese snowboarder

Christian feast day: Blessed Bernardo de Hoyos

Brendan of Birr

Cuthbert Mayne

Radboud of Utrecht

Saturnin

November 29 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People (International)

Liberation Day or Dita e Çlirimit (Albania)

Republic Day (Yugoslavia)

Unity Day (Vanuatu)

William Tubman’s Birthday (Liberia)

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Aliearia

GEORGIA GUIDESTONES # 54 (22+34)

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ESOTERIC # 54 (GGS= 34+22=56)

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GOLDEN DAWN WEBSITE MENU

©2007-2016 EsotericOrderof the Golden Dawn.All Rights Reserved. • WebDesignby Alphabetix

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C C ornerstone ornerstone of of the the E E soteric soteric O O rder rder of of the the G G olden olden D D awn awn

Valid primarily for the Outer/First Order of the Golden Dawn; With some exceptions regarding but not defining the Inner Order of the R.R. et A.C.

Man has evolved a great deal throughout the centuries; religion, commerce and government have all changed as mankind has grown and steadily improved his knowledge and humanity. Although man seems very different today than in times past, the soul or essence of man remains the same. As a species we seem to have roughly the same appearance, the same hopes and dreams; a part of us will never change. We are reflected by what we create; what we create evolves according our hopes and aspirations, but to create intelligently and consistently, the core of our creation must remain unchangeable even as our essence remains unchangeable throughout our evolution.

An organization behaves as a living thing, it will grow and change even as those individuals whom breathe life into it grow and change. The life and current, which flows through an organization must attach itself to a core skeleton so to speak; this is why many governments today have a constitution, so that as the nation grows and changes, the essence remains unchanged and the people could rally behind the core belief system, on which the nation is based. This seems to work for any group of people, including the Golden Dawn tradition, if there are no core beliefs the individuals within the group will grow apart and form smaller factions. We have seen this within the Golden Dawn community over the past one hundred years: the Golden Dawn is capable of invoking great, healing Light into our sick and dying world; we can, as a group make a wonderful difference in the world with beautiful Hermetic, Rosicrucian tradition, but not if we are in discord. The current of the classical Golden Dawn, as well as other Golden Dawn groups, must grow and evolve around some basic core practices and beliefs or else we grow apart and become weak and bickering factions that cause little change in a world already brimming with weakness and bickering.

We as the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn must strive to maintain and uphold the principles of our predecessors; in particular, those principles established by S.L. MacGregor-Mathers. These provide the core beliefs and practices that will place all Golden Dawn practitioners within the same framework and will enable us to harmonize our energy and current. This does not imply that we should restrict our individuality, but it does mean that we must work within a framework that will give us the strength in numbers needed to maximize our human potential within an initiation school environment. If we cannot rally behind these basic tenets then we risk becoming small ineffective, isolated factions, and we risk the fate of mediocrity and placing the Golden Dawn as insignificant in the pages of history.

The following principles are guidelines that pertain to the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn; there are countless other Golden Dawn Groups who use modified or different symbolism, divine names, initiations and some have even placed Second Order teachings within the Outer Order. We simply are not, in any way suggesting that different Golden Dawn groups should not exist, nor are we suggesting that they are not part of the Great Work in whichever way seems beneficial to their members. What we are saying is that these principles will harmonize our collective current within the framework of the traditional Golden Dawn. While the inception of the original Order of the Golden Dawn is somewhat controversial and there are some in today’s occult community whom do not believe that there was any involvement of the Rosicrucian Fraternity in its creation, we hold the idea of a true, underlying Rosicrucian Current within the traditional Golden Dawn in the highest esteem. Thus, we will always defend as fact, that the inner core, the second or Inner Order, which governs the Golden Dawn in the Outer, was, is and must be Rosicrucian.

“The Imperatrix of the German Order, one Anna Sprengel, authorized the Englishmen to set up a British Chapter to be known as the Golden Dawn.” – David Conway, Ritual Magic

We are certain that the Cipher MSS and the Z-Documents are the most important papers, which constitute the rites and membership in the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn. Furthermore, we believe the true seeker of Light values spiritual lineage far more than mere paper lineage, and we do not believe that paper lineage is a requisite toward upholding Golden Dawn principles.

The Cipher Manuscripts are to be considered as the raw basics of the Group’s rites or ritualistic framework. The following specific, outlined instructions are to be followed verbatim. For example:

The symbolism of the Scepter of the Hegemon. Quote from Folio 3 of the Cipher MSS:

“24. mitre headed scepter = religion & a guide”

The teachings of S.L. MacGregor-Mathers (G.H. Frater D.D.C.F.) the primary teacher and Chief Adept of the Original Golden Dawn remain unsullied within our Order. That is to say:

We will not under any circumstances regard as part of the traditional Golden Dawn system, the doctrine of dissidents such as Aleister Crowley and others like him. Although we realize that there are Golden Dawn practitioners whom may value and even implement such teaching, and we do not wish for our position to be construed as ridicule toward these; we do however hold firm that not all, which would represent itself as Golden Dawn is compatible with the traditional Golden Dawn system. We would defend the rights of others to present the Golden Dawn material as their worldview compels them to express it. We are simply clarifying what the traditional Golden Dawn cornerstone is for those seeking to practice it.

All mystical and religious doctrine taught by the original Golden Dawn Order will be implemented without exception by those who would retain the original GD current. Omission of any topic taught by S.L. MacGregor-Mathers, Chief Adept of the original Order would be inconsistent with classical GD.

We will under no circumstances abrogate the concept of “good and evil” or the two contending forces.

“There are two contending forces and one, which unites them eternally, and two basal angles of the triangle and one which forms the apex. Such is the origin of creation; it is the Triad of Life” (The Hierophant, 0=0 initiation)

In regards the Second Order: the inscription on the back of the Rose Cross lamen must read exactly as Mathers and the Rosicrucian tradition describes.

Refer to the “Rose Cross Lamen” lesson for greater detail.

We are compelled uphold and follow the Z- Documents verbatim.

The Z documents complete the Cipher MSS. The original Chief Adept, MacGregor Mathers, perfected his outlines of the rites and rituals of the Golden Dawn system in these documents. A quote from Ithell Colquhouns Book Sword of Wisdom (page 75) illustrates this:

“He (Westcott) commissioned Mathers to write-up the rituals into workable shape and himself began a correspondance with the adept.”

For example, 2 premises of the Z-Documents:

The Hierophant represents the ancient Egyptian God Osiris and thus invokes this God form prior to any initiation. Quote from Z1 “Enterer of the Threshold”:

“The G.D.’s Hall of the Neophyte is ruled over by Ousiri, through the office of the Hierophant. The G.D. Ousiri is the Expounder of the Sacred Mysteries”

The Hiereus represents the ancient Egyptian God Horus and thus invokes this God form prior to any initiation. Quote from Z1 “Enterer of the Threshold”:

“Far across the hall from the throne of Ousiri in the East, in the place symbolic of the greatest darkness, is enthroned Hoor, empowering the office of Hiereus. Hoor, the Coptic name of Horus (the younger) or Heru represents the guardian force, protecting the Hall.”

Politics have no place in the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn. To clarify:

Members of the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn regard each other as brothers and sisters and will not be divided by political issues. However, healthy discussions on any number of topics including politics are certainly encouraged. Political issues cannot be allowed to be made a general Order statement or to interfere with the integrity of the Order. Political agendas that pit one person against another, particularly on the basis of race or gender, must remain outside the Order’s doors.

Acceptance and respect of men and women on an equal basis.

Every member of the Order is to be treated as if they were a true brother/sister, as if all shared the same father/mother. Sexual harassment of any kind cannot be allowed to exist among brothers and sisters of the Light. Sex-magic of any kind is not practiced in the traditional Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn. Confer Ithell Colquhoun, Sword of Wisdom, page 285:

“The magical system taught in the GD is to be classed as Theurgy, the Magic of Light, as distinct from all types of sex-magic and even exclusive of them.”

Respect towards all legitimate world religions and other Golden Dawn Groups. For example:

While the Golden Dawn is not a religion in and of itself, it is governed by a strict creed of respect toward the Lord of the Universe. It will not be presumed that a particular religion is right or wrong over another. A religion must teach a deep respect toward the Lord of the Universe and a profound respect toward all people, other religions and all life in general. See folio 8 of the Cipher MSS: “16. Never condemn other religions” A particular Golden Dawn group, whether it is reformed, traditional or thelemic will not be presumed as right or wrong over another.

Practice and teaching of healing techniques and rites for free. This means:

The Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn seeks to elevate mankind in general. That is to say, we seek to help everyone reach his/her full potential. Healing is a way of embracing the full potential within and extending it towards the outer world. Healing circulates the Light, which we invoke. True expression of Light can only be through its circulation.

Practice of regular astral and/or physical 0=0 initiations in a full Temple setup.

Initiation is a form of sowing seeds of Light into the world. Astral initiation, as practiced by the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn, is to be considered as equally effective as physical initiation. To quote MacGregor-Mathers: “Believe thyself there and thou art there.” “That which is above is also that which is below, and that which is below is also that which is above.” (The Emerald Tablet) We must constantly invoke Light and one very important method toward achieving this is full temple initiation. The continuous influx of Light stimulates alchemical growth in individuals and for the group as a whole.

Every member of our Group must have signed an Oath of Secrecy prior to his/her 0=0 initiation.This guarantees the following:

The integrity of our Order will be preserved. The Great Work may remain concealed within the candidate. Thus would breaking this oath spoil the alchemical process within the initiate. The secrets within our Order are a cherished treasure within our heart and soul. They can only be shared with one who will commit toward ascribing the same value that we place upon it. Sharing the sacred knowledge of the Order with anyone who would place little or no value on it debases this knowledge and the one whom carelessly divulges it.

Membership without due initiation (physical and/or astral) is not possible.

The Light can only be passed from one to another. Where this all began is anybody’s guess although all Light comes from the ultimate source: the Lord of the Universe. The above-mentioned alchemical process can only commence if the inner alembic is hermetically sealed, which is accomplished by the 0=0 initiation.

A fully established Second Order. The following principles are to be followed:

The Inner Order is separate and distinct from the outer Golden Dawn Order. The Inner Order is Rosicrucian and is deeply rooted in Christian beliefs, symbolism and tradition. This is not subject to change; Rosicrucian tradition is inherently Christian and it cannot be diluted and yet remain part of the traditional egregore. To do so would be to nullify its very essence, which we see as the latent representation of I.A.O. (Birth-Death-Resurrection)

A strict hierarchy. This means:

There is ONE Chief Adept for the Group as a whole. He/She may appoint up to two Co-Chiefs (most Second Orders have 2 Co-Chiefs). He/She is not necessarily identical with the Imperator of the Temple. To him/her are all Outer and Inner Order members loyal.

Any initiatory Temple of our Group must have at least two members of the Inner Order.

The Z-Documents indicate that two Inner Order Members are necessary to form a working initiating vortex of Light. According to the Z-Documents, the Hierophant must be a member of the Inner Order. Equally, according to the Z-Documents, there must be a member of the dais (Imperator, Cancellarius or Premonstrator) present at any initiation. These are members of the Second Order. Quote from Folio 2 of the Cipher MSS:

“6. Adepts sit on a raised place (Smaller temples may find this difficult and will have to adjust by having white chairs) 7. with the Hierophant. 8. Incense should be burning 9. in the temple at all ceremonies. 10. Three chiefs each 5=6 should 11. Hold a template 12. One of whom must be present 13.at all ceremonies.”

The veil between the Outer and Second Order must be strictly maintained. This is to say:

That in spite of any publication in the past, present or future, the teachings of the original Inner Order must remain with very minor exceptions within the Rosicrucian Order and completely concealed from the Outer Order. Whether a member of the First or Outer Order has passed through the veil toward the Inner Order will be revealed through taking the office of the Hierophant or of one of the daises. Order secrecy is strongly emphasized in the 0=0 ceremony.

We regard the above tenets as valid and rooted in the Esoteric Golden Dawn tradition as delineated and practiced by S.L. McGregor-Mathers. This document is part of an ongoing effort to revitalize the classic Golden Dawn spirit, and to rally all Golden Dawn practitioners behind the core beliefs, practices and principles that give structure, strength and power to our magical work. The above tenets are in no way meant to stifle individuality, nor is it meant to cast differing groups in dubious light: it is meant to consolidate the staggering potential of the Esoteric Golden Dawn and to focus it into one powerful healing ray.

As a species, we are ever changing and growing and what we create reflects this, but some things must remain unchanged in order for growth to be structured and for it to accomplish our will and aspiration. It is our hope that all Golden Dawn groups with their various individual characteristics will join forces in bringing healing energy into the world. While we respect the differing and varied opinions held by other groups, we firmly believe that following the classic Golden Dawn Tradition as taught by S.L. McGregor-Mathers will harmonize our collective current and give us tremendous power and structure in bringing great and wonderful changes into this sick and dying world.

HEGEMON: “Inheritor of a dying world, we call thee to the living beauty.”

HIEREUS: “Wanderer in the wild Darkness, we call thee to the gentle Light.”

HIEROPHANT: “Long has thou dwelt in the darkness, quit the night and seek the day. ”

Menu

What is theGolden Dawn

Cornerstoneofthe Esoteric Order ofthe Golden Dawn

W. Wynn Westcott’sHistoryLecture

Golden Dawn Biographies

Golden Dawn Q&A: Questions and Answers About theEOGD

Truth About the Golden Dawn Series

Golden Dawn Regalia &Tools of Initiation

ObituaryofS. L. Mathers

MacGregor Mathers – Some Personal Reminiscences

MacGregor Mather’s Final Address

Cipher Manuscripts

Golden Dawn Flying Rolls

Whare Ra Rolls

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C C ornerstone ornerstone of of the the E E soteric soteric O O rder rder of of the the G G olden olden D D awn awn

Valid primarily for the Outer/First Order of the Golden Dawn; With some exceptions regarding but not defining the Inner Order of the R.R. et A.C.

Man has evolved a great deal throughout the centuries; religion, commerce and government have all changed as mankind has grown and steadily improved his knowledge and humanity. Although man seems very different today than in times past, the soul or essence of man remains the same. As a species we seem to have roughly the same appearance, the same hopes and dreams; a part of us will never change. We are reflected by what we create; what we create evolves according our hopes and aspirations, but to create intelligently and consistently, the core of our creation must remain unchangeable even as our essence remains unchangeable throughout our evolution.

An organization behaves as a living thing, it will grow and change even as those individuals whom breathe life into it grow and change. The life and current, which flows through an organization must attach itself to a core skeleton so to speak; this is why many governments today have a constitution, so that as the nation grows and changes, the essence remains unchanged and the people could rally behind the core belief system, on which the nation is based. This seems to work for any group of people, including the Golden Dawn tradition, if there are no core beliefs the individuals within the group will grow apart and form smaller factions. We have seen this within the Golden Dawn community over the past one hundred years: the Golden Dawn is capable of invoking great, healing Light into our sick and dying world; we can, as a group make a wonderful difference in the world with beautiful Hermetic, Rosicrucian tradition, but not if we are in discord. The current of the classical Golden Dawn, as well as other Golden Dawn groups, must grow and evolve around some basic core practices and beliefs or else we grow apart and become weak and bickering factions that cause little change in a world already brimming with weakness and bickering.

We as the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn must strive to maintain and uphold the principles of our predecessors; in particular, those principles established by S.L. MacGregor-Mathers. These provide the core beliefs and practices that will place all Golden Dawn practitioners within the same framework and will enable us to harmonize our energy and current. This does not imply that we should restrict our individuality, but it does mean that we must work within a framework that will give us the strength in numbers needed to maximize our human potential within an initiation school environment. If we cannot rally behind these basic tenets then we risk becoming small ineffective, isolated factions, and we risk the fate of mediocrity and placing the Golden Dawn as insignificant in the pages of history.

The following principles are guidelines that pertain to the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn; there are countless other Golden Dawn Groups who use modified or different symbolism, divine names, initiations and some have even placed Second Order teachings within the Outer Order. We simply are not, in any way suggesting that different Golden Dawn groups should not exist, nor are we suggesting that they are not part of the Great Work in whichever way seems beneficial to their members. What we are saying is that these principles will harmonize our collective current within the framework of the traditional Golden Dawn. While the inception of the original Order of the Golden Dawn is somewhat controversial and there are some in today’s occult community whom do not believe that there was any involvement of the Rosicrucian Fraternity in its creation, we hold the idea of a true, underlying Rosicrucian Current within the traditional Golden Dawn in the highest esteem. Thus, we will always defend as fact, that the inner core, the second or Inner Order, which governs the Golden Dawn in the Outer, was, is and must be Rosicrucian.

“The Imperatrix of the German Order, one Anna Sprengel, authorized the Englishmen to set up a British Chapter to be known as the Golden Dawn.” – David Conway, Ritual Magic

We are certain that the Cipher MSS and the Z-Documents are the most important papers, which constitute the rites and membership in the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn. Furthermore, we believe the true seeker of Light values spiritual lineage far more than mere paper lineage, and we do not believe that paper lineage is a requisite toward upholding Golden Dawn principles.

The Cipher Manuscripts are to be considered as the raw basics of the Group’s rites or ritualistic framework. The following specific, outlined instructions are to be followed verbatim. For example:

The symbolism of the Scepter of the Hegemon. Quote from Folio 3 of the Cipher MSS:

“24. mitre headed scepter = religion & a guide”

The teachings of S.L. MacGregor-Mathers (G.H. Frater D.D.C.F.) the primary teacher and Chief Adept of the Original Golden Dawn remain unsullied within our Order. That is to say:

We will not under any circumstances regard as part of the traditional Golden Dawn system, the doctrine of dissidents such as Aleister Crowley and others like him. Although we realize that there are Golden Dawn practitioners whom may value and even implement such teaching, and we do not wish for our position to be construed as ridicule toward these; we do however hold firm that not all, which would represent itself as Golden Dawn is compatible with the traditional Golden Dawn system. We would defend the rights of others to present the Golden Dawn material as their worldview compels them to express it. We are simply clarifying what the traditional Golden Dawn cornerstone is for those seeking to practice it.

All mystical and religious doctrine taught by the original Golden Dawn Order will be implemented without exception by those who would retain the original GD current. Omission of any topic taught by S.L. MacGregor-Mathers, Chief Adept of the original Order would be inconsistent with classical GD.

We will under no circumstances abrogate the concept of “good and evil” or the two contending forces.

“There are two contending forces and one, which unites them eternally, and two basal angles of the triangle and one which forms the apex. Such is the origin of creation; it is the Triad of Life” (The Hierophant, 0=0 initiation)

In regards the Second Order: the inscription on the back of the Rose Cross lamen must read exactly as Mathers and the Rosicrucian tradition describes.

Refer to the “Rose Cross Lamen” lesson for greater detail.

We are compelled uphold and follow the Z- Documents verbatim.

The Z documents complete the Cipher MSS. The original Chief Adept, MacGregor Mathers, perfected his outlines of the rites and rituals of the Golden Dawn system in these documents. A quote from Ithell Colquhouns Book Sword of Wisdom (page 75) illustrates this:

“He (Westcott) commissioned Mathers to write-up the rituals into workable shape and himself began a correspondance with the adept.”

For example, 2 premises of the Z-Documents:

The Hierophant represents the ancient Egyptian God Osiris and thus invokes this God form prior to any initiation. Quote from Z1 “Enterer of the Threshold”:

“The G.D.’s Hall of the Neophyte is ruled over by Ousiri, through the office of the Hierophant. The G.D. Ousiri is the Expounder of the Sacred Mysteries”

The Hiereus represents the ancient Egyptian God Horus and thus invokes this God form prior to any initiation. Quote from Z1 “Enterer of the Threshold”:

“Far across the hall from the throne of Ousiri in the East, in the place symbolic of the greatest darkness, is enthroned Hoor, empowering the office of Hiereus. Hoor, the Coptic name of Horus (the younger) or Heru represents the guardian force, protecting the Hall.”

Politics have no place in the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn. To clarify:

Members of the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn regard each other as brothers and sisters and will not be divided by political issues. However, healthy discussions on any number of topics including politics are certainly encouraged. Political issues cannot be allowed to be made a general Order statement or to interfere with the integrity of the Order. Political agendas that pit one person against another, particularly on the basis of race or gender, must remain outside the Order’s doors.

Acceptance and respect of men and women on an equal basis.

Every member of the Order is to be treated as if they were a true brother/sister, as if all shared the same father/mother. Sexual harassment of any kind cannot be allowed to exist among brothers and sisters of the Light. Sex-magic of any kind is not practiced in the traditional Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn. Confer Ithell Colquhoun, Sword of Wisdom, page 285:

“The magical system taught in the GD is to be classed as Theurgy, the Magic of Light, as distinct from all types of sex-magic and even exclusive of them.”

Respect towards all legitimate world religions and other Golden Dawn Groups. For example:

While the Golden Dawn is not a religion in and of itself, it is governed by a strict creed of respect toward the Lord of the Universe. It will not be presumed that a particular religion is right or wrong over another. A religion must teach a deep respect toward the Lord of the Universe and a profound respect toward all people, other religions and all life in general. See folio 8 of the Cipher MSS: “16. Never condemn other religions” A particular Golden Dawn group, whether it is reformed, traditional or thelemic will not be presumed as right or wrong over another.

Practice and teaching of healing techniques and rites for free. This means:

The Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn seeks to elevate mankind in general. That is to say, we seek to help everyone reach his/her full potential. Healing is a way of embracing the full potential within and extending it towards the outer world. Healing circulates the Light, which we invoke. True expression of Light can only be through its circulation.

Practice of regular astral and/or physical 0=0 initiations in a full Temple setup.

Initiation is a form of sowing seeds of Light into the world. Astral initiation, as practiced by the Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn, is to be considered as equally effective as physical initiation. To quote MacGregor-Mathers: “Believe thyself there and thou art there.” “That which is above is also that which is below, and that which is below is also that which is above.” (The Emerald Tablet) We must constantly invoke Light and one very important method toward achieving this is full temple initiation. The continuous influx of Light stimulates alchemical growth in individuals and for the group as a whole.

Every member of our Group must have signed an Oath of Secrecy prior to his/her 0=0 initiation.This guarantees the following:

The integrity of our Order will be preserved. The Great Work may remain concealed within the candidate. Thus would breaking this oath spoil the alchemical process within the initiate. The secrets within our Order are a cherished treasure within our heart and soul. They can only be shared with one who will commit toward ascribing the same value that we place upon it. Sharing the sacred knowledge of the Order with anyone who would place little or no value on it debases this knowledge and the one whom carelessly divulges it.

Membership without due initiation (physical and/or astral) is not possible.

The Light can only be passed from one to another. Where this all began is anybody’s guess although all Light comes from the ultimate source: the Lord of the Universe. The above-mentioned alchemical process can only commence if the inner alembic is hermetically sealed, which is accomplished by the 0=0 initiation.

A fully established Second Order. The following principles are to be followed:

The Inner Order is separate and distinct from the outer Golden Dawn Order. The Inner Order is Rosicrucian and is deeply rooted in Christian beliefs, symbolism and tradition. This is not subject to change; Rosicrucian tradition is inherently Christian and it cannot be diluted and yet remain part of the traditional egregore. To do so would be to nullify its very essence, which we see as the latent representation of I.A.O. (Birth-Death-Resurrection)

A strict hierarchy. This means:

There is ONE Chief Adept for the Group as a whole. He/She may appoint up to two Co-Chiefs (most Second Orders have 2 Co-Chiefs). He/She is not necessarily identical with the Imperator of the Temple. To him/her are all Outer and Inner Order members loyal.

Any initiatory Temple of our Group must have at least two members of the Inner Order.

The Z-Documents indicate that two Inner Order Members are necessary to form a working initiating vortex of Light. According to the Z-Documents, the Hierophant must be a member of the Inner Order. Equally, according to the Z-Documents, there must be a member of the dais (Imperator, Cancellarius or Premonstrator) present at any initiation. These are members of the Second Order. Quote from Folio 2 of the Cipher MSS:

“6. Adepts sit on a raised place (Smaller temples may find this difficult and will have to adjust by having white chairs) 7. with the Hierophant. 8. Incense should be burning 9. in the temple at all ceremonies. 10. Three chiefs each 5=6 should 11. Hold a template 12. One of whom must be present 13.at all ceremonies.”

The veil between the Outer and Second Order must be strictly maintained. This is to say:

That in spite of any publication in the past, present or future, the teachings of the original Inner Order must remain with very minor exceptions within the Rosicrucian Order and completely concealed from the Outer Order. Whether a member of the First or Outer Order has passed through the veil toward the Inner Order will be revealed through taking the office of the Hierophant or of one of the daises. Order secrecy is strongly emphasized in the 0=0 ceremony.

We regard the above tenets as valid and rooted in the Esoteric Golden Dawn tradition as delineated and practiced by S.L. McGregor-Mathers. This document is part of an ongoing effort to revitalize the classic Golden Dawn spirit, and to rally all Golden Dawn practitioners behind the core beliefs, practices and principles that give structure, strength and power to our magical work. The above tenets are in no way meant to stifle individuality, nor is it meant to cast differing groups in dubious light: it is meant to consolidate the staggering potential of the Esoteric Golden Dawn and to focus it into one powerful healing ray.

As a species, we are ever changing and growing and what we create reflects this, but some things must remain unchanged in order for growth to be structured and for it to accomplish our will and aspiration. It is our hope that all Golden Dawn groups with their various individual characteristics will join forces in bringing healing energy into the world. While we respect the differing and varied opinions held by other groups, we firmly believe that following the classic Golden Dawn Tradition as taught by S.L. McGregor-Mathers will harmonize our collective current and give us tremendous power and structure in bringing great and wonderful changes into this sick and dying world.

HEGEMON: “Inheritor of a dying world, we call thee to the living beauty.”

HIEREUS: “Wanderer in the wild Darkness, we call thee to the gentle Light.”

HIEROPHANT: “Long has thou dwelt in the darkness, quit the night and seek the day. ”

Menu

What is theGolden Dawn

Cornerstoneofthe Esoteric Order ofthe Golden Dawn

W. Wynn Westcott’sHistoryLecture

Golden Dawn Biographies

Golden Dawn Q&A: Questions and Answers About theEOGD

Truth About the Golden Dawn Series

Golden Dawn Regalia &Tools of Initiation

ObituaryofS. L. Mathers

MacGregor Mathers – Some Personal Reminiscences

MacGregor Mather’s Final Address

Cipher Manuscripts

Golden Dawn Flying Rolls

Whare Ra Rolls

Aliearia

GEORGIA GUIDESTONES CUBE (8/6/70) Job 38, ESOTERIC 8

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Divi Filius – The Lion of the Tribe of Judah hath prevailed
Meaning of the Number 8

by Moe | Dec 12, 2012 | Numerology | 0 comments

There are many meanings behind numbers that one can find when researching this subject. The secret underlying this article is the Greek alphabet when computing the gematria of the allegorical language of the New Testament. The number eight corresponds to the New Testament, according to Ambroise. This is something I AM relearning as I create these articles. For example, I found the number 8 tied to various important stories, events and in particular, a priesthood that had originated in the East. This article will mainly focus on what I feel are the most significant meanings to the Templars.

One of the earliest references to Shakespeare’s name links it with Pythagoras in three of his plays, each time in connection with the concept of the transmigration of souls. Pythagoras says this about numbers; “All is number.” The number 8, which the arithmeticians call the first actual square, has been named, by the Pythagorean Philo— laus the name of geometrical harmony, because he thinks he recognizes in it all the harmonic relations which you will find that in mathematics that the symbol of the infinity is represented by a 8 laid down. It was the Pythagoreans who held that there are in man eight organs of knowledge; sense, fantasy, art, opinion, prudence, science, wisdom, and mind.

In 1598 Francis Meres wrote in his Palladis Tamia;

“As the soule of Euphorbus was thought to live in Pythagoras:so the sweete wittiesoule of Ovid lives in mellifluous & hony-tongued Shakespeare, witness his Venusand Adonis, his sugred Sonnets among his private friends &c.”Meres may well have been hinting at some special link between Shakespeare’s verse,his ‘numbers’, and Pythagoras, particularly in relation to the Sonnets. In fact,Shakespeare mentions Pythagoras or the Pythagoreans in three of his plays, eachtime in connection with the concept of the transmigration of souls, a transmigrationfrom Ovid to Shakespeare as referred to in Meres’ above appraisal. This concept isconsistent with the doctrine of ‘the harmony of the spheres’ and of ‘the harmony of soul’ within an eternally tuned cosmic system.

Eight is represented in “The Magic Star of Venus,” and by the Chaldeans as the 8-pointed Star of Venus. Amongst the Jews, 8 is the number of circumcision, because that ceremony took place on the eighth day. In Christianity there are eight beatitudes: poverty of spirit; mourning; meekness; desire of righteousness; mercy; purity of heart; the peacemaker; and suffering for the sake of righteousness. Saint Joseph endured during eight years various great sufferings before to die. We find 8 again in the story of Noah’s Ark in which the deluge was commemorated by eight persons who had been saved in the ark. This is also represented in Freemasonry as the degrees of the Royal Ark Mariners, the Noachites, and the Ark and Dove.

Dr Mackey’s explains this degree “Freemason’s Lexicon;” “In this degree, the Knights celebrate the destruction of the tower of Babel, and for this purpose they meet on the night of the full moon of each month. No other light is permitted in the Lodge than what proceeds from that satellite. The records of the order furnish us with the following history. The Noachites, at this day called Prussian Knights, are the descendants of Peleg, chief architect of the tower of Babel. Thus they trace the origin of their order to a more ancient date than the descendants of Hiram; for the tower of Babel was built many ages before the temple of Solomon. And formerly, it was not necessary that candidates for this degree should be Hiramites or Blue Masons. But a different regulation was afterwards adopted, and to receive the degree of Noachite, it is now necessary that the candidate should have performed the duties of a worthy office in a regularly constituted Lodge of Blue Masons. The order of Noachites was established in Prussia in 1755, and introduced into France by the Count St Gelaire in 1757.”

The reality is that when most people see the number 8, they just see a plain old number. Little do they know that many numbers like 8 have an occult meaning attached to them. For example, the Tower of Belus in Babylon is made of eight square towers. In Egypt, Thoth had eight disciples which was the number of the balance and of the cosmic order and according to Herodotus, the reign of gods in Egypt would have started with a first group of eight gods to the head of which was Pan. The Greeks had dedicated the number 8 to Dionysius who was born in the eighth month of the year.

An octave, the interval between two notes with the same letter name (where one has double the frequency of the other), is so called because there are eight notes between the two on a standard major or minor diatonic scale, including the notes themselves and without chromatic deviation. The ecclesiastical modes are ascending diatonic musical scales of eight notes or tones comprising an octave. There are eight notes in the octatonic scale and the musical note. The eighth or octave signifies eternity, and this was the mystical reason why octaves were annexed to festivals.

More uses of the number 8 ;

You will find that 8 is the number

of salvation, the baptismal font is

octagonal, and the sign of God’s

covenant.

8 is the number of the New

Beginning found in the

Resurrection of the Lord Jesus

Christ

In Revelation the Anti-Christ is

the eighth king.

The idea of the Octave manifests

in a slightly different way in the

Greek Alphanumeric correlation,

which begins with Alpha = 1 and

ends with Omega = 800

The Number 8 integrates with

the Number 66 – the value of the

Wheel (Galgal) – to yield the Key

to the Bible, as revealed in Isaiah

22.22:

In the Church of England the only

festivals mentioned as having

Octaves (Jesus Christ) are

Christmas Day, Easter Day,

Ascension

Hanukkah is a Jewish festival

holiday that lasts eight days and

eight nights.

More Mythology and Esoteric uses of the number 8;

In numerology, 8 is the number

of building, and in some theories,

also the number of destruction.

In Ancient Egyptian mythology,

the Ogdoad represents the eight

primordial deities of creation.

In mythology, the horse of the

Norse god Odin has eight legs

and is called Sleipnir.

8 apparitions appear to Macbeth

in Act 4 scene 1 of

Shakespeare’s Macbeth as

representations of the 8

descendants of Banquo

“88” is the abbreviated

terminology used by the Aryan

Brotherhood for the Nazi salute,

“Heil Hitler” – “H” being the

eighth letter of the alphabet,

twice

Eight-ball pocket billiards is

played with a cue ball and 15

numbered balls, the black ball

numbered 8 being the middle

and most important one, as the

winner is the player or side that

legally pockets it after first

pocketing its numerical group of

7 object balls

Then we have the first Roman Emperor that we know of today as Octavian Augustus Caesar. The name Octavian was given to him just like it had been assigned to

Dionysius. This is why the number 8 in music would be the form of an Octave. Hence, when musicians hit an Octave note when making music, they are not just playing an Octave, but are also playing Octavian Caesar’s immortal tune. According to Clement of Alexandria, the Christ places under the sign of 8 the one he made to be born again and the Temple of Jerusalem eight gates from which the eighth gate would open only for the Messiah.

Please keep in mind that is the whole point of this biblical magic. As Above, So Below and the So Below doesn’t stop there because in order to properly honor the morning star, you have to do it in style with as many So Belows as possible in order to bring the As Above into manifestation.

Augustus Caesar immortalized with the name Octavian, he had also changed the calendar from that of the Egyptians to the Roman Calendar in which his Father was assigned the month of July for Julius and Augustus was assigned the “8th” month of the year to that we of course know of us as the month of August. Then in math we see the number “8” sided shape in Geometry called the “Octagon” named after Octavian or we have the “8” limbed creature from the sea called the Octupuss.

In addition to these magical “Number 8 Octavian Revelations” that I had listed above, let me also point out that in “8 BC” Augustus Caesar had reformed the ancient Egyptian calendar to the new magical Roman calendar that magically bumped up time from 8 BC all the way to “8 AD.” This was also the time when he had added the month of August to go after his father Julius’ month of July. Now we couple all the above number Octavian 8 truths with the fact that Augustus Caesar had reigned from 63BC – 14AD which equals 8 multiplied by the divine number 10 and we get 80 years. Hopefully you are beginning to get the magical number point of how the Brotherhood assigns numbers to immortal souls.

Augustus Caesar lived for 80 years. He was born September 23 63BC had died August 29, A. D. 14.

Death and bodily Ascension to heaven of Augustus Divus Filius (Son of God), this having been his official title, which is stamped on his coins and is employed by Horace, Ovid, Virgil, Manilius, Suetonius, Pliny, Tacitus, Censorinus, and indeed all the writers of the Augustan period. The Ascension was sworn to as having been actually witnessed in effigy by Numericus Atticus, a senator and noble of the Praetorian order. Suetonius, Aug., 100. “Reform ” of the Egyptian calendar. 8 A. D.

—So-called Anno Christo of Abyssinia; really the apotheosis of Augustus in Egypt of B. C. 8, shifted to A. D. 8, as explained under B. C. 15. Epoch, August 29. 14 A. D.—August 29. Death and Ascension to heaven of Augustus. This is the day of, “Divus Augustus Quirinus Dionysius.” In the Chronicle of Bede, this date is mentioned as the “laterculus septizonii” in which this been employed to mark the return and week day of Easter by means of the Dominical letter in the series A to G. In astrology, Scorpio is the 8th astrological sign of the Zodiac. Even though it is said that Augustus Caesar was a Capricorn, the priesthood in which he was HiRam would use this 8th astrological sign of Scorpio and the scorpion to symbolize this Brotherhood. As 33rd Degree Freemason and Master Rosicrucian, Manly P. Hall says of the scorpion, these were “The rites of the Scorpion are the Mysteries of the Apocalypse and the ceremonials of the Sabazians.”

This magic of AS ABOVE, SO BELOW is accomplished by assigning stars, planets, numbers and even new divine allegorical names to worthy Brothers who have been chosen by the Brotherhood to be immortalized forever.

Originally its stars represented the outstretched claws of the imaginary scorpion, and were, it is believed, separated from that venomous monster in the time of Julius Caesar, and called Libra, the Balance. In classic days it marked the autumnal equinox, but owing to precession that position is now held by Virgo.

James Thomson, in the Autumn of his Seasons, writes:

Libra weighs in equal scales the year.

In the time of Augustus Caesar, it was regarded as the balance of Astraea, the goddess of justice, and by it the fate of mortals was supposed to be weighed. According to Greek legend it was placed in the zodiac to perpetuate the memory of Mochus, the reputed inventor of weights and measures. Caesius thought that it represented the balances of the Book of Daniel in which Belshazzar had been weighed and found wanting.

Virgil in his flattering address to the Emperor Augustus, in the First Georgic, alludes to the glowing scorpion as contracting his claws for the special purpose of leaving for him a more than ample space in the sky. And Milton in his Paradise Lost, Book IV., in the account of Gabriel’s discovery of Satan in Paradise, and the threatened battle, thus refers to the Scales:

The Eternal, to prevent such horrid fray, Hung forth in heaven his golden scales, yet seen Betwixt Astrasa and the Scorpion sign, Wherein all things created first he weighed. Octava Infantium;

Octava Infantium {eighth [day] of the babes) was a frequent designation of the first Sunday alter Easter, so called in reference to the newly baptized as born of God. The eighth or octave signifies eternity, and this was the mystical reason why octaves were annexed to festivals;

The whole of this interval was formerly observed with great solemnity; and the Church i-f England has retained the notion by directing that the “preface” proper to Christmas-day, Easter-day, Ascension-day, and Whit-Sunday shall be used for the seven days immediately following each of these festivals; except that in the latter case (Whit-Sunday), that preface is to be used for six days only, because the eighth day from it “is Trinity Sunday, which has a preface peculiar to itself. Sparrow, on the Common Prayer, says, because our whole life is the revolution of seven days, the eighth or octave signifies eternity, and this was the mystical reason why octaves were annexed to festivals, D J Cangc says, because our lyrd rose on the eighth ilay (including Sunday to Sunday), the octave of the feast was the day on which the whole solentnitv closed. See Kiddle, Christian Antiquities, p. 677, 683. And guess what else?

The whole internet and our computer systems are designed by using the number 8 which is the base of the octal number system and what we mostly used with computers. In octal, one digit represents 3 bits. In modern computers, a byte is a grouping of eight bits, also called an octet.Even the number eight is written in parenthesis is the code for the musical note in the popular instant Messenger, Windows Live Messenger.

Yes, you have been octified.

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Aliearia

Ne Meaning (Ne-“Tanya”-hu/Ne-phi-lim)

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COULD SHE HAVE BEEN A DAUGHTER OF THE BIBLE VERSE

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See also: Appendix:Variations of “ne”

Etymology

From Middle English ne, from Old English ne, from Proto-Germanic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /neɪ/, /nɛ/

Adverb

ne (not comparable)

1. (obsolete) Not. 13??, Geoffrey Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales He nevere yet no vilaynie ne sayde.

1512, Robert Copland, The History of Helyas: And whan the good quene herde these pyteous tydynges lytel lacked that the ne dyed for sorowe / wherfore all lamentably the began to complayne her sayenge.

1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene: His forces faile, ne can no lenger fight

1812, Lord Byron, “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage”, Canto I, 2: Whilom in Albion’s isle there dwelt a youth, / Who ne in virtue’s ways did take delight […].

Conjunction

ne

1. (obsolete) Nor. 1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, III.1: But to her cry they list not lenden eare, / Ne ought the more their mightie strokes surceasse.

1798, Samuel Coleridge, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, ll. 443-6: The pang, the curse, with which they died, / Had never pass’d away; / I could not draw my een from theirs / Ne turn them up to pray.

Anagrams

en

Alternative forms

(Gheg) na [1]

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : [nɛ]

Etymology

The nominative-accusative is from accusative Proto-Albanian *nōs, stressed form of clitic Proto-Indo-European *nos, which is continued by the clitic na. Neve and nesh are innovated, but Gheg retains dative nahe (Old Albanian nae) from a genitive *nosōm.

Pronoun

ne (accusative ne, dative neve, ablative nesh)

1. we, us

Declension

forms of ne

See also

Albanian personal pronouns References

1. ^ Fialuur i voghel Sccyp e ltinisct (Small Dictionary of Albanian and Latin), page 85 , by P. Jak Junkut, 1895, Sckoder

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *ni.

Particle

ne

1. not

Usage notes

Used combined with ket, mirroring French ne … pas.

Pronoun

ne (enclitic, contracted ‘n, proclitic en, contracted proclitic n’)

1. represents an indeterminate number or quantity of a given noun

2. represents a place (associated with the action described by the verb) that would be introduced by the preposition de

3. replaces a phrase introduced by the preposition de

4. replaces the object of a causative verb

Usage notes

Ne cannot be used more than once as the object of a given verb.

While ne is usually used to replace phrases beginning with the prepostion de, adverbial phrases (eg de pressa) are replaced with hi.

Ne is sometimes used instead of ho to replace an adjective or indefinite noun as the predicate of a verb.

Ne is sometimes used popularly to add emphasis to a sentence: in this sense, it has no translation in English.

See also

Catalan personal pronouns and clitics

Conjunction

ne

1. to (connects verbs)

Preposition

ne

1. Expressing a fraction or a ratio. Preceded by a nominator and followed by the denominator.

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ne/

audio (file)

Interjection

ne

1. no!

Particle

ne

1. not

See also

ano

Etymology

From Latin nec, neque. Compare Italian nè, French and Spanish ni, Romanian nici.

Adverb

ne

1. neither

Noun

ne

1. water

References

Maurice Delafosse, Vocabulaires comparatifs de plus de 60 langues ou dialectes parlés à la Côte d’Ivoire et dans les régions limitrophes : avec des notes linguistiques et ethnologiques, une bibliographie et une carte (Paris, E. Leroux, 1904), page 231

Alternative forms

nen

Pronunciation

Audio (file)

Etymology

From nen through apocope, itself a contraction of eenen, enen, the now-obsolete accusative form of een.

Article

ne

1. (Brabantian) a, an ne man a man

Usage notes

ne is used primarily in the dialects that retain the three-gender split. It is only used for masculine words, while een is used for feminine and neuter words.

The form nen is used before vowels (as the English an) and certain consonants (commonly b, d and t), differing from dialect to dialect.

See also

den

Anagrams

en

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ne/

Particle

ne

1. no

2. not

3. non-

Antonyms

jes

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ˈne/

Hyphenation: ne

Rhymes: -e

Pronoun

ne (plural, stem nii-)

1. (demonstrative, of things and animals) they (plural of the pronoun se (“it”))

2. (demonstrative) When used like a definite article, “the” or “those”. Tässä ne kirjat nyt ovat. — “This is where those books are now.” (literally, “Here those books now are”)

3. (colloquial, dialectal, of people) they (in literary standard: he).

Inflection

The case suffixes are mostly regular (except inessive and elative singular). Abessive is never used in singular and extremely seldom in plural. Instructive niin is more or less a theoretical construction, since it has developed into an adverb, and its current meaning cannot be derived from ne.

Declension of ne

See also

tämä

tuo

se

nämä

nuo

Anagrams

en

Etymology

From Latin non.

Pronunciation

audio (file)

IPA (key) : /nə/

Rhymes: -ə

Particle

ne

1. (literary) not (used alone to negate a verb; now chiefly with the verbs pouvoir, savoir, cesser and oser) 1713, Voltaire, letter, Dec 1713: Je ne sais si je dois vous appeler Monsieur ou Mademoiselle […]. I don’t know if I should call you Mr or Miss.

1826, Victor Hugo, Bug-Jargal, XXXVIII: Le prince de France nous aime, celui d’Espagne ne cesse de nous secourir. The prince of France loves us, that of Spain never stops helping us.

1868, Emile Zola, Madeleine Férat: Je n’ose te jurer que je t’aime toujours, parce que je sens bien que tu ne me croirais pas. I dare not swear that I still love you, for I sense that you would not believe me.

1943, Jean-Paul Sartre, Réflexions sur la question juive: Mais je ne le crois pas : un homme qui trouve naturel de dénoncer des hommes ne peut avoir notre conception de l’humain […]. But I don’t think so: a man who finds it natural to denounce men cannot have our idea of being human.

2. not, no (used before a verb, with a subsequent element following; see Usage Notes, below) 1851, Henri Murger, Le pays latin: Je ne sais rien de plus odieux que l’hypocrisie. I don’t know anything more odious than hypocrisy.

1998, Michel Houellebecq, Les Particules Élémentaires: Bruno se rendit compte qu’il ne serait jamais accepté par les hippies […]. Bruno realised that he’d never be accepted by the hippies.

2012, Le Monde, 3 May 2012: “Il n’y a pas eu un truc auquel on ne s’attendait pas”, affirme Stéphane Le Foll. ‘There wasn’t anything we weren’t expecting,’ stated Stéphane Le Foll.

3. Used in a subordinate clause before a subjunctive verb (especially when the main verb expresses doubt or fear), to provide extra overtones of doubt or uncertainty (but not negating its verb); the so-called “pleonastic” or “expletive” ne. 1829, Victor Hugo, Le Derner Jour d’un Condamné, XXVII: Ah! mes cheveux blanchiront avant que ma tête ne tombe! Oh! My hair will go white before my head falls!

1837, George Sand, Mauprat: Oui , mais je crains qu’elle ne soit plus malade qu’elle ne l’avoue, repartit l’abbé. ‘Yes, but I think she might be more ill than she’s letting on,’ the priest replied.

4. (in comparative clauses usually translated with the positive sense of the subsequent negative) apprendre le français est plus facile qu’on ne pense — “learning French is easier than you think”

Usage notes

Ne is typically followed by a verb and then a negative adverbial pas, plus, jamais, guère, or (now literary) point; by a negative pronoun personne or rien; or by a negative determiner, aucun or nul.

In colloquial French, ne is often omitted: Je le veux pas ‘I don’t want it’.

In literary French, ne can be used alone with certain verbs, as specified above.

See also

guère

jamais

pas

personne

plus

point

que

rien

Anagrams

en

External links

“ne ” in le Trésor de la langue française informatisé (The Digitized Treasury of the French Language).

Etymology 1

Either an alternative form of nein or from Proto-Germanic *nai (“never”).

Pronunciation 1

IPA (key) : /neː/

Interjection

ne

1. no, nay Ne, das mach ich nich. No, I won’t do that.

Pronunciation 2

IPA (key) : /nə/

Interjection

ne

1. (colloquial) right?; is it?; is it not?; tag question Wir müssen da lang, ne? We need to go that way, don’t we? Du hast keine Geschwister, ne? You don’t have siblings, do you?

Synonyms

gell

nicht

nicht wahr

oder

wa

Etymology 2

Reduced form of eine.

Alternative forms

‘ne

Article

ne

1. (colloquial) Contraction of eine (“a, an”). Willst du ‘ne Flasche Bier? —“Would you like a bottle of beer?”

Romanization

1. Romanization of

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : [ˈnɛ]

Audio (file)

Adverb

ne

1. don’t Ne hallgass rá! – Don’t listen to him!

Usage notes

Used before the verb in an imperative clause to negate that clause; ne is always used instead of nem in the imperative mood.

Derived terms

(Compound word): nehogy

(Expressions): ajándék lónak ne nézd a fogát, ne igyál előre a medve bőrére, ne keltsd fel az alvó oroszlánt

Etymology

From Esperanto ne, from French ne, Russian не (ne).

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ne/, /nɛ/

Adverb

ne

1. not, don’t

Derived terms

ne- (“non-, un-, in-, im-, ir- (etc.)”)

Noun

ne (plural ne-i)

1. The name of the Latin script letter N/n.

See also

(Latin script letter names) litero; a, be, ce, che, de, e, fe, ge, he, i, je, ke, le, me, ne, o, pe, que, re, se, she, te, u, ve, we, xe, ye, ze (Category: io:Latin letter names)

Conjunction

ne

1. and

Etymology

From Latin nix, nivem, through Proto-Romanian (compare Romanian nea, Aromanian neao), from Proto-Italic *sniks, from Proto-Indo-European *snígʷʰs (“snow”), root noun derived from *sneygʷʰ- (“to snow”).

Noun

ne f (definite nevu, genitive/dative lu nevu)

1. snow

Etymology

From Latin inde (“thence”).

Pronunciation

Rhymes: -e

Adverb

ne

1. from there Ne sono venuto. — “I have come from there.”

Usage notes

The pronoun ne replaces di là. Sono di Genova; ne sono venuto stamattina. — “I am from Genova; I came from there this morning.”

Pronoun

ne

1. of it Ne ho sentito parlare. — “I have heard talk of it.” Cosa ne pensi? — “What do you think of it?”

2. of them (sometimes not translated in English) Ce ne sono due. — “There are two (of them).”

Usage notes

The pronoun ne stands for di + [pronoun], and so can be a translation of “[preposition] + it/them” for any preposition that is translated as di in Italian.

Contraction

ne

1. apocopic form of nel Massimo Troisi ha vinto un oscar per la sua interpretazione ne “Il postino”. — “Massimo Troisi won an Oscar for his performance in “Il Postino”.

Usage notes

Ne is used where nel, nella, etc, would ordinarily be used, but cannot be because the article is part of the title of a film, book, etc.

See also

de

See also

Romanization

ne

1. Romaji transcription of ね

2. Romaji transcription of ネ

Determiner

ne

1. no

Particle

ne

1. no

Interjection

ne

1. no (used to show disagreement or negation)

This Kurdish entry was created from the translations listed at no. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see ne in the Kurdish Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) December 2008

Adverb

ne

1. not

Interjection

1. truly!, indeed!; commonly connected with other affirmative particles

Conjunction

nē (+ subjunctive)

1. that not, in order not to and similar; lest vereor ne id astute fecerint

Derived terms

nē quō (“to no place, nowhither”)

nē quis

nē utīquam

neque/nec

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-European *ne (“not”).

Adverb

ne

1. (after dummodo or utinam) not

Derived terms

ne quidem (not even)

See also

-ne

ne-

Pronunciation

This entry needs audio files. If you have a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)

Conjunction

ne

1. not ne tikai ― not only ne visai ― not quite

Pronunciation

This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

This entry needs audio files. If you have a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)

Interjection

ne

1. no (used to show disagreement or negation)

This Lithuanian entry was created from the translations listed at no. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see ne in the Lithuanian Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) October 2009

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ne/

Pronoun

ne

1. they; plural nominative form of tämā

Cmavo

ne

1. non-restrictive version of pe; [1] which is incidentally of/associated with [2]

References

1. ^ Lojban for Beginners, Chapter 9, §6

2. ^ LLG’s cmavo/selma’o (ma’oste) list

Conjunction

ne

1. and (only used if the overall statement is grammatically positive)

See also

na

References

p. 94, The Essentials of Luganda, J. D. Chesswas, 4th edition. Oxford University Press: Nairobi. 1967.

This entry has fewer than three known examples of actual usage, the minimum considered necessary for clear attestation, and may not be reliable. Luganda is subject to a special exemption for languages with limited documentation. If you speak it, please consider editing this entry or adding citations. See also Help and the Community Portal.

Pronunciation

audio (file)

Romanization

ne (Zhuyin ㄋㄜ˙)

1. Pinyin transcription of 吶, 呐

2. Pinyin transcription of 呢

ne

1. Nonstandard spelling of né.

2. Nonstandard spelling of nè.

Usage notes

English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Adverb

ne

1. not

Conjunction

ne

1. nor

Etymology 1

Alternative forms

n’

Adverb

ne

1. not (used to negate a verb) 1488, Jean Dupré, Lancelot du Lac, page 22 : Ha ha pourdieu franc chevalier et preux ne me occisez mie Ha! For the love of God honest and valiant knight, don’t kill me!

1530, François Rabelais, Pantagruel et ne m’advint oncques de mentir ou asseurer chose que ne feust veritable It never happened to me to lie or to assure someone of something that wasn’t truthful

1562, Henry IV of France, Lettres Missives Catherine de Médicis, ne tarda pas à faire venir auprès de lui, en 1561, sa femme et ses enfants. Catherine of Medicis did not hesitate to bring to him, in 1561, his wife and his children

Usage notes

As in modern French, may be used in combination with another adverb, such as ne… iamais, ne… pas, ne… gaire, ne… mie, ne… oncques, ne… poin(c)t and ne… rien(s), but such an adverb is not required.

Etymology 2

See ny

Conjunction

ne

1. Alternative form of ny (“neither; nor”)

Verb

ne

1. take

References

Language Contact in the Danish West Indies (2012, ISBN 900423070X)

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *ne (“not”)

Adverb

ne

1. not

Etymology

From Latin nec.

Adverb

ne

1. not; used to form negative constructions

Descendants

French: ne

Conjunction

ne

1. neither (not one or the other) circa 1180, Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot ou le Chevalier de la charrette: A lor seignor gaires n’antendent Ne les serors ne li cinc frere They didn’t listen to their father Neither the sisters nor the five brothers

Descendants

French: ni

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *ne.

Adverb

ne

1. not

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin nīs, from Latin nos. Compare nă (old form) and Aromanian nã.

Alternative forms

нє (pre-1860s Cyrillic form)

Pronoun

ne (unstressed accusative and reflexive form of noi)

1. (direct object, first-person plural) us El ne urmează. He’s following us.

Related terms

noi (stressed accusative)

Pronoun

ne (unstressed dative and reflexive form of noi)

1. (indirect object) (to) us Ele ne dau cadouri. They give us presents.

Related terms

nouă (stressed dative)

See also

ne-

te

se

Etymology

From Old English ne, from Proto-Germanic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /neɪ/, /nɛ/, /nə/, /n(:)/

Adverb

ne (not comparable)

1. (archaic, rare) Not. Ne look at the sky, when ye tread bumpy roads. (A Northern English folk saying)

Conjunction

ne

1. (archaic, rare) Nor. Ne mother, ne father, ne friends, ne foes ne-knew what had worthen of him.

Usage notes

Ne is a negative particle and it is used preverbally, i.e. it is placed directly before a verb, for example,ː”What haps might chance me I ne knew” (William Fowler (makar), 1590) and “To suffer exile he said that he ne couth” (Gavin Douglas, Virgil’s Aeneid, 1513). Now archaic and chiefly dialectal, it is still understood and used by a few rural speakers in Scotland and Northern England.

As a conjunction, it is placed immediately before the word it negates as inː ne mickle, ne little; Twas ne man, ne woman.. ne beast; ne rich, ne poor, ne bold, ne meek, ne stong, ne weak can escape God’s wrath.

In urban areas and cities became displaced by na or nae.

References

The Dictionary of the Scots Language

The Dictionary of the Scots Language

The Dictionary of the Scots Language

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ne/

Particle

ne (Cyrillic spelling не)

1. not (denoting negation) ne znam — I don’t know on je ne samo darovit, već i jako marljiv — he is not only talented, but also very industrious htio-ne htio — whether you want it or not da ne spavaš? / ne spavaš li? / zar ne spavaš? — aren’t you sleeping? ne mogu, a da ne.. — I cannot but… reći ne — to say no; refuse, decline ne manje nego/od.. — no less than… ne doći — to fail to come, not come …. Zar ne? — … Aren’t you? (Do you?, Don’t you?) “neću” — I won’t

Interjection

ne (Cyrillic spelling не)

1. no Jesi li demokrat? Ne! — Are you a democrat? No!

Synonyms

jok (dialectal)

Antonyms

da

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *ne, from Proto-Indo-European *ne.

Pronunciation

IPA (key) : /ˈnɛ́/, /nɛ/

Tonal orthography: n , ne

Particle

1. not (negates meaning of verb)

2. no (expresses disapproval, disagreement)

Antonyms

(no): dà, já

Etymology 1

From Ottoman Turkish ﻪﻧ (ne, “what, whatever, how”), from Old Anatolian Turkish [script needed] (ne, “what”), from Proto-Turkic *nē- (“what”). [1] The only Turkic root beginning with /n/. The earliest PT form must have contained a unique initial nasal, having yielded specific reflexes in modern languages.

cognates

Pronoun

ne

1. what Ne istiyorsun? ― What do you want?

2. whatever Ne istersen yaparım. ― I will do whatever you want.

Declension

declension of ne

Derived terms

Terms derived from ne

Related terms

Related terms

Adverb

ne

1. what, how, such Ne güzel! ― How beautiful! Ne güzel bir gün! ― What a beautiful day!

2. Used as an intensifier to express surprise, astonishment, together with expressions like be!, ha!. Ne osurdun be! ― You farted such (that probably the whole world heard it).

Etymology 2

From Ottoman Turkish ﻪﻧ (ne, “neither; nor”), from Persian ﻪﻧ (na). Cognate to Old English ne (“not”).

Conjunction

ne

1. neither; nor Ne bu ne şu ― Neither this nor that

Usage notes

Not used alone but rather as ne…ne…, the way it is used is directly copied from Persian ﻪﻧ … ﻪﻧ …(“neither; nor”).

Synonyms

…de…de, …da…da

Etymology 3

Noun

ne

1. The name of the Latin-script letter N/n.

See also

(Latin script letter names) harf; a, be, ce, çe, de, e, fe, ge, yumuşak ge, he, ı, i, je, ke, le, me, ne, o, ö, pe, re, se, şe, te, u, ü, ve, ye, ze (Category: tr:Latin letter names)

References

1. ^ Starostin, Sergei; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg (2003), “*nē- ”, in Etymological dictionary of the Altaic languages (Handbuch der Orientalistik;

Aliearia

HOOVER DAM MASTER # 22s= EL

Numerology 11 & 22 : Master Numerology Numbers

This Numerology content has been provided by: Master Numerologist Hans Decoz

In Numerology all numbers are reduced down to the vibration of a single digit, for example a 25 is reduced to a 7 (2 + 5 = 7), and 18 becomes a 9 (1 + 8 = 9). However, in Numerology 11 & 22 require unique attention. These are called the ‘Master Numbers’.

A person with an Expression or Life Path that reduces down fully to an 11 or 22 are said to be endowed with special gifts of high-level inspiration and leadership, but their life may also be very challenging and highly paradoxical. For instance: Michael Jordan, Bill Clinton, and Tim McGraw, are number 11’s, and: John Assaraf, Dean Martin, and Sir Richard Branson are 22’s.

NOTE: Being born in November (the 11th month), or on the 22nd does not

MONTH

automatically mean that you are an 11

DAY

or 22. If you are not

YEAR

positive you are an 11 or 22 please use the Life Path

#

Calculator to the

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