2 Chronicles Chapter 4
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Moreover he made an altar of brass, twenty cubits the length thereof, and twenty cubits the breadth thereof, and ten cubits the height thereof.
Also he made a molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass, and five cubits the height thereof; and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about.
And under it was the similitude of oxen, which did compass it round about: ten in a cubit, compassing the sea round about. Two rows of oxen were cast, when it was cast.
It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east: and the sea was set above upon them, and all their hinder parts were inward.
And the thickness of it was an handbreadth, and the brim of it like the work of the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies; and it received and held three thousand baths.
He made also ten lavers, and put five on the right hand, and five on the left, to wash in them: such things as they offered for the burnt offering they washed in them; but the sea was for the priests to wash in.
And he made ten candlesticks of gold according to their form, and set them in the temple, five on the right hand, and five on the left.
He made also ten tables, and placed them in the temple, five on the right side, and five on the left. And he made an hundred basons of gold.
Furthermore he made the court of the priests, and the great court, and doors for the court, and overlaid the doors of them with brass.
And he set the sea on the right side of the east end, over against the south.
And Huram made the pots, and the shovels, and the basons. And Huram finished the work that he was to make for king Solomon for the house of God;
To wit, the two pillars, and the pommels, and the chapiters which were on the top of the two pillars, and the two wreaths to cover the two pommels of the chapiters which were on the top of the pillars;
And four hundred pomegranates on the two wreaths; two rows of pomegranates on each wreath, to cover the two pommels of the chapiters which were upon the pillars.
He made also bases, and lavers made he upon the bases;
One sea, and twelve oxen under it.
The pots also, and the shovels, and the fleshhooks, and all their instruments, did Huram his father make to king Solomon for the house of the LORD of bright brass.
In the plain of Jordan did the king cast them, in the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredathah.
Thus Solomon made all these vessels in great abundance: for the weight of the brass could not be found out.
And Solomon made all the vessels that were for the house of God, the golden altar also, and the tables whereon the shewbread was set;
Moreover the candlesticks with their lamps, that they should burn after the manner before the oracle, of pure gold;
And the flowers, and the lamps, and the tongs, made he of gold, and that perfect gold;
And the snuffers, and the basons, and the spoons, and the censers, of pure gold: and the entry of the house, the inner doors thereof for the most holy place, and the doors of the house of the temple, were of gold.
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Does the Bible say Does the Bible say pi equals 3.0? pi equals 3.0?
by by Russell Grigg Russell Grigg
In In 1 Kings 7:23 1 Kings 7:23 there is an intriguing there is an intriguing statement: statement: ‘And ‘And he he [Hiram on behalf of [Hiram on behalf of King Solomon] King Solomon] made a molten sea, made a molten sea, ten ten cubits from the one brim to the other: it cubits from the one brim to the other: it was round all about, and his height was round all about, and his height was was five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did five cubits: and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about.’ compass it round about.’ A similar A similar account is given in the parallel passage account is given in the parallel passage in in 2 Chronicles 4:2 2 Chronicles 4:2 . .
From time to time sceptics have used From time to time sceptics have used these verses to ridicule the accuracy of these verses to ridicule the accuracy of the the Bible by claiming that, if one uses Bible by claiming that, if one uses the figures stated, the circumference of the figures stated, the circumference of the the vessel divided by its diameter gives vessel divided by its diameter gives 3.0, instead of the value pi 3.0, instead of the value pi π π , , 3.14159…). 3.14159…). 1 1
Closer examination shows there are at Closer examination shows there are at least two possible explanations. least two possible explanations.
1. The first concerns the meaning of the The first concerns the meaning of the word cubit, and how it would have word cubit, and how it would have been used been used in measuring the vessel. A in measuring the vessel. A cubit was the length of a man’s cubit was the length of a man’s forearm from the forearm from the elbow to the elbow to the extended fingertips. The Hebrew cubit extended fingertips. The Hebrew cubit was about 45 centimetres (18 was about 45 centimetres (18 inches). inches). It is obvious that a man’s forearm It is obvious that a man’s forearm does not readily lend itself to the does not readily lend itself to the measurement of fractions of a measurement of fractions of a forearm. In the Bible half a cubit is forearm. In the Bible half a cubit is mentioned several mentioned several times, but there is times, but there is no mention of a third part of a cubit or no mention of a third part of a cubit or a fourth part of a a fourth part of a cubit, even though cubit, even though these fractions of ‘a third part’ and ‘a these fractions of ‘a third part’ and ‘a fourth fourth part’ were used in volume and part’ were used in volume and weight measurements. weight measurements. 2 2 It therefore It therefore seems highly probable that any seems highly probable that any measurement measurement of more than half a of more than half a cubit would have been counted as a cubit would have been counted as a full cubit, and any measurement full cubit, and any measurement of of less than half a cubit would have been less than half a cubit would have been rounded down to the nearest full rounded down to the nearest full cubit. cubit.
From From 1 Kings 7:23 1 Kings 7:23 (‘a line of thirty (‘a line of thirty cubits did compass cubits did compass it round about’) it round about’) , it , it appears that the circumference was appears that the circumference was measured measured with ‘a line’, i.e. a piece of with ‘a line’, i.e. a piece of string or cord on which the distance string or cord on which the distance was marked, and this length would was marked, and this length would then have been measured off in cubits then have been measured off in cubits by the measurer, by the measurer, using his own or using his own or someone else’s forearm, or possibly a someone else’s forearm, or possibly a cubit-long rod. Similarly cubit-long rod. Similarly the diameter the diameter would have been marked on a line and would have been marked on a line and ‘cubitized’ in the ‘cubitized’ in the same way. same way.
If the actual diameter was 9.65 cubits, If the actual diameter was 9.65 cubits, for example, this would have been for example, this would have been reckoned reckoned as 10 cubits. The actual as 10 cubits. The actual circumference would then have been circumference would then have been 30.32 cubits. This would 30.32 cubits. This would have been have been reckoned as 30 cubits (9.6 cubits reckoned as 30 cubits (9.6 cubits diameter gives 30.14 circumference, diameter gives 30.14 circumference, and so on). The ratio of true and so on). The ratio of true circumference to true diameter would circumference to true diameter would then have been then have been 30.32÷ 9.65 = 3.14, 30.32÷ 9.65 = 3.14, the true value for pi, even though the the true value for pi, even though the measured value measured value (i.e. to the nearest (i.e. to the nearest cubit) was 30 ÷ 10 = 3. cubit) was 30 ÷ 10 = 3.
While the above seems reasonable, While the above seems reasonable, and the and the Ask ‘Dr Math’ Forum Ask ‘Dr Math’ Forum agrees agrees that there is no error in the Bible that there is no error in the Bible here, here, we have no way of knowing for certain we have no way of knowing for certain whether the measurements were whether the measurements were approximated approximated in this way. However, in this way. However, even if it is assumed that the even if it is assumed that the measurements given were precisely measurements given were precisely 10 and 30 cubits, the following 10 and 30 cubits, the following appears to provide a definitive appears to provide a definitive answer. answer.
2. Verse Verse 26 26 of of 1 Kings 7 1 Kings 7 says that the says that the vessel in question had a brim which vessel in question had a brim which ‘was wrought like the brim of a cup, ‘was wrought like the brim of a cup, with flowers of lilies’ with flowers of lilies’ ( ( KJV KJV ), ), or a rim or a rim ‘like the rim of a cup, like a lily ‘like the rim of a cup, like a lily blossom’ blossom’ ( ( NIV NIV ), ), i.e. the brim or rim i.e. the brim or rim turned outward, suggesting the turned outward, suggesting the curvature of a lily. curvature of a lily. 3 3 It is believed by It is believed by Bible scholars to have looked Bible scholars to have looked like the like the drawing below. drawing below. 4 4
Let us consider the details given in Let us consider the details given in 1 1 Kings 7:23 Kings 7:23 and and 2 Chronicles 4:2 2 Chronicles 4:2 . These . These are: are:
1. The diameter of 10 cubits was The diameter of 10 cubits was measured measured ‘from brim to brim’ ‘from brim to brim’ ( ( v. v. 23 23 ), ), i.e. from the topmost point of the brim i.e. from the topmost point of the brim on one side to the topmost on one side to the topmost point of point of the brim on the other side (points A the brim on the other side (points A and B in the diagram). and B in the diagram).
2. The circumference of 30 cubits was The circumference of 30 cubits was measured with a line, ‘round about’ measured with a line, ‘round about’ ( ( v. v. 23 23 ), i.e. the most natural meaning of ), i.e. the most natural meaning of these words is that they refer to these words is that they refer to the the circumference of the circumference of the outside outside of the of the main body of the tank, measured main body of the tank, measured by a by a string pulled tightly around the vessel string pulled tightly around the vessel below below the brim. It is very the brim. It is very obvious that obvious that the diameter of the main body of the the diameter of the main body of the tank was less than the diameter tank was less than the diameter of the of the top of the brim. And it is also obvious top of the brim. And it is also obvious that the circumference of 30 cubits that the circumference of 30 cubits could have been measured at any could have been measured at any point down the vertical sides of the point down the vertical sides of the vessel, below vessel, below the brim. For a the brim. For a measured circumference of 30 cubits, measured circumference of 30 cubits, we can calculate what the external we can calculate what the external diameter of the vessel would have diameter of the vessel would have been at that point from the formula: been at that point from the formula:
diameter = diameter = circumference ÷ pi circumference ÷ pi
= = 30 cubits ÷ 3.14 30 cubits ÷ 3.14
= = 9.55 cubits. 9.55 cubits.
Thus the external diameter of the vessel Thus the external diameter of the vessel at the point where the circumference at the point where the circumference was was measured must have been 9.55 measured must have been 9.55 cubits. cubits. 5 5
It is thus abundantly clear that the Bible It is thus abundantly clear that the Bible does not defy geometry with regard to does not defy geometry with regard to the value of pi, and in particular it does the value of pi, and in particular it does not not say that pi equals 3.0. say that pi equals 3.0. Skeptics who Skeptics who allege an inaccuracy are wrong, allege an inaccuracy are wrong, because they fail to take into account because they fail to take into account all all the data. The Bible is reliable, and the data. The Bible is reliable, and seeming discrepancies vanish on closer seeming discrepancies vanish on closer examination. [See also examination. [See also Does the Bible Does the Bible Give a Wrong Value for Pi? Give a Wrong Value for Pi? from Tekton from Tekton Apologetics Ministry.] Apologetics Ministry.]
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References and notes References and notes
1. Pi, or the ratio of the circumference of acircle to its Pi, or the ratio of the circumference of acircle to its diameter, diameter, is what has been known as an irrational is what has been known as an irrational number or infinite non-repeating decimal, number or infinite non-repeating decimal, of which the of which the first digits are 3.1415926536 …. A value of 3.14 is close first digits are 3.1415926536 …. A value of 3.14 is close enough for our purposes. enough for our purposes. Return to text Return to text . . 2. Abingdon’s Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance Abingdon’s Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the of the Bible. Bible. Return to text Return to text . . 3. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia 4: 4: 368, 368, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids (Michigan), 1988. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids (Michigan), 1988. Return to Return to text text . . 4. Adapted from reference 3. An NIV footnote (not part of Adapted from reference 3. An NIV footnote (not part of the the inspired text) to inspired text) to 1 Kings 7:26 1 Kings 7:26 suggests that the suggests that the vessel had a greater volume than the above vessel had a greater volume than the above figures figures allow. This could indicate that the vessel may have allow. This could indicate that the vessel may have been shaped more like been shaped more like a lily than imagined (i.e. part of it a lily than imagined (i.e. part of it may have been bulbous), or that the conversion may have been bulbous), or that the conversion factor factor used by the NIV commentator was incorrect. used by the NIV commentator was incorrect. Return to Return to text text . . 5. Some have suggested that there is one other Some have suggested that there is one other explanation that explanation that fits all the dimensions given in the fits all the dimensions given in the biblical text, if the circumference measured biblical text, if the circumference measured refers to the refers to the inside inside of the vessel. (This is a possibility,although, as of the vessel. (This is a possibility,although, as already stated, it was most likely the external already stated, it was most likely the external circumference which was measured.) circumference which was measured.) The diameter was The diameter was 10 cubits or 4.50 metres, the circumference was 30 10 cubits or 4.50 metres, the circumference was 30 cubits or 13.50 cubits or 13.50 metres, and the walls were metres, and the walls were ‘a hand ‘a hand breadth thick’ breadth thick’ ( ( verse verse 26 26 ) or 10 centimetres (to the ) or 10 centimetres (to the nearest centimetre). nearest centimetre). 6 6 If the diameter of 4.50 metres was If the diameter of 4.50 metres was the outside the outside measurement, we subtract 10 centimetres x measurement, we subtract 10 centimetres x 2(to allow for the thickness of the wall 2(to allow for the thickness of the wall on either side) to on either side) to arrive at a figure of 4.30 metres for the internal diameter arrive at a figure of 4.30 metres for the internal diameter of of the vessel, and we can now calculate the internal the vessel, and we can now calculate the internal circumference using the formula: circumference using the formula: circumference = diameter circumference = diameter =4.3metres x 3.14 =4.3metres x 3.14 =13.50 metres =13.50 metres =30 cubits =30 cubits which is exactly the figure given in which is exactly the figure given in 1 Kings 7:23 1 Kings 7:23 . But as . But as shown, there is no need to resort to this solution. shown, there is no need to resort to this solution. Return Return to text to text . . 6. The New EncyclopædiaBritannica The New EncyclopædiaBritannica , Vol. 5, p.677, , Vol. 5, p.677, 1992. 1992. Return to text Return to text . .
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One of the most beautiful and comforting passages of God’s Word is found in Psalm 73:23-26. There we read these words of God: “Nevertheless I am continually with thee: thou hast holden me by my right hand. Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and afterward receive me to glory. Whom have I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth that I desire beside thee. My flesh and my heart faileth: but God is the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever.”
Psalm 73 was written by a man named Asaph. And in the psalm he records his experience, when, for a while, he questioned the ways of God. Asaph in the psalm, if you read it in its entirety, talks of the fact that he envied the wicked. He looked at the wicked and saw that, from an outward point of view, they prospered in the world and had everything that they could wish. Then he looked upon himself as one who served and trusted the Lord, and he saw that the Lord had been pleased to give to him afflictions and trials and plagues. For awhile he could not bring those two together. How could it be that he, as one who trusted in God, had been given nothing but affliction, sorrow, and trouble of heart, while apparently the wicked all around him were prospering and living in ease?
Then he tells us further that he went up to the temple of God, to the sanctuary. There God had corrected him. There God had given him to see things in the light of eternity. There he had been given to see that all those good things that God was giving to the wicked were not sent in God’s favor, but were things which were actually bringing the wicked down in judgment to destruction.
Then Asaph begins to speak of the positive lessons that he had learned through this experience. Those lessons are given to us in verses 23-26, the lessons that Asaph learned.
The first lesson that he learned was the amazing grace of God. We read in verse 23: “Nevertheless I am continually with thee: thou hast holden me by my right hand.” There is a note of amazement there. Amazement over the unfailing grace and faithfulness of God. It is as if Asaph is looking back over his life and saying, “I wouldn’t expect this; I would expect that if God were as I am He would have quit with me long ago. I was foolish; I was as a beast; I was blind, deaf, I murmured and complained; I questioned His judgments; I concluded that the way of God with respect to my life was all wrong. Yet, nevertheless, beyond expectation, and to my utter amazement, God did not forsake me. Despite my rebellion, despite my questioning, despite my discontent with the Lord’s way, I am continually with God.” Or, as he says, “Thou art continually with me.”
He is saying to us, “I understand now the amazing and unbelievable truth that God never forsakes His own, even when they are the least deserving of His favor. He was constantly and continually with me. I was far from Him; I was distrusting; I was murmuring, sulking, as a spoiled child. Yet, never once did God remove His faithfulness from me.” In fact, Asaph says, it was very intimate. “He held me by my right hand.” The picture is of a little child who is afraid and stubborn and intent on his own way, and of a patient father who holds that child by the hand and keeps that child. The idea of tenderness and strength and wisdom. “The almighty God never once left me. Look wherever I can at my life’s pathway; always He held me by my hand.”
Shall we not learn that same lesson today. Do we not, by faith and by grace, make this same confession ours? Perhaps you grew up under the doctrine of the grace of God. You were taught the covenant faithfulness of God. Perhaps you have sung the very beautiful song: “I sing of mercies that endure; forever builded firm and sure. Of faithfulness that never dies; established changeless in the skies.” What a wonderful truth, the truth that out of unconditional love God has entrusted us to Jesus Christ and will therefore never forsake us. Our souls are bound up with Him. What a wonderful truth: a truth that we were given to be in Christ so that we might never, ever, be forsaken of God. And now God, over all of our life, swears through His Son that He will never break that covenant oath with us; He will carry us all the day long in His own arms. Is that not a wonderful thing?
And that is amazing. It is amazing because we slip, we stumble, we fall. We spend so many of our days living as beasts. We think that the only things of value are the things of the earth. We doubt God and question His ways with us. Yet God always is faithful. He keeps us. He keeps us in all of our sorrows and fears. He keeps us before death and the grave. There is never a moment that He refuses to own us as His children. He takes us up in the arms of His covenant. Let that lesson flood our souls, the lesson of the amazing grace of God. God never forsakes His own.
But Asaph learned another lesson. He learned the lesson of the certain guidance of God for the future. He says in verse 24, “Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and afterward receive me to glory.” Asaph learned that this was His assurance for all that was before him in the future. Notice that he says here: “Thou shalt guide me,” but he first said, “Thou hast holden me by my right hand.” That was in the past; thou hast holden me. Now he says, Thou shalt guide me. He is engaging in some holy reasoning. This is the reasoning behind it: Since God has shown His faithfulness in the past; since He has shown His amazing goodness to me in the past which never failed; therefore I may conclude and judge that He shall guide me in the future by His counsel and afterward receive me to glory.
You see, faith argues from what it knows of the past into the future. We know from the past that God has never forsaken any of His own. And He has never forsaken me. He has held me up. Therefore we may judge and make this confident assertion for the future: God will not change, and that means that for all the future He shall also guide me by His counsel, even till the point that He receives me up into the glory that He has planned for me in Jesus Christ. God has upheld me throughout the years of my life, through all of those trials which were many. Then God shall also guide me in whatever days are ahead of me, even till that moment that He receives me to glory.
Is there anything more wonderful than that? Asaph tells us of the fact that our days in the future will be under the control of the wisdom of God. They will be directed by God without error to the appointed end of our glory. That life, then, is not left to chance. A believer does not simply meander through this present time, trying to make his own way in life. Asaph is telling us that our life is not simply in the cards and that we should hope for the best. But we may have this assurance: God will guide us by His wonderful wisdom and counsel, and He will receive us to glory.
This is very personal. “Thou shalt guide me,” my days, my life, all that shall happen to me from this moment on, shall come to me from the hand of God, whether that is joy or sorrow, whether that is health or sickness, whether that is children or no children, whether that is marriage or single life, whether that is the days of a child or the loneliness of a widow. God will guide me by His counsel. “Thou shalt guide me.”
In those words God declares that He is God; that He is almighty; and that He shall ever be God unto us. He is not a God who is afar off, but He holds all things in His hands, and His hands guide according to His own heart. The hand of God directs us even as His heart has chosen and purposed for us. He will be our guide; He knows the way; He is able to keep us on that way. He loves us for His own name’s sake. What will happen to us in the future? What will be the stresses and demands that come to us in our lives? What sorrows and difficulties await us in the days that are before us? We do not know. But we do know this: God will guide us by His perfect counsel and wisdom and afterward He will receive us to glory. That is the goal.
God tells us that His counsel, or His plan for our life, always has a definite goal or purpose which He is attaining. That is eternal glory, and He never loses sight of His goal. His goal is glory, the glory of Jesus Christ reflected in us. Glory. He shall guide me even unto glory.
Glory is the place where all the love and mercy and grace and goodness and holiness of God will simply fill us. And we will be as polished mirrors to reflect it all back to Him.
Glory is the place where sin and sighing are forever gone, when we shall awake and cry: My God, how wonderful Thou art; Thy majesty how bright; how beautiful Thy mercy seat in depths of burning light!
Glory. By God’s grace, God will direct our steps in the future towards our eternal home.
That is what Asaph learned. He learned of the certain guidance of God for the future. Shall we learn that with him?
Perhaps you are afraid. Perhaps you are afraid of tomorrow. Perhaps you dread the future. Child of God, you are looking to yourself. You are looking only to the earthly. You are looking only at man. Look to God, the mighty God, the God who has held and upheld you throughout the days of your life. As He has been faithful in the past, so this mighty God will guide you by a perfect counsel even unto glory.
There was a third lesson that Asaph had learned through all of his sufferings and trials. That lesson was this: he learned to confess God as his only desire and strength. We read in verses 25 and 26: “Whom have I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth that I desire beside thee. My flesh and my heart faileth: but God is the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever.” He is saying that he has learned through his sufferings to desire nothing but God. God is now everything to him. Having God, he finds that all of his wants cease. All I need is to be found in God and, having Him, I am satisfied. Is that true for you?
Asaph has learned, then, not to expect earthly things or things of this present life to be the things which will satisfy him, but to look upon God personally as his satisfaction. He found in God complete sufficiency for every need, complete sufficiency for every hour and every duty that was placed before him. God was his all. And, having God, he knew that there was nothing that he could yet desire on earth. He was content in having God. Knowing God in all of His glory and greatness, that satisfied him perfectly in this life.
Is that true for you?
Still more. Asaph says that not only is God his desire, but God is also his strength. He says in verse 26, “My flesh and my heart faileth: but God is the strength of my heart, and my portion for ever.”
Our God remembers that we are on the earth and that we are frail and we are weak and that death passes upon us, so that the end of our earthly life is the grave and man is nothing but dust. Our flesh is weak. It is always plagued with the curse of sin and constantly it is decaying and heading towards the grave. Our earthly life is only like a shadow which is quickly passing. And our hearts faint within us. We can become overwhelmed with worries and with cares. Our hearts can become paralyzed with fears and doubts. We stagger, we faint, and our courage fails within us.
But God is the strength of my heart and my portion for ever, says Asaph. The believer’s heart, then, is not weak, because God is the strength of his heart. God causes faith to keep our hearts beating. God preserves us by His wonderful Spirit so that we may say, Our hope is on Jehovah stayed; in Him our hearts are joyful made; our help and shield is He. Our trust is in His holy name; Thy mercy, Lord, in faith we claim as we have hoped in Thee.
That is the beautiful word of God to us today.
The lessons that Asaph learned, in the way of deep trial and suffering, he learned in such a way that they were riveted to his own heart. Those lessons were these: God’s amazing grace in which God never forsook him; God’s perfect guidance for all the future; and God as his only satisfaction and all-sufficient strength.
Do you believe these things?
Do you confess these things by a wonder of God’s grace? Do you say, “Yea, Lord, I believe these things. Help Thou my unbelief”? Do you believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, our Guide and our Savior? All who believe this shall never faint or fail. Having this God as your God, there is nothing that you can yet desire.
God take His precious Word and bind it now to our heart.
Let us pray.
Our Father we pray that the lessons that Asaph learned through his suffering and trial may also be lessons that we daily learn. We are in need of these lessons day after day, for we are forgetful and we doubt Thee and are discouraged and despair. Teach us, O God, Thy amazing grace and faithfulness. Teach us that Thou art our perfect Guide for all the future. And teach us that Thou alone art sufficient for us and that Thou hast sworn to be our strength. In Jesus’ name do we pray, Amen.
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Last modified, 17-Oct-1998