GOD’ORION & ARTEMIS (The Odyssey)

er, Iliad 18. 43 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :

“[Hephaistos (Hephaestus) decorates the shield of Akhilleus (Achilles) with an image of the cosmos :] He made the earth upon it, and the sky, and the sea’s water, and the tireless sun, and the moon waxing into her fullness, and on it all the constellations that festoon the heavens, the Pleiades and the Hyades and the strength of Orion and the Bear, whom men give also the name of the Wagon, who turns about in a fixed place and looks at Orion and she alone is never plunged in the wash of Okeanos (Oceanus).”

Homer, Iliad 22. 26 ff :
“That star [Seirios (Sirius) the dog-star] which comes on in the autumn and whose conspicuous brightness far outshines the stars that are numbered in the night’s darkening, the star they give the name of Orion’s Dog (kynos Orionos), which is brightest among the stars, and yet is wrought as a sign of evil and brings on the great fever for unfortunate mortals.”

Homer, Odyssey 5. 121 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
“[Kalypso (Calypso), abandoned by Odysseus, laments :] ‘You are merciless, you gods, resentful beyond all other beings; you are jealous if without disguise a goddess makes a man her bedfellow, her beloved husband. So it was when Eos (Dawn) of the rosy-fingers chose out Orion; you gods who live in such ease yourselves were jealous of her until chaste Artemis in her cloth-of-gold visited him with her gentle shafts and slew him in Ortygia.’”

Homer, Odyssey 11. 312 ff : 
“Otos the peer of gods and far-famed Ephialtes; these were the tallest men [i.e. giants], and the handsomest, that ever the fertile earth has fostered, save only incomparable Orion.” [N.B. The giants Otos and Ephialtes were known as the Aloadai.]

Homer, Odyssey 11. 572 : 
“[Odysseus recalls the shades of the dead he saw in the Underworld :] Next I discerned huge Orion, driving wild beasts together over the field of asphodel, the very ones that he once had killed on lonely mountains, he grasped in his hands a mace of bronze, never to be broken.”

Hesiod, Astronomy Fragment 4 (from Pseudo-Eratosthenes Catasterismi Frag 32) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
“Orion–Hesiod says that he was the son of Euryale, the daughter of Minos, and of Poseidon, and that there was given him as a gift the power of walking upon the waves as though upon land. When he was come to Khios (Chios), he outraged Merope, the daughter of Oinopion (Oenopion), being drunken; but Oinopion when he learned of it was greatly vexed at the outrage and blinded him and cast him out of the country.
Then he came to Lemnos as a beggar and there met Hephaistos who took pity on him and gave him Kedalion (Cedalion) his own servant to guide him. So Orion took Kedalion upon his shoulders and used to carry him about while he pointed out the roads. Then he came to the east and appears to have met Helios (the Sun) and to have been healed, and so returned back again to Oinopion to punish him; but Oinopion was hidden away by his people underground. Being disappointed, then, in his search for the king, Orion went away to Krete and spent his time hunting in company with Artemis and Leto. It seems that he threatened to kill every beast there was on earth; whereupon, in her anger, Ge (Gaea, the Earth) sent up against him a Scorpion of very great size by which he was stung and so perished. After this Zeus, at the prayer of Artemis and Leto, put him among the stars, because of his manliness, and the Scorpion also as a memorial of him and of what had occurred.”

Hesiod, Astronomy Fragment 5 (from Diodorus 4. 85) ::
“Some say that great earthquakes occurred, which broke through the neck of land and formed the straits [of Messina], the sea parting the mainland [Italy] from the island [Sicily]. But Hesiod, the poet, says just the opposite: that the sea was open, but Orion piled up the promontory by Peloris, and founded the close of Poseidon which is especially esteemed by the people thereabouts. When he had finished this, he went away to Euboia (Euboea) and settled there, and because of his renown was taken into the number of the stars in heaven, and won undying remembrance.”

Hesiod, Works and Days 618 ff :
“But when the Pleiades and Hyades and strong Oarion (Orion) begin to set [i.e. at the end of October], then remember to plough in season. But if desire for uncomfortable sea-faring seize you; when the Pleiades plunge into the misty sea [i.e. again towards the end of October] to escape Oarion’s rude strength, then truly gales of all kinds rage.”

Pindar, Nemean Ode 2. 10 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
“For near the Pleiades, those mountain maids, needs must Orion follow close behind [i.e. amongst the constellations].”

Corinna, Fragment 655 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C6th B.C.) :
“Women of Tanagra . . . often I adorned [with songs] our ancestor Kephisos with my words, often great Orion and the fifty sons of high strength whom he fathered by intercourse with the fair Nymphai (Nymphs) [i.e. daughters of the river Kephisos (Cephisus)].”

Aesop, Fables 123 (from Babruis 124) (trans. Gibbs) (Greek fable C6th B.C.) :
“Orion with his golden bow is on watch during the night.”

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 25 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“Artemis slew Orion on Delos. He was said to be a Gigas (Giant) of massive proportions born of Ge (Gaea, the Earth), but Pherekydes (Pherecydes) [C6th B.C. poet] says that his parents were Poseidon and Euryale. From Poseidon he was given the power of walking across the sea. His first wife was Side, who for vying with Hera in shapeliness was thrown by her into Haides’ realm. After that Orion went to Khios (Chios) where he courted Oinopion’s (Oenopion’s) daughter Merope. Oinopion, however, got him drunk, and, as he slept, blinded him and tossed him out on the beach. He made his way to the bronze workshop of Hephaistos (Hephaestus), where he seized a boy [Kedalion (Cedalion)], set him on his shoulders, and ordered him to guide him toward the east. Once there, he looked up and was completely healed by the rays of Helios (the Sun). Immediately he started back to confront Oinopion. But Poseidon had provided Oinopion with a house beneath the earth, built by Hephaistos. Meanwhile, Eos (the Dawn), whom Aphrodite taunted with constant passion as punishment for sleeping with Ares, fell in love with Orion and took him off with her to Delos. There he was killed, according to some, for challenging Artemis to a discus match. Others say that Artemis shot him as he was forcing his attention on Oupis (Opis), a virgin who had come from the Hyperboreans.”

Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 265 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) :
“Neither let any woo the Maiden [Artemis]; for not Otos, nor Oarion (Orion) wooed her to their own good.”

Aratus, Phaenomena 634 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek astronomical poem C3rd B.C.) :
“The winding [constellation] River will straightway sink in fair flowing ocean at the coming of Scorpios [constellation Scorpio], whose rising puts to flight even the mighty Orion. Thy pardon, Artemis, we crave! There is a tale told by the men of old, who said that stout Orion laid hands upon her robe, what time in Khios (Chios) he was smiting with his strong club all manner of beasts, as a service of the hunt to that King Oinopion (Oenopion). But she forthwith rent in twain the surrounding hills of the island and roused up against him another kind of beast–even the Scorpion, who proving mightier wounded him, mighty though he was, and slew him, for that he had vexed Artemis. Wherefore, too, men say that at the rising of the Scorpion in the East Orion flees at the Western verge.”

Parthenius, Love Romances 20 (trans.Gaselee) (Greek poet C1st B.C.) :
“Aëro, so the story runs, was the daughter of Oinopion (Oenopion) and the nymph Helike (Helice). Orion, the son of Hyrieos (Hyrieus), fell in love with her, and asked her father for her hand; for her sake he rendered the island where they lived habitable–it was formerly full of wild beasts–, and he also gathered together much booty from the folk who lived there and brought it as a bridal-gift for her. Oinopion however constantly kept putting off the time of the wedding, for he hated the idea of having such a man as his daughter’s husband. Then Orion, maddened by strong drink, broke in the doors of the chamber where the girl was lying asleep, and as he was offering violence to her Oinopion attacked him and put out his eyes with a burning brand.”

Strabo, Geography 9. 2. 13 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
“Hyria is the scene of the myth of Hyrieos (Hyrieus), and of the birth of Orion, of which Pindar speaks in his dithyrambs; it is situated near Aulis.”

Strabo, Geography 10. 1. 4 : 
“Oreios [in Euboia (Euboea)] is situated at the foot of the mountain Telethrios in the Drymos . . . perhaps, it was because the Ellopians who formerly inhabited it were mountaineers that the name Oreios (Of the Mountain) was assigned to the city. It is also thought that Orion was so named because he was reared there.”

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 85. 1 ff (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
“The story runs like this : Orion, far surpassing in size and strength of body all the heroes of whom we have record, was a lover of the chase and the builder of mighty works by reason of his great strength and love of glory.
In Sikelia (Sicily), for instance, for Zanklos (Zanclus), who was king at that time of the city . . . Zankle (Zancle), but now Messene, he built certain works and mong them he formed the harbour by throwing up a mole and made the Akte (Promontory), as it is called . . . Some say that great earthquakes occurred, which broke through the neck of land and formed the straits [of Messina between Sicily and Italy], the sea parting the mainland from the island. But Hesiodos (Hesiod), the poet, says just the opposite: that when the sea extended itself between [i.e. between Sicily and the Italian mainland], Orion built out the headland which lies at Peloris and also erected the sanctuary of Poseidon which is held in special honour by the natives; after he had finished these works he removed to Euboia (Euboea) and made his home there; and then, because of his fame, he was numbered among the stars of heaven and thus won for himself immortal remembrance.
And he is also mentioned by the poet in his Nekyia [a book of Homer’s Odyssey] when he says : ‘And after him I marked Orion huge, driving wild beasts together over the mead of asphodel [in the underworld], the beasts that he himself had slain on lonely hills; and in his hands he held a mace, ever unbroken, all of bronze.’
Likewise, to show forth also his great size, whereas he had spoken before of the Aloidai (Aloadae), that at nine years of age they were nine cubits in breadth and an equal number of fathoms in height, he adds: ‘These were the tallest men that ever earth, giver of grain, did rear, and goodliest by far, save for Orion, famed abroad.’”

Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 25 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
“In Boiotia Orion, son of Hyrieos (Hyrieus) , had as daughters Metiokhe (Metioche) and Menippe [the Koronides (Coronides)]. After Artemis had taken him away from the sight of mankind, they were brought up by their mother [and were later transformed into comets by Persephone].”

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