TWO WITNESSES (Babylon & Egypt)

Trump’s meeting with Egyptian leader to push human rights to the background

WASHINGTON — President Trump’s meeting with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the White House Monday may represent the strongest signal yet that Trump is making counter-terrorism a top priority — even if it comes at the expense of human rights in the region.
White House aides said Trump hopes to use Monday’s meeting to “reboot” the relationship and reestablish a connection made when they first met in New York last September. It’s a reversal from President Obama, who gave a cold shoulder to the Egyptian leader after he helped depose the democratically elected Islamist president Mohamed Morsi.

Then-Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump looking on as Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi speaks during a September meeting at the Plaza Hotel in New York.
Dominick Reuter, AFP/Getty Images
Since then, Sisi’s regime has been responsible for jailing and killing thousands of protesters. “He took control of Egypt. And he really took control of it,” Trump told the Fox Business Network last September.
One senior White House official, speaking on condition of anonymity under ground rules set by the White House press office, said Trump would address human rights issues, but would handle it in a more “discreet” way.
“Do we believe it, given that this administration has gone out of its way to avoid talking about human rights?” said Neil Hicks, an Egypt specialist at Human Rights First. “I think we’re entitled to be skeptical.”
The Trump administration has already taken a number of steps to de-emphasize human rights in its foreign policy. Last week, the administration approved the sale of 19 F-16 fighter jets to the Kingdom of Bahrain, despite human rights concerns that had held up the sale under the Obama administration.
And when the State Department released its annual human rights report last month, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson did not hold a press conference to detail the findings of the human report.
That report cited Egypt for a long list of human rights violations. Among them: excessive use of force by state security forces, including impunity for the killing and torture of political opponents; the use of military courts to try civilians in mass trials, and widespread practices that include female genital mutilation, human trafficking, forced marriage and child abuse.
In one closely watched case, Egyptian officials arrested Aya Hijazi, an Egyptian-American citizen who ran a charity for street children. White House officials would not make any assurances that Trump would bring up her two-year detention. “We are going to address this issue with Egypt in a way that he hope will maximize the chances of getting it resolved,” said a second official, also speaking on condition of anonymity.
Trump has said his first foreign policy priority is to “defeat radical Islam.” And in a speech outlining his strategy last year, he mentioned only two world leaders by name as natural allies in that effort.
“We will partner with King Abdullah of Jordan and the president of Egypt, President Sisi, and all others who recognize this ideology of death that must be extinguished,” he said in a speech in Youngstown, Ohio last August. Abdullah also visits the White House this week for a separate meeting focused on the campaign against the Islamic State and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Trump aides say the president will assure both leaders that he would “continue to maintain a strong and sufficient level of support to Egypt and Jordan,” despite a budget outline that slashes foreign humanitarian and development aid — aid that has helped Jordan deal with a torrent of refugees from Syria’s Civil War

A Bible open to the Book of Isaiah.

Exegesis (/ˌɛksəˈsɪs/; from the Greekἐξήγησις from ἐξηγεῖσθαι, “to lead out”) is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text, particularly a religious text. Traditionally the term was used primarily for work with the Bible; however, in modern usage “biblical exegesis” is used for greater specificity to distinguish it from any other broader critical text explanation.

Exegesis includes a wide range of critical disciplines: textual criticism is the investigation into the history and origins of the text, but exegesis may include the study of the historical and cultural backgrounds for the author, the text, and the original audience. Other analyses include classification of the type of literary genres present in the text and analysis of grammatical and syntactical features in the text itself.

The terms exegesis and hermeneutics have been used interchangeably.


One who practices exegesis is called an exegete (/ˌɛksəˈt/; from Greek ἐξηγητής). The plural of exegesis is exegeses (/ɛksəˈˌsz/). Adjectives are exegetic or exegetical (e.g., exegetical commentaries). In biblical exegesis, the opposite of exegesis (to draw out) is eisegesis (to draw in), in the sense of an eisegetic commentator “importing” or “drawing in” his or her own purely subjective interpretations into the text, unsupported by the text itself. Eisegesis is often used as a derogatory term.

Bible commentariesEdit

See also: List of Biblical commentaries and Jewish commentaries on the Bible

A common published form of biblical exegesis is known as a Bible commentary and typically takes the form of a set of books, each of which is devoted to the exposition of one or two books of the Bible. Long books or those that contain much material either for theological or historical-critical speculation, such as Genesis or Psalms, may be split over 2 or 3 volumes. Some, such as the Four Gospels, may be multiple- or single-volume, while short books such as the deuterocanonical portions of DanielEsther, and Jeremiah (i.e. Book of SusannaPrayer of AzariahBel and the DragonAdditions to EstherBaruch and the Epistle of Jeremiah), or the pastoral or Johannine epistles are often condensed into one volume.

The form of each book may be identical or allow for variations in methodology between the many authors who collaborate to write a full commentary. Each book’s commentary generally consists of a background and introductory section, followed by detailed commentary of the book in a pericope-by-pericope or verse-by-verse basis. Before the 20th century, a commentary would be written by a sole author, but today a publishing board will commission a team of scholars to write a commentary, with each volume being divided out among them.

A single commentary will generally attempt to give a coherent and unified view on the Bible as a whole, for example, from a Catholic or Reformed (Calvinist) perspective, or a commentary that focuses on textual criticism or historical criticism from a secular point of view. However, each volume will inevitably lean toward the personal emphasis of its author, and within any commentaries there may be great variety in the depth, accuracy, and critical or theological strength of each volume.


See also: Biblical hermeneutics and Biblical literalism


The main Christian exegetical methods are historical-grammatical, revealed, and rational.

The historical-grammatical method is a Christian hermeneutical method that strives to discover the Biblical author’s original intended meaning in the text.[1]It is the primary method of interpretation for many conservative Protestant exegetes who reject the historical-critical method to various degrees (from the complete rejection of historical criticism of some fundamentalist Protestants to the moderated acceptance of it in the Catholic Church since Pope Pius XII),[2] in contrast to the overwhelming reliance on historical-critical interpretation, often to the exclusion of all other hermeneutics, in liberal Christianity.

Revealed exegesis considers that the Holy Spirit inspired the authors of the scriptural texts,[citation needed] and so the words of those texts convey a divine revelation. In this view of exegesis, the principle of sensus plenior applies — that because of its divine authorship, the Bible has a “fuller meaning” than its human authors intended or could have foreseen.

Rational exegesis bases its operation on the idea that the authors have their own inspiration (in this sense, synonymous with artistic inspiration), so their works are completely and utterly a product of the social environment and human intelligence of their authors.[citation needed]


See also: Roman Catholic theology of Scripture

Catholic centres of biblical exegesis include:


For more than a century, German universities such as Tübingen have had reputations as centers of exegesis; in the USA, the Divinity Schools of ChicagoHarvard and Yale became famous.

Robert A. Traina’s book Methodical Bible Study[3] is an example of Protestant Christian exegesis.


Main articles: Jewish commentaries on the Bible and Pardes (Jewish exegesis)

Traditional Jewish forms of exegesis appear throughout rabbinic literature, which includes the Mishnah, the two Talmuds, and the midrash literature.

Jewish exegetes have the title mefarshim מפרשים‎ (commentators).


The Midrash is a homiletic method of exegesis and a compilation of homiletic teachings or commentaries on the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), a biblical exegesis of the Pentateuch and its paragraphs related to the Law or Torah, which also forms an object of analysis. It comprises the legal and ritual Halakha, the collective body of Jewish laws, and exegesis of the written Law; and the non-legalistic Aggadah, a compendium of Rabbinic homilies of the parts of the Pentateuch not connected with Law.

Biblical interpretation by the Tannaim and the Amoraim, which may be best designated as scholarly interpretations of the Midrash, was a product of natural growth and of great freedom in the treatment of the words of the Bible. However, it proved an obstacle to further development when, endowed with the authority of a sacred tradition in the Talmud and in the Midrash (collections edited subsequently to the Talmud), it became the sole source for the interpretation of the Bible among later generations. Traditional literature contains explanations that are in harmony with the wording and the context. It reflects evidence of linguistic sense, judgment, and an insight into the peculiarities and difficulties of the biblical text. But side by side with these elements of a natural and simple Bible exegesis, of value even today, the traditional literature contains an even larger mass of expositions removed from the actual meaning of the text.

Halakha and Aggadah

In the halakhic as well as in the haggadic exegesis the expounder endeavored not so much to seek the original meaning of the text as to find authority in some Bible passage for concepts and ideas, rules of conduct and teachings, for which he wished to have a biblical foundation. The talmudical hermeneutics form asmachta is defined as finding hints for a given law rather than basing on the bible text. To this were added, on the one hand, the belief that the words of the Bible had many meanings, and, on the other, the importance attached to the smallest portion, the slightest peculiarity of the text. Because of this move towards particularities the exegesis of the Midrash strayed further and further away from a natural and common-sense interpretation.


Midrash exegesis was largely in the nature of homiletics, expounding the Bible not in order to investigate its actual meaning and to understand the documents of the past but to find religious edification, moral instruction, and sustenance for the thoughts and feelings of the present. The contrast between explanation of the literal sense and the Midrash, that did not follow the words, was recognized by the Tannaim and the Amoraim, although their idea of the literal meaning of a biblical passage may not be allowed by more modern standards. The above-mentioned tannaIshmael b. Elisha said, rejecting an exposition of Eliezer b. Hyrcanus: “Truly, you say to Scripture, ‘Be silent while I am expounding!'” (Sifra on Lev. xiii. 49).


Tannaitic exegesis distinguishes principally between the actual deduction of a thesis from a Bible passage as a means of proving a point, and the use of such a passage as a mere mnemonic device – a distinction that was also made in a different form later in the Babylonian schools. The Babylonian Amoraim were the first to use the expression “Peshaṭ” (“simple” or face value method) to designate the primary sense, contrasting it with the “Drash,” the Midrashic exegesis. These two terms were later on destined to become important features in the history of Jewish Bible exegesis. In Babylonia was formulated the important principle that the Midrashic exegesis could not annul the primary sense. This principle subsequently became the watchword of commonsense Bible exegesis. How little it was known or recognized may be seen from the admission of Kahana[disambiguation needed], a Babylonian amora of the fourth century, that while at 18 years of age he had already learned the whole Mishnah, he had only heard of that principle a great many years later (Shab 63a). Kahana[disambiguation needed]‘s admission is characteristic of the centuries following the final redaction of the Talmud. The primary meaning is no longer considered, but it becomes more and more the fashion to interpret the text according to the meaning given to it in traditional literature. The ability and even the desire for original investigation of the text succumbed to the overwhelming authority of the Midrash. It was, therefore, providential that, just at the time when the Midrash was paramount, the close study of the text of the Bible, at least in one direction, was pursued with rare energy and perseverance by the Masorites, who set themselves to preserving and transmitting the pronunciation and correct reading of the text. By introducing punctuation (vowel-points and accents) into the biblical text, in the seventh century, they supplied that protecting hedge which, according to Rabbi Akiva‘s saying, the Masorah was to be for the words of the Bible. Punctuation, on the one hand, protected the tradition from being forgotten, and, on the other, was the precursor of an independent Bible science to be developed in a later age.


The Mikra, the fundamental part of the national science, was the subject of the primary instruction. It was also divided into the three historic groups of the books of the Bible: the Pentateuch, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa, called in traditional Hebrew attribution the Torah (the Law or Teaching), the Nevi’im (the Prophets) and the Kethuvim (the Writings) respectively. The intelligent reading and comprehension of the text, arrived at by a correct division of the sentences and words, formed the course of instruction in the Bible. The scribes were also required to know the Targum, the Aramaic translation of the text. The Targum made possible an immediate comprehension of the text, but was continuously influenced by the exegesis taught in the schools. The synagogues were preeminently the centers for instruction in the Bible and its exegesis. The reading of the biblical text, which was combined with that of the Targum, served to widen the knowledge of the scholars learned in the first division of the national science. The scribes found the material for their discourses, which formed a part of the synagogue service, in the second division of the several branches of the tradition. The Haggadah, the third of these branches, was the source material for the sermon.

Jewish exegesis did not finish with the redaction of the Talmud, but continued during ancient times, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; it remains a subject of study today. Jews have centres for exegetic studies around the world, in each community: they consider exegesis an important tool for the understanding of the Scriptures.

Indian philosophyEdit

The Mimamsa school of Indian philosophy, also known as Pūrva Mīmāṃsā (“prior” inquiry, also Karma-Mīmāṃsā), in contrast to Uttara Mīmāṃsā (“posterior” inquiry, also Brahma-Mīmāṃsā), is strongly concerned with textual exegesis, and consequently gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language. Its notion of shabda “speech” as indivisible unity of sound and meaning (signifier and signified) is due to Bhartrhari (7th century).[4]


Main articles: Tafsir and Esoteric interpretation of the Quran

Tafsir (Arabicتفسير‎‎, tafsīr, “interpretation”) is the Arabic word for exegesis or commentary, usually of the Qur’an.[5] An author of tafsīr is a mufassir (Arabic‘مُفسر‎‎, mufassir, plural: Arabicمفسرون‎‎, mufassirūn).

Tafsir does not include esoteric or mystical interpretations, which are covered by the related word Ta’wilShi’ite organization Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project cites the Islamic prophet Muhammad as stating that the Qur’an has an inner meaning, and that this inner meaning conceals an even deeper inner meaning, in support of this view.[6] Adherents of people for Sufism and Ilm al-Kalam pioneered this thought.


Zoroastrian exegesis consists basically of the interpretation of the Avesta. However, the closest equivalent Iranian concept, zand, generally includes Pahlavi texts which were believed to derive from commentaries upon Avestan scripture, but whose extant form contains no Avestan passages. Zoroastrian exegesis differs from similar phenomena in many other religions in that it developed as part of a religious tradition which made little or no use of writing until well into the Sasanian era. This lengthy period of oral transmission has clearly helped to give the Middle Persian Zand its characteristic shape and has, in a sense, limited its scope. Although the later tradition makes a formal distinction between “Gathic” (gāhānīg), “legal” (dādīg), and perhaps “ritual” (hādag-mānsrīg) Avestan texts, there appear to be no significant differences in approach between the Pahlavi commentary on the Gathas and those on dādīg texts, such as the Vendīdād, the Hērbedestān and the Nērangestān. Since many 19th and 20th century works by Zoroastrians contain an element of exegesis, while on the other hand no exegetical literature in the strict sense of the word can be said to exist, the phenomenon of modern Zoroastrian exegesis as such will be discussed here, without detailed reference to individual texts.[7]

In a secular contextEdit

Several universities, including the Sorbonne in Paris,[8] Leiden University,[9]and the Université Libre de Bruxelles (Free University of Brussels),[10] put exegesis in a secular context, next to exegesis in a religious tradition. Secular exegesis is an element of the study of religion.

At Australian universities, the exegesis is part of practice-based doctorate projects. It is a scholarly text accompanying a film, literary text, etc. produced by the PhD. candidate.[11]

See alsoEdit

  • Biblical software
  • Biblical studies
  • Close reading
  • Gloss (annotation)
  • Gymnobiblism
  • Icon
  • Literal and figurative language
  • Pesher
  • Semiotics
  • Symbol
  • Typology (theology)
  • Footnotes


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