Monthly Archives: May 2017

CHRISTIANITY? Where did the word come from? ACTS 11!

ACTS 11 (KJV) 

1 And the apostles and brethren that were in Judaea heard that the Gentiles had also received the word of God.

And when Peter was come up to Jerusalem, they that were of the circumcision contended with him,

Saying, Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them.

But Peter rehearsed the matter from the beginning, and expounded it by order unto them, saying,

I was in the city of Joppa praying: and in a trance I saw a vision, A certain vessel descend, as it had been a great sheet, let down from heaven by four corners; and it came even to me:

Upon the which when I had fastened mine eyes, I considered, and saw fourfooted beasts of the earth, and wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air.

And I heard a voice saying unto me, Arise, Peter; slay and eat.

But I said, Not so, Lord: for nothing common or unclean hath at any time entered into my mouth.

But the voice answered me again from heaven, What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common.

10 And this was done three times: and all were drawn up again into heaven.

11 And, behold, immediately there were three men already come unto the house where I was, sent from Caesarea unto me.

12 And the Spirit bade me go with them, nothing doubting. Moreover these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into the man’s house:

13 And he shewed us how he had seen an angel in his house, which stood and said unto him, Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose surname is Peter;

14 Who shall tell thee words, whereby thou and all thy house shall be saved.

15 And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the beginning.

16 Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost.

17 Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; what was I, that I could withstand God?

18 When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life.

19 Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only.

20 And some of them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they were come to Antioch, spake unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus.

21 And the hand of the Lord was with them: and a great number believed, and turned unto the Lord.

22 Then tidings of these things came unto the ears of the church which was in Jerusalem: and they sent forth Barnabas, that he should go as far as Antioch.

23 Who, when he came, and had seen the grace of God, was glad, and exhorted them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord.

24 For he was a good man, and full of the Holy Ghost and of faith: and much people was added unto the Lord.

25 Then departed Barnabas to Tarsus, for to seek Saul:

26 And when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people. And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.

27 And in these days came prophets from Jerusalem unto Antioch.

28 And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.

29 Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren which dwelt in Judaea:

30 Which also they did, and sent it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul.

Slavery & the Bible (Part 6) The New Testament Response & Problem Verses



Power of the Keys

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The expression “power of the keys” is derived from Christ’s words to St. Peter (in Matthew 16:19). The promise there made finds its explanation in Isaiah 22, in which “the key of the house of David” is conferred upon Eliacim, the son of Helcias, as the symbol of plenary authority in the Kingdom of Juda. Christ by employing this expression clearly designed to signify his intention to confer on St. Peter the supreme authority over His Church. For a consideration of the text in its dogmatic bearing, see POPEPRIMACY. In the present article our sole purpose is to give a briefhistorical account of the meaning attached to the expression by ecclesiastical writers.

The Fathers

(1) In the Fathers the references to the promise of Matthew 16:19, are of frequent occurrence. Almost invariably the words of Christ are cited in proof of the Church’s power to forgive sins. The application is a natural one, for the promise of the keys is immediately followed by the words: “Whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth”, etc. Moreover, the power to confer or to withhold forgiveness might well be viewed as the opening and shutting of the gates of heaven. This interpretation, however, restricts the sense somewhat too narrowly; for the remission of sins is but one of the various ways in which ecclesiastical authority is exercised. We have examples of this use of the term is such passages as August., “De Doctrina Christi”, xvii, xviii: “Quid liberatius et misericordius facere potuit. . .nisi ut omnia donaret conversis. . .Has igitur claves dedit Ecclesiae suae ut quae solveret in terra soluta essent in coelo” (How could He [Christ] have shown greater liberality and greater mercy. . .than by granting full forgiveness to those who should turn from their sins. . .He gave these keys to His Church, therefore, that whatever it should remit on earth should be remitted also in heaven) (P.L., XXIV, 25; cf. Hilary, “In Matt.”, xvi, P.L., IX, 1010).

It is comparatively seldom that the Fathers, when speaking of the power of the keys, make any reference to the supremacy of St. Peter. When they deal with that question, they ordinarily appeal not to the gift of the keys but to his office as the rock on which the Church is founded. In their references to the potestas clavium, they are usually intent on vindicating against the Montanist and Novatian heretics the power inherent in the Church to forgive. Thus St. Augustine in several passages declares that the authority to bind and loose was not a purely personal gift to St. Peter, but was conferred upon him as representing the Church. The whole Church, he urges, exercises the power of forgiving sins. This could not be had the gift been a personal one (tract. 1 in Joan., n. 12, P.L., XXXV, 1763; Serm. ccxcv, in P.L., XXXVIII, 1349). From these passages certain Protestant controversialists have drawn the curious conclusion that the power to forgive sins belongs not to the priesthood but to the collective body of Christians (see Cheetham in “Dict. Christ. Antiq.”, s.v.). There is, of course, no suggestion of this meaning. St. Augustine merely signifies that the power to absolve was to be imparted through St. Peter to members of the Church’s hierarchy throughout the world.

Some few of the Fathers, however, are careful to note that the bestowal of this power upon St. Peter alone, apart from the other Apostles, denoted his primacy among the twelve (Optatus, “De Schism. Don.”, vii, 3, in P.L., XI, 1087). Origen dilates at length on this point, but teaches erroneously that the power conferred upon the Twelve in Matthew 18:18, could only be exercised within certain restrictions of place, while that conferred upon St. Peter in Matthew 16:18, was of universal extent (Comm. in Matt., P.G., XIII, 1179).

(2) Occasionally, though infrequently, Christ’s promise is not restricted to signify the power to forgive sins, but is taken in the fuller meaning of the gift of authority over the Church. Thus St. Gregory in his letter to the Emperor Maurice, after quoting Christ’s words in Matthew 16:18-19, writes: “Behold he [Peter] received the keys of the kingdom of heaven, the power of binding and loosing is committed to him, the care of the whole Church and its government is given to him [cura ei totius Ecclesiae et principatus committitur (Epist., lib. V, ep. xx, in P.L., LXXVII, 745)]. St. Maximus in a sermon on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul (P.L., LVII, 403) says that to St. Peter was given the key of power (clavis potentioe), to St. Paul the key of knowledge (clavis scientioe). The idea of a key of knowledge is clearly derived from Christ’s words to the PhariseesLuke 11:52: “You have taken away the key of knowledge.” This distinction of the clavis potentioe and clavis scientioe recurs frequently in the medieval writers, though without reference to St. Paul.

The Scholastics

By the Scholastic theologians the precise significance of the term was closely analysed.

(1) The view which is now universally accepted is exposed at length by Suárez (De Poenit., disp. xvi). According to him, the phrase as employed by Christ in His promise to St. Peter denotes the gift of ecclesiastical authority in its widest scope. This authority was to be in a sense peculiar to St. Peter and his successors in the chief pastorate; for they alone were to possess it in its fullness. But it was to be exercised in due measure by the other members of the Divinely instituted hierarchy according to their several degrees. Thus understood, the potestas clavium includes

  • the power of order, namely power exercised in regard to sacrifice and sacrament,
  • the power of jurisdiction, and
  • the power to define in questions of faith and morals.

The various powers thus conferred upon the Church were held to belong either to the clavis potentioe or to the clavis scientioe, the latter of these two being understood to signify the power to teach, while the other departments of authority pertained to the clavis potentioe. The distinction is, however, a theological refinement, and is not involved in the expression itself. As Francisco Suárez urges, Christ, when using the plural form, did not intend to indicate that the gift was twofold.

(2) The meaning attached to the term by the older Scholastics was, however, different from this. They followed the patristic tradition, and confined its significance to the judicial authority exercised in the Sacrament of Penance. The power of the keys, St. Thomas tells us (Summa Theologica Supp:17:2, ad 1um), is a necessary consequence of the sacerdotalcharacter. It is, in fact, identical in essence with the power to consecrate and to offer the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The one sacerdotal gift is applied to different ends in the different sacraments. Such, too, appears to be the teaching of Pope John XXII in a well-known passage dealing with this subject (Extravag., tit. xiv, De verborum signif., c. v, Quia quorundam). The definition, “Clavis est specialis potestas ligandi et solvendi qua judex ecclesiasticus dignos recipere et indignos excludere debet a regno” (The keys are a special power of binding and loosing by which the ecclesiastical judge should receive the worthy [into the kingdom of heaven] and exclude the unworthy therefrom), generally accepted in the Scholastic period (Pet. Lomb., “Sent.”, IV, dist. xviii; John XXII, loc. cit.; St. Thomas, loc. cit.), might seem indeed to include jurisdiction in the external as well as in the internal forum. But in point of fact it was not so understood. The distinction between the clavis potentioe and the clavis scientioe was employed here. By the clavis scientioe was understood the priestly authority to interrogate the penitent and thus obtain cognizance of the facts of the case; by the clavis potentioe, the authority to grant or refuse absolution.

The view just exposed is inadmissible as an interpretation of Christ’s words. For it is plain that He desired to confer by them some special prerogative on Peter, while, according to this interpretation, the potestas clavium is common to all priests.

(3) Hence there were not wanting theologians who narrowly restricted the scope of the gift, and asserted that it denoted the special prerogatives appertaining to St. Peter and his successors, and these alone. Thus Cardinal Cajetan (Opusc., I, tract. iii, De Rom. Pont., c. v) held that while the power of binding and loosing belonged to all priests, the power of the keys — authority to open and shut — was proper to the supreme pontiff; and that this expression signified his authority to rule the Church, to define dogma, to legislate, and to dispense from laws. A similar opinion would seem to have been held by the Franciscans whose views are rejected by John XXII (loc. cit.). They contended that the popes held a clavis scientioe and a clavis potentioe; and that, though in the case of the clavis potentioe a decision arrived at might be reversed be a subsequent act, no reversal was possible where the clavis scientioe had been employed.

(4) Macedo in his treatise “De Clavibus Petri” (Rome, 1660), attributes to certain theologians and canonists the opinion that the keys denote the supreme authority in the civil and ecclesiastical spheres, and that Christ conferred upon the pope a direct supremacy over both orders. We have, however, been unable to verify this statement. Indeed the writers who attributed to the pope an indirect authority only, in regard to civil governments, found an argument for their views in this very passage. They pointed out that it was the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and not of the kingdoms of this earth, which Christ bestowed upon His vicar.

(Greek laos, “the people”; whence laikos, “one of the people”).

Laity means the body of the faithful, outside of the ranks of the clergy. This article treats the subject under three heads: (1) General Idea; (2) Duties and Rights of the Laity; (3) Privileges and Restrictions of the Laity.

General idea

Whereas the word faithful is opposed to infidel, unbaptized, one outside the pale of Christian society, the word laity is opposed to clergy. The laity and clergy, or clerics, belong to the same society, but do not occupy the same rank. The laity are the members of this society who remain where they were placed by baptism, while the clergy, even if only tonsured, have been raised by ordination to a higher class, and placed in the sacred hierarchy. The Church is a perfect society, though all therein are not equal; it is composed of two kinds of members (see can. “Duo sunt”, vii, Caus. 12, Q. i, of uncertain origin): in the first place, those who are the depositaries of sacred or spiritual authority under its triple aspect, government, teaching, and worship, i.e. the clergy, the sacredhierarchy established by Divine law (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXIII, can. vi); in the second place, those over whom this power is exercised, who are governed, taught, and sanctified, the Christian people, the laity; though for that matterclerics also, considered as individuals, are governed, taught, and sanctified. But the laity are not the depositaries of spiritual power; they are the flock confided to the care of the shepherds, the disciples who are instructed in the Word of God, the subjects who are guided by the successors of the Apostles towards the last end, which is eternal life. Such is the constitution which Our Saviour has given to His Church.

This is not the place for a detailed demonstration of this assertion, the proof of which may be reduced to the following points more fully developed under CHURCH: on the one hand, a distinction between the governed and those governing is necessary in every organized society; now Jesus Christ established His Church as a real society, endowed with all the authority requisite for the attaining of its object. On the other hand, in the Church, government has always been in the hands of those who were entrusted exclusively with the teaching of doctrine and the care of Divine worship. If one studies without prejudice the New Testament and the beginnings of Christianity, some doubt may arise on certain matters of detail; but the conclusion will certainly be that every Christian community had its superiors, these superiors had a stable spiritual authority, and this authority had as its end the exclusive care of religious functions (including teaching) as well as the government of the community. There have been differences of opinion concerning the origin of the monarchial episcopacy, which soon became the sole form of ecclesiastical organization; but no one holds that the monarchial episcopacy succeeded a period of anarchy or of government by a community where all had equal authority. The organization of all Christian Churches under the authority of the bishops and clergy, as early as the third century, is so evident as to place beyond all doubt the existence at that time of two distinct classes, the clergy and the laity. Moreover, in all societies among which Christianity had spread, religious service had already its special ministers, and the Christian organization would have retrograded if its worship and its sacrifice had not been entrusted exclusively to a special class.

Christ selected the Apostles from among His disciples, and among the Apostles He selected Peter to be their head. He entrusted them with the furtherance of His work; to them he confided the power of the keys, i.e. spiritual authority, for they are the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 16:19); He gave them the mission to teach and baptize all nations (Matthew 28:18); to them also He addressed those words at the Last Supper: Do this in commemoration of me” (Luke 22:19). As soon as the Church begins to live, the Apostles appear as its leaders; they are distinct from the “multitude of believers”; it is into their ranks that they bring Matthias (Acts 1:15), and later, by the command of the Holy Ghost, Saul and Barnabas, whom they receive with the imposition of hands (Acts 13:2). Wherever St. Paul founds Churches he gives them leaders “placed by the Holy Spirit to govern the Church of God” (Acts 20:28); the Pastoral Epistles reveal to us a directing body composed of the bishops, or priests, and deacons (Epistle of Clement 43.4); and they it is, especially the bishops, who perform exclusively the liturgical services (Ignatius, Smyrnæans 8). If at times the Christian people participate in the Divine service or the government, they never appear acting independently nor even on an equal footing with the heads of the community (cf. Batiffol, “L’Église naissante et le catholicisme”, Paris, 1909). This distinction between the two classes in the Christiansociety refers to social rank, not to individual moral perfection. It is true that the clergy, being dedicated to the service of the altar, are thereby bound to strive after perfection; yet neither their virtues not their failing influence in any way their powers. On the other hand, the laity, besides their right to aspire freely to admission into the ranks of the clergy, on complying with the requisite conditions, are exhorted to practise every virtue, even in the highest degree. They can also bind themselves to observe the evangelical counsels, under the guidance of the Church, either in the world, as did the ancient ascetics, or by withdrawing from the world into one of the many religious houses. But ascetics, nuns, and unordained members of religious associations of men were not originally in the ranks of the clergy, and, strictly speaking, are not so even today, though, on account of their closer and more special dependence on ecclesiastical authority, they have long been included under the title clergy in its wider sense (see RELIGIOUS). The juridical condition of the laity in the Christian society is therefore determined by two considerations: their separation from the clergy, which excludes them from the performance of acts reserved to the latter; and second, their subjection to the spiritual authority of the clergy, which imposes certain obligations on them, while at the same time it confers on them certain rights.

Duties and rights of the laity

Having come through Baptism to the supernatural life, being members of the Christian society and adopted children of God, the laity belong to the “chosen race”, the “royal priesthood” (1 Peter 2:9) formed of all those who are born again in Christ. They have therefore a right to share in the common spiritual goods of the Christian society, which implies a corresponding obligation on the part of the clergy to bestow on them these goods, in as far as this bestowal requires the intervention of the ministers of religion and of the spiritual authority. But if the laity are to share in these common goods they must employ more or less frequently the means of sanctification instituted by Jesus Christ in His Church, and of which the clergy have been put in charge. Further, the laity, being subject to ecclesiastical authority, must obey and respect it; but in return they have the right to obtain from it direction, protection, and service. Thus, for the laity rights and duties are, as always, correlative. The first duty of a Christian is to believe; the first obligation imparted to the laity is, therefore, to learn the truths of faith and of religion, at first by means of the catechism and religious instruction, and later by being present at sermons, missions, or retreats. If they are thus obliged to learn, they have the right to be instructed and consequently to require their priests to give them and their children Christian teaching in the ordinary way. Second, a Christian’smoral conduct should be in keeping with his faith; he must, therefore, preserve his spiritual life by the means which Jesus has established in His Church; The Divine service, especially the Mass, the Sacraments, and other sacred rites.

This necessity of having recourse to the pastoral ministry gives rise to a right in the laity as regards the clergy, the right of obtaining from them the administration of the sacraments, especially Penance and the Holy Eucharist, and others according to circumstances; also all the other acts of Christian worship, especially the Mass, the sacramentals and other rites, and lastly Christian burial. These are the spiritual goods destined for the sanctification of souls; if the clergy are appointed to administer them, they are not free dispensers, and they are bound to give their services to the faithful, as long, at least, as the latter have not by their own fault placed themselves in a condition that deprives them of the right to demand these services. Considered from the standpoint of the laity, this recourse to the ministry of the clergy is sometimes obligatory and sometimes optional, according to circumstances. It may be an obligation imposed by a command of the Church, or necessitated by personal reasons; in other cases, it may be a matter of counsel and left to the devotion of each one. This is a subject which exhibits most clearly the difference between a precept and a counsel with regard to our outward Christian life. Assistance at Mass on Sundays and holy days of obligation, annual confession, Easter communion, the reception of the viaticum and the last services of religion, the celebration of marriage in the prescribed form, the baptism and religious instruction of children, and, finally, the rites of Christian burial—all these suppose a recourse to the ministry of the clergy which is of obligation for the laity, abstracting from individual cases when there may be a legitimate excuse. On the other hand, more or less frequent confessions and communions, hearing of daily Mass, frequenting the Divine Office, asking for special ceremonies (for instance, churching) celebration of Masses, obtaining services and prayers for the dead or for other intentions, are things that are perfectly legitimate and are counselled, but are optional. We may also mention the obligatory or free acts intended for the personal sanctification of the laity, but which do not require the help of the clergy: private prayerfasting and abstinence, avoidance of servile work on Sundays and holy days of obligation, and, lastly, in general all that relates to the moral life and the observance of the commandments of God.

From these obligatory and optional relations existing between the laity and the clergy there arise certain duties of the former towards the latter. In the first place, respect and deference should be shown to the clergy, especially in the exercise of their function, on account of their sacredcharacter and the Divine authority with which they are invested (Conc. Trid., Sess. XXV, c. xx). This respect should be shown in daily intercourse, and laymen inspired with a truly Christianspirit do homage to God in the person of His ministers, even when the conduct of the latter is not in keeping with the sanctity of their state. In the second place the laity are obliged, in proportion to their means and circumstances of the case, to contribute towards the expenses of Divine service and the fitting support of the clergy; this is an obligation incumbent on them in return for the right which they have to the services of their priests with regard to the Mass and other spiritual exercises. These contributions fall under two distinct classes: certain gifts and offerings of the faithful are intended in general for the Divine services and the support of the clergy; others, on the contrary, are connected with various acts of the sacred ministry which are freely asked for, such as the stipends for Masses, the dues for funeral services, marriages, etc. There is no fixed sum for the former class, the matter being left to the generosity of the faithful; in many countries they have taken the place of the fixed incomes that the various churches and the clergy were possessed of, arising especially from landed property; they have likewise replaced the tithes, no longer recognized by the secular governments. The latter class, however, are fixed by ecclesiastical authority or custom and may be demanded in justice; not that this is paying for sacred things, which would be simony, but they are offerings for the Divine service and the clergy on the occasion of certain definite acts (see OFFERINGSTITHES).

There remains to speak of the duties and rights of the laity towards the ecclesiastical authority as such, in matters foreign to the sacred ministry. The duties, which affect both laity and clergy, consist in submission and obedience to legitimate hierarchical authority: the pope, the bishops, and, in a proportionate degree, the parishpriests and other acting ecclesiastics. The decisions, judgments, orders, and directions of our lawful pastors, in matters of doctrinemorals, discipline, and even administration, must be accepted and obeyed by all members of the Christian society, at least in as far as they are subject to that authority. That is a condition requisite to the well-being of any society whatsoever. However, in the case of the Christian society, authoritative decisions and directions, in as far as they are concerned with faith and morals, bind not merely to exterior acts and formal obedience; they are, moreover, a matter of conscience and demand loyal interior acceptance. On the other hand, seeing that in the Church the superiors have been established for the welfare of the subjects, so that the pope himself glories in the title “servant of the servants of God”, the faithful have the right to expect the care, vigilance, and protection of their pastors; in particular they have the right to refer their disputes to the ecclesiastical authorities for decision, to consult them in case of doubt or difficulty, and to ask for suitable guidance for their religious or moral conduct.

Privileges and restrictions of the laity

Since the laity is distinct from the clergy, and since Divine worship, doctrinal teaching, and ecclesiastical government are reserved, at least in essentials, to the latter, it follows that the former may not interfere in purely clerical offices; they can participate only in a secondary and accessory manner, and that in virtue of a more or less explicit authorization. Any other interference would be an unlawful and guilty usurpation, punishable at times with censures and penalties. We will apply this principle now to matters of worship, teaching, and government or administration.

As to the liturgy

As to Divine service, the liturgy and especially the essential act of the Christian worship, the Holy Sacrifice, the active ministers are the clergy alone. But the laity really join in it. Not only do they assist at the Sacrifice and receive its spiritual effects, but they offer it through the ministry of the priest. Formerly they could, and even were obliged to, bring and offer at the altar the mater of the sacrifice, i.e. the bread and wine; that is what they really do today by their offerings and their stipends for Masses. At several parts of the Mass, the prayers mention them as offering the sacrifice together with the clergy, especially in the passage immediately after the consecration: “Unde et memores, nos servi tui (the clergy) sed et plebs tua sancta (the laity) . . . offerimus praeclare Majestati tuae, de tuis donis ac datis”, etc. The laity reply to the salutations and invitations of the celebrant, thus joining in the solemn prayer; especially do they share in the Holy Victim by Holy Communion (confined for them in the Latin Liturgy to the species of bread), which they can receive also outside of the time of Mass and at home in case of illness. Such is the participation of the laity in the Liturgy, and strictly they are limited to that; all the active portion is performed by the clergy.

Regularly, no layman may sit within the presbyterium, or sanctuary, nor may he read any part of the Liturgy, much less pray publicly, or serve the priest at the altar, or, above all, offer the Sacrifice. However, owing to the almost complete disappearance of the inferior clergy, there has gradually arisen the custom of appointing lay persons to perform certain minor clerical duties. In most of our churches, the choirboys, schoolboys, sacristans, and chanters, serve low Masses and Missae cantatae, occupy places in the sanctuary, and act as acolytes, thurifers, masters of ceremonies, and even as lectors. On such occasions they are given, at least in solemn services, a clerical costume, the cassock and surplice, as if to admit them temporarily to the ranks of the clergy and thus recognize and safeguard the principle of excluding the laity. These remarks apply not only to the celebration of Mass, but to all liturgical services: the laity are separated from the clergy. In processions especially, confraternities and other bodies of the laity precede the clergy; the women being first, then the men, next regular clergy, and lastly the secular clergy.

In the administration of the sacraments, the sacramentals, and other like liturgical offices, the same principle applies, and ordinarily everything is reserved to the clergy. But it should be mentioned that the laity may administer baptism in cases of necessity, and though not of practical importance with regard to adults, this frequently occurs when children are in danger of death. In the early ages, the faithful carried away the Blessed Eucharist to their homes and gave themselves the Holy Communion (cf. Tertullian, “Ad uxorem”, ii, 5). That was a purely material administration of the sacrament, and hardly differed from the communion ceremony in the church, where the consecrated host was placed in the hand of each communicant. We should mention also that the use of the blessed oil by those who were sick, if that be considered an administration of extreme unction (cf. the Decretal of Innocent I to Decentius of Eugubium, n. 8; serm. cclxv and cclxxix; append. of the works of St. Augustine, really the work of St. Caesarius of Arles). But those practices have long since disappeared. As to matrimony, if the sacrament itself, which is none other than the contract, has as its authors the lay persons contracting, the liturgical administration is reserved today, as formerly, to the clergy. With these exceptions, there is nothing to prevent the laity from using the liturgical prayers in their private devotions, from reciting the Divine Office, or the various Little Offices drawn up particularly for them, or from joining in associations or confraternities to practise together and according to rule certain pious exercises, the confraternities having been formed lawfully in virtue of episcopal approbation.

As to doctrine

The body of the faithful is strictly speaking the Ecclesia docta (the Church taught), in contrast with the Ecclesia docens (the teaching Church), which consists of the pope and the bishops. When there is question, therefore, of the official teaching of religious doctrine, the laity is neither competent nor authorized to speak in the name of God and the Church (cap. xii et sq., lib. V, tit. vii, “de haereticis”). Consequently they are not allowed to preach in church, or to undertake to defend the Catholic doctrine in public discussions with heretics. But in their private capacity, they may most lawfully defend and teach their religion by word and writing, while submitting themselves to the control and guidance of ecclesiastical authority. Moreover, they may be appointed to give doctrinal instruction more or less officially, or may even become the defenders of Catholic truth. Thus they give excellent help to the clergy in teaching catechism, the lay masters in our schools give religious instruction, and some laymen have received a missio canonica, or due ecclesiastical authorization, to teach the religioussciences in universities and seminaries; the important point in this, as in other matters, is for them to be submissive to the legitimate teaching authority.

As to jurisdiction and administration

The principle is that the laity as such have no share in the spiritual jurisdiction and government of the Church; but they may be commissioned or delegated by ecclesiastical authority to exercise certain rights, especially when there is no question of strictly spiritual jurisdiction, for instance, in the administration of property. The laity are incapable, if not by Divine law at least by canon law, of real jurisdiction in the Church, according to chap. x, “De constit.” (lib. I. tit. ii): “Attendentes quod laicis etiam religiosis super ecclesiis et personis ecclesiasticis nulla sit atributa facultas, quos obsequendi manet necessitas non auctoritas imperandi”, i.e., the laity have no authority over things or persons ecclesiastical; it is their duty to obey not to command. Therefore no official acts requiring real ecclesiastical jurisdiction can be properly performed by the laity; if performed by them, they are null and void. A layman therefore cannot be at the head of a Church or any Christian community, nor can he legislate in spiritual matters, no act as judge in essentially ecclesiastical cases. In particular, the laity (and by this word we here include the secular authority) cannot bestow ecclesiastical jurisdiction on clerics under the form of an election properly so called, conferring the right to an episcopal or other benefice. An election by the laity alone, or one in which the laity took part, would be absolutely null and void (c. lvi, “De elect.”) (see ELECTION). But this refers to canonical election strictly so called, conferring jurisdiction on the right to receive it; if it is merely a question, on the other hand, of selecting an individual, either by way or presentation or a similar process, the laity are not excluded, for the canonical institution, the source of spiritual jurisdiction, is exclusively reserved to the ecclesiastical authority. That is why no objection can be raised against the principle we have laid down from the fact that the people took part in the episcopal elections in the first ages of the Church; to speak more accurately, the people manifested their wish rather than took part in the election; the real electors were the clerics; and lastly, the bishops who were present were the judges of the election, so that in reality the final decision rested in the hands of the ecclesiastical authority. It cannot be denied that in the course of time the secular power encroached on the ground of spiritual jurisdiction, especially in the case of episcopalelections; but the Church always asserted her claim to independence where spiritual jurisdiction was involved, as may be clearly seen in the history of the famous dispute about investitures (q.v.).

When jurisdiction properly so called is duly protected, and there is question of administering temporal goods, the laity may and do enjoy as a fact real rights recognized by the Church. The most important is that of presentation or election in the wide sense of the term, now known as nomination, by which certain laymen select for the ecclesiastical authorities the person whom they wish to see invested with certain benefices or offices. The best known example is that of nomination to sees and other benefices by temporal princes, who have obtained that privilege by concordats. Another case recognized and carefully provided for in canon law is the right of patronage. This right is granted to those who from their own resources have established a benefice or who have at least amply endowed it (contributing more than one-third of the revenue). The patrons can, from the moment of foundation, reserve to themselves and their descendants, the right of active and passive patronage, not to mention other privileges rather honorary in their nature; in exchange for these rights, they undertake to protect and maintain their foundation. The right of active patronage consists principally in the presentation of the cleric to be invested with the benefice by the ecclesiastical authorities, provided he fulfils the requisite conditions. The right of passive patronage consists in the fact that the candidates for the benefice are to be selected from the descendants or the family of the founder. The patrons enjoy by right a certain precedence, among other things the right to a more prominent seat in the churches founded or supported by them; sometimes, also, they enjoy other honours; they can reserve to themselves a part in the administration of the property of the benefice; finally, if they fall upon evil days, the Church is obliged to help them from the property that was acquired through the generosity of their ancestors. All these rights, it is clear, and particularly that of presentation, are concessions made by the Church, and not privileges which the laity have of their own right.

It is but equitable that those who furnish the resources required by the Church should not be excluded from their administration. For that reason the participation of the laity in the administration of church property, especially parish property, is justified. Under the different names such as, “building councils”, “parish councils”, “trustees”, etc., and with rules carefully drawn up or approved by the ecclesiastical authorities, and often even recognized by the civil law, there exist almost everywhere administrative organizations charged with the care of the temporal goods of churches and other ecclesiastical establishments; most of the members are laymen; they are selected in various ways, generally co-option, subject to the approval of the bishop. But this honourable office does not belong to the laity in their own right; it is a privilege granted to them by the Church, which alone has the right to administer her own property (Conc. Plen. Baltim. III, n. 284 sq.); they must conform to the regulations and act under the control of the ordinary, with whom ultimately the final decision rests; lastly and above all, they must confine their energies to temporal administration and never encroach on the reserved domain of spiritual things (Conc. Plen. Baltim. II, n. 201; see ECCLESIASTICAL BUILDINGS). Lastly, there are many educational and charitable institutions, founded and directed by laymen, and which are not strictly church property, though they are regularly subject to the control of the ordinary (Conc. Trid., Seess. VII, c. xv; Sess. XXII, c. viii); the material side of these works is not the most important, and to attain their end, the laity who govern there will above all be guided and directed by the advice of their pastors, whose loyal and respectful auxiliaries they will prove themselves to be.


APOCALYPTO FACTS (Eclipse Cola SC 2017)


Each day now seems to bring a new announcement of a talk, a workshop, or an event related to the eclipse. With tens of millions of people headed for the zone of totality, it’s going to be the biggest science event in history. In this blog I list 25 of the eclipse’s important details for our readership, the general public, and the media. Read them, and learn about the event. But for sure plan to experience totality. You’ll remember it for the rest of your life as the greatest thing you ever saw!

1. This will be the first total solar eclipse in the continental U.S. in 38 years. The last one occurred February 26, 1979. Unfortunately, not many people saw it because it clipped just five states in the Northwest and the weather for the most part was bleak. Before that one, you have to go back to March 7, 1970.

2. A solar eclipse is a lineup of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth. The Moon, directly between the Sun and Earth, casts a shadow on our planet. If you’re in the dark part of that shadow (the umbra), you’ll see a total eclipse. If you’re in the light part (the penumbra), you’ll see a partial eclipse.

3. A solar eclipse happens at New Moon. The Moon has to be between the Sun and Earth for a solar eclipse to occur. The only lunar phase when that happens is New Moon.

4. Solar eclipses don’t happen at every New Moon. The reason is that the Moon’s orbit tilts 5° to Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Astronomers call the two intersections of these paths nodes. Eclipses only occur when the Sun lies at one node and the Moon is at its New (for solar eclipses) or Full (for lunar eclipses) phase. During most (lunar) months, the Sun lies either above or below one of the nodes, and no eclipse happens.

5. Eclipse totalities are different lengths. The reason the total phases of solar eclipses vary in time is because Earth is not always at the same distance from the Sun and the Moon is not always the same distance from Earth. The Earth-Sun distance varies by 3 percent and the Moon-Earth distance by 12 percent. The result is that the Moon’s apparent diameter can range from 7 percent larger to 10 percent smaller than the Sun.

6. It’s all about magnitude and obscuration. Astronomers categorize each solar eclipse in terms of its magnitude and obscuration, and I don’t want you to be confused when you encounter these terms. The magnitude of a solar eclipse is the percent of the Sun’s diameter that the Moon covers during maximum eclipse. The obscuration is the percent of the Sun’s total surface area covered at maximum. Here’s an example: If the Moon covers half the Sun’s diameter (in this case the magnitude equals 50 percent), the amount of obscuration (the area of the Sun’s disk the Moon blots out) will be 39.1 percent.

7. Solar eclipses occur between Saros cycles. Similar solar and lunar eclipses recur every 6,585.3 days (18 years, 11 days, 8 hours). Scientists call this length of time a Saros cycle. Two eclipses separated by one Saros cycle are similar. They occur at the same node, the Moon’s distance from Earth is nearly the same, and they happen at the same time of year.

8. Everyone in the continental U.S. will see at least a partial eclipse. In fact, if you have clear skies on eclipse day, the Moon will cover at least 48 percent of the Sun’s surface. And that’s from the northern tip of Maine.

9. It’s all about totality. Not to cast a shadow on things, but likening a partial eclipse to a total eclipse is like comparing almost dying to dying. I know that 48 percent sounds like a lot. It isn’t. You won’t even notice your surroundings getting dark. And it doesn’t matter whether the partial eclipse above your location is 48, 58, or 98 percent. Only totality reveals the true celestial spectacle: the diamond ring, the Sun’s glorious corona, strange colors in our sky, and seeing stars in the daytime.

Only being on the center line will allow viewers to see the diamond rings and the interval of totality between them. // Ian Wardlaw

10. You want to be on the center line. This probably isn’t a revelation, but the Moon’s shadow is round. If it were square, it wouldn’t matter where you viewed totality. People across its width would experience the same duration of darkness. The shadow is round, however, so the longest eclipse occurs at its center line because that’s where you’ll experience the Moon’s shadow’s full width.

11. First contact is in Oregon. If you want to be the first person to experience totality in the continental U.S., be on the waterfront at Government Point, Oregon, at 10:15:56.5 a.m. PDT. There, the total phase lasts 1 minute, 58.5 seconds.

12. The center line crosses through 12 states. After a great west-to-east path across Oregon, the center line takes roughly nine minutes to cross a wide swath of Idaho, entering the western part of the state just before 11:25 a.m. MDT and leaving just before 11:37 a.m. MDT. Next up is Wyoming, where the umbral center line dwells until just past 11:49 a.m. MDT. From 11:47 a.m. MDT until 1:07 CDT (note the time zone change!), the dark part of the Moon’s shadow lies in Nebraska. The center line hits the very northeastern part of Kansas at 1:04 p.m. CDT and enters Missouri a scant two minutes later. At 1:19, the shadow’s midpoint crosses the Mississippi River, which at that location is the state border with Illinois. The center line leaves Illinois at its Ohio River border with Kentucky just past 1:24 p.m. CDT. Totality for that state starts there two minutes earlier and lasts until nearly 1:29 p.m. CDT. The center line crosses the border into Tennessee around 1:26 p.m. CDT. Then, just past the midpoint of that state, the time zone changes to Eastern. North Carolina has the midpoint of the eclipse from 2:34 p.m. EDT until just past 2:38 p.m. EDT. The very northeastern tip of Georgia encounters the center line from just past 2:35 p.m. EDT until not quite 2:39 p.m. EDT. Finally, it’s South Carolina’s turn. The last of the states the center line crosses sees its duration from 2:36 p.m. EDT to 2:39 p.m. EDT.

13. Totality lasts a maximum of 2 minutes and 40.2 seconds. That’s it. To experience that length, you’ll need to be slightly south of Carbondale, Illinois, in Giant City State Park. You might think about getting there early.

14. The end of the eclipse for the U.S. is not on land. The center line’s last contact with the U.S. occurs at the Atlantic Ocean’s edge just southeast of Key Bay, South Carolina. I’m pretty sure the crowd won’t be huge there.

15. Cool things are afoot before and after totality. Although the big payoff is the exact lineup of the Sun, the Moon, and your location, keep your eyes open during the partial phases that lead up to and follow it. As you view the beginning through a safe solar filter, the universe will set your mind at ease when you see the Moon take the first notch out of the Sun’s disk. Around the three-quarters mark, you’ll start to notice that shadows are getting sharper. The reason is that the Sun’s disk is shrinking, literally approaching a point, and a smaller light source produces better-defined shadows. At about 85 percent coverage, someone you’re with will see Venus 34° west-northwest of the Sun. If any trees live at your site, you may see their leaves act like pinhole cameras as hundreds of crescent Suns appear in their shadows.

16. This eclipse will be the most-viewed ever. I base this proclamation on four factors: 1) the attention it will get from the media; 2) the superb coverage of the highway system in our country; 3) the typical weather on that date; and 4) the vast number of people who will have access to it from nearby large cities.

17. Only one large city has a great view. Congratulations if you’re one of the 609,000 people lucky enough to live in Nashville. The city center and parts north of it will experience 2+ minutes of totality. Unfortunately, that’s the only large city with a great view. In the tally below, column 1 lists 25 other large metropolitan areas. The second column shows the amount of the Sun’s surface the Moon will cover as seen by viewers in each city.

Atlanta 97 percent
Boston 63 percent
Chicago 87 percent
Cincinnati 91 percent
Dallas 76 percent
Denver 92 percent
Detroit 79 percent
Houston 67 percent
Indianapolis 91 percent
Las Vegas 72 percent
Los Angeles 62 percent
Memphis 93 percent
Miami 78 percent
Milwaukee 83 percent
Minneapolis 83 percent
New Orleans 75 percent
New York City 72 percent
Oklahoma City 84 percent
Philadelphia 75 percent
Phoenix 63 percent
Pittsburgh 81 percent
Portland 99 percent
Salt Lake City 91 percent
Seattle 92 percent
Washington, D.C. 81 percent

Now a brief follow-up: about half of both Kansas City (pop. = 464,000) and Saint Louis (pop. = 318,000) lie within the path of totality. Unfortunately, the center line doesn’t pass through either of them. An educated guess then, tells me that most residents interested in the eclipse will drive 30 minutes or so for an extra two minutes of totality.

18. A few small cities are well-placed. Here’s a list of smaller municipalities either on the center line or near it with their approximate populations.

Carbondale, Illinois 26,000
Casper, Wyoming 58,000
Columbia, Missouri 113,000
Columbia, South Carolina 132,000
Grand Island, Nebraska 50,000
Greenville, South Carolina 61,000
Hopkinsville, Kentucky 33,000
Idaho Falls, Idaho 58,000
Jefferson City, Missouri 43,000
Paducah, Kentucky 25,000
Saint Joseph, Missouri 77,000
Salem, Oregon 157,000

19. Totality is safe to look at. During the time the Moon’s disk covers that of the Sun, it’s safe to look at the eclipse. In fact, to experience the awesomeness of the event, you must look at the Sun without a filter during totality.

20. Yes, the Sun’s a lot bigger. Our daytime star’s diameter is approximately 400 times larger than that of the Moon. What a coincidence that it also lies roughly 400 times farther away. This means both disks appear to be the same size.

21. You won’t need a telescope. One of the great things about the total phase of a solar eclipse is that it looks best to naked eyes. The sight of the corona surrounding the Moon’s black disk in a darkened sky is unforgettable. That said, binoculars give you a close-up view — but still at relatively low power — that you should take advantage of several times during the event.

22. Nature will take heed. Depending on your surroundings, as totality nears you may experience strange things. Look. You’ll notice a resemblance to the onset of night, though not exactly. Areas much lighter than the sky near the Sun lie all around the horizon. Shadows look different. Listen. Usually, any breeze will dissipate and birds (many of whom will come in to roost) will stop chirping. It is quiet. Feel. A 10°–15° F drop in temperature is not unusual.

23. Maximum totality is not the longest possible in 2017. The longest possible duration of the total phase of a solar eclipse is 7 minutes and 32 seconds. Unfortunately, the next solar eclipse whose totality approaches 7 minutes won’t occur until June 13, 2132. Its 6 minutes and 55 seconds of totality will be the longest since the 7 minutes and 4 seconds of totality June 30, 1973.

24. The future is bright but long. The next total solar eclipse over the continental U.S. occurs April 8, 2024. It’s a good one, too. Depending on where you are (on the center line), the duration of totality lasts at least 3 minutes and 22 seconds on the east coast of Maine and stretches to 4 minutes and 27 seconds in southwestern Texas. After that eclipse, it’s a 20-year wait until August 23, 2044 (and, similar to the 1979 event, that one is visible only in Montana and North Dakota). Total solar eclipses follow in 2045 and 2078.

25. This event will happen! As astronomers (professional or amateur), some of the problems we have are due to the uncertainty and limited visibility of some celestial events. Comets may appear bright if their compositions are just so. Meteor showers might reach storm levels if we pass through a thick part of the stream. (Oh, and the best views are after midnight.) A supernova as bright as a whole galaxy is visible now, but you need a telescope to view it. In contrast, this solar eclipse will occur when we say, where we say, for how long we say, and in the daytime, no less. Guaranteed!

BONUS: Facts are great, but I also posted a list of two-dozen-plus-one tips you might find useful. Check out Two dozen tips for the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse.

Tags: Michael Bakich solar eclipse





DARKMATTER2525 NEW 10 Commandments





Ive watched this over & over. Im still experiencing the same bewildered and a bit ashamed of those who support & teach these OUTRAGEOUSLY RIDICULOUS theories passed down among the familiar Christian groups of sheeple. Are you as ashamed of the de-evolution of human consciousness through time, as we who are awakened now experience? If not, it’s a sure bet you are ASLEEP (spiritually) and in desperate need of this wake up call.. this is our purpose. Namaste Starseed Siblings

ARMOURED SKEPTIK @ the Field Museum (science vs idiots) 

JONATHON PIE “And THAT was the f%*~ing news!”

ARMOURED SKEPTIK (Debate: Ken Hamm vs Bill Nye)


curling one off in front of the fridge..omg the visuals..some ppl have the gift and ability to literary give visuals through words with intense expression. He’s one of the best:) 



PSA/DNA Adds Embedded Hologram Technology To Certificates of Authenticity

PSA/DNA Authentication Services  has now added an embedded hologram to its certificates of authenticity (COA), providing customers with  the same technological advance that the company added to its letters of authenticity last fall.

PSA/DNA issues four types of COAs: its regular PSA/DNA certificate, signed-in-the-presence certificates for autographs witnessed by PSA representatives as well as RookieBall™ and RookieGraph™ autograph COAs.  All four types of PSA/DNA COAs now have the embedded PSA/DNA logo hologram.

“We’re always looking at ways to improve security features of our products, and this is another major stop in combating counterfeits,” said PSA/DNA President Joe Orlando.  “The complexity of the embedded hologram technology took a long time to plan and implement, and it’s a major deterrent to counterfeiters.”

The detailed, color-changing PSA/DNA logo hologram on the COA is actually embedded into each sheet of paper used when generating PSA/DNA certificates of authenticity.

“It’s not a mere sticker placed on top of the page, but rather the hologram is actually part of the paper itself,” explained Orlando.  “Counterfeiters would have to illegally replicate the trademarked hologram and spend a huge amount of money to manufacture the paper.  There is no other third-party authentication service that uses this level of technology to offer advanced protection for collectors and dealers


CHi HUMAN MAGNETIC FIELD, DNA, MASTER #22, UNITY/Balance) Spiritually Ascended Teachers 2017 RISE!

Human Body and Bio-electromagnetism?

☆ Living cells are Electromagnetic units including human, animal and plants. Our whole body cells, tissues or organisms, sense of smell, visionary system, heart functions, endocrine system, nervous system, metabolism system everything working under Bioelectromagnetism

☆ Our brain is the hub of our nervous system. It is made up of 100 billion nerve cells. Each cell is connected to around 10,000 others. So the total number of connections in our brain is around 1000 trillion!! Our nervous system is a network of cells called neurons which transmit information in the form of electrical signals. Neurons communicate with each other at special junctions where chemicals help to bridge the gap between one neuron and the next!

☆ We know that when electricity passes through a metal it causes a magnetic field. In a similar way, human electricity in the brain and nervous system creates magnetic fields around our body. There are billions of nerve impulses in the body and these are constantly creating complex human magnetic fields!

☆ The human heart is a source of electro-magnetism at a few meters away, is detectable by modern scientific instruments. Electric force can transform into different types of energy waves, such as heat, radiation, radio and microwaves and these energy waves can travel a long distance.

☆ Electromagnetic waves can travel not only through air and solid materials, but also through space

☆ The human nervous system can create electric energy waves that can be measured with scientific instruments. The human body produces infrared radiation that, with night vision equipment, can be seen from miles.

☆ That means our whole body including endocrine system and brain working under the effect of Biomagnetic field and which is manipulated by the cosmic radiation!

​”CHi”-ara Lubich, founder of the Focolare Movement




noun: chi; plural noun: chis

  1. the twenty-second letter of the Greek alphabet ( Χχ ), transliterated in the traditional Latin style as ‘ch’ (as in Christ ) or in the modern style as ‘kh’ (as in Khaniá and in the etymologies of this dictionary).


      the twenty-second star in a constellation.

      noun: Chi

      “Chi Ophiuchi”




noun: chi; noun: qi; noun: ki

  1. variant spelling of qi.




noun: chi

  1. the circulating life force whose existence and properties are the basis of much Chinese philosophy and medicine.


from Chinese (Mandarin dialect) , literally ‘air, breath.’

POPE FRANCIS & THE UNITY OF CHURCH (Brotherhood/sisterhood)

The Focolare Movement is an international organization that promotes the ideals of unity and universal brotherhood. Founded in 1943[1] in Trento, northern Italy by Chiara Lubich as a religious movement, the Focolare Movement, though primarily Roman Catholic, now has strong links to the major Christian denominations and other religions, or in some cases, with the non-religious.

The Focolare Movement operates in 182 nations] and has over two million adherents.[2][3][4] The word “Focolare” translates into Italian as “hearth” or “family fireside”.[5] While Focolare is the common sobriquet given to this organisation, its official name as approved by the Roman Catholic Church is “Opera di Maria” or “Work of Mary”.[6]



The current president of the Focolare movement is Maria Voce,[7] who was elected in 2008.[8] Today the movement, which is now international, considers the following issues as part of its mandate: to cooperate in the consolidation of unity in the Christian world, with individuals and groups, movements and associations; to contribute to full communion with Christians of different churches; to move towards universal brotherhood with followers of various religions and people of other convictions, including those with no religious affiliation. The movement consists of 25 branches including those for families, youth, religious dialogues, etc.

Gradually, several projects have sprung up within the movement: the ‘Abba’ school, the ‘Economy of Communion’ (which is linked with more than 800 companies), evangelism within small cities, social work, and publishing magazines. The Focolare Movement is recognized by the Pope and is present in over 182 countries.


Every year the Movement holds local retreats termed Mariapolises, where members and newcomers come together to discuss the Movement and its spirituality. The first Mariapolis was held in 1949 in Fiera di Primiero, in the heart of Italy’s Dolomite mountains. Each year, over 200,000 persons attend a Mariapolis.[citation needed] At a Mariapolis, there typically is an ecumenical prayer room, or a panel discussion with leaders from multiple faiths. These short retreats are related to the Permanent Mariapolises, 33 “little towns” that serve as Focolare centers.

Building in Loppiano in 1989

Communal electrical shop at Loppiano specializing in refurbishments of power meters. Taken in 1989

The main center is located in the town of Loppiano near Florence, Italy.

Beatification of Chiara Luce BadanoEdit

Chiara Badano, a member of the Focolare movement, was beatified on September 25, 2010.

Members proposed for SainthoodEdit



  • Chiara Badano [Luce] – (1971-1990), Young Layperson of the Diocese of Aqui Terme; Member (Italy)[9]
    • Declared “Venerable”: 03 July 2008
    • Beatified: 25 September 2010


  • Jerzy Ciesielski – (1929-1970), Married Layperson of Archdiocese of Kraków; Member (Poland-Egypt)
    • Declared “Venerable”: 17 December 2013
  • Maria Orsola Bussone – (1954-1970), Young Layperson of Archdiocese of Turin; Member (Italy)
    • Declared “Venerable”: 18 March 2015
  • Daniela Zanetta – (1962-1986), Young Layperson of the Diocese of Novara; Member (Italy)
    • Declared “Venerable”: 23 March 2017

Servants of GodEdit

  • Albertina Violi Zirondoli – (1901-1972), Married Layperson of the Diocese of Fiesole; Consecrated Member (Italy)
  • Igino Giordani [Foco] – (1894-1980), Married Layperson of the Diocese of Frascati; Cofounder (Italy)
  • Alberto Michelotti – (1958-1980), Young Layperson of the Archdiocese of Genoa; Member (Italy)
  • Carlo Grisolia [Vir] – (1960-1980), Young Layperson of the Archdiocese of Genoa; Member (Italy)
  • Maria Cecilia Perrin de Buide – (1957-1985), Married Layperson of the Archdiocese of Bahia Blanca; Member (Argentina)
  • Margarita Bavosi [Luminosa] – (1941-1985), Layperson of the Archdiocese of Madrid; Consecrated Member (Argentina-Italy)
  • Renata Borlone – (1930-1990), Layperson of the Diocese of Fiesole; Consecrated Member (Italy)
  • Santa Scorese – (1968-1991), Young Layperson of the Diocese of Bari-Bitonto; Associate; Martyr (Italy)
  • Dario Porta – (1930-1996), Priest of the Diocese of Parma; Member (Italy)
  • Manuel Pascual Perrin – (1925-2000), Married Layperson of the Archdiocese of Bahia Blanca; Member (Argentina)
  • Luigia [Ginetta] Calliari – (1918-2001), Layperson of the Diocese of Osasco; Consecrated Member (Italy-Brazil)
  • Domenico Antonio Mangano – (1938-2001), Married Layperson of the Diocese of Albano; Member of the Volunteers of God – Focolare Movement (Italy)
  • Phanxico Xavie Nguyễn Văn Thuận – (1928-2002), Bishop of Nha Trang; Cardinal; Associate (Vietnam-Italy)
  • Chiara Lubich [Silvia] – (1920-2008), Layperson of the Diocese of Frascati; Founder (Italy)

Other CandidatesEdit

  • Stefano Bovo – (1975-1984), Child of the Vicariate of Rome; Member (Italy)
  • Lucia De Gasperi – (d. 2003), Layperson of the Diocese of Bolzano-Bressanone; Consecrated Member (Italy)[10]
  • Araceli Inocencio – (1922 – 2012), Married Layperson of the Diocese of Imus; Member (Philippines)
  • Pasquale Foresi – (1929 – 2015), Priest of the Diocese of Frascati; Cofounder (Italy)

New City PressEdit

New City Press, established in 1964, is an official publishing house for the Focolare movement. Among their publications is the Spirituality of Unity series, featuring the works of founder Chiara Lubich, and Understanding the Scriptures, Bible commentaries by scholars such as Daniel Harrington, Dianne Bergant, Robert Karris, and Ronald Witherup.[11]


APPOINTED DIVINE TIMES=Alignments of starry hosts

COLUMBIA, SC (WIS) – It’s an event that could temporarily double the Midlands’ population. On Monday, Aug. 21, 2017, people in and around the Columbia area will experience a rare phenomenon.

At 2:41 p.m., total darkness will set in and the temperature outside will plunge. During that afternoon, Columbia will be in the moon’s shadow for about 2 minutes and 36 seconds, as the moon passes between the Earth and the sun. The area will experience the longest period of 100 percent total solar eclipse for a metro area on the entire East Coast.

RELATED: See all the events scheduled for the OUT OF THIS WORLD event at Palmetto Weekend!

“The astronomy community here in Columbia, and really the entire country, is going nuts over this,” Matthew Whitehouse of the South Carolina State Museum Observatory said.

“Experts estimate that this total solar eclipse will be the most watched eclipse in the history of the world as we know it,” the Columbia area’s “Total Eclipse Weekend” website reports. “It will be the first total solar eclipse to make a path all the way across the U.S. in 99 years, while the last total solar eclipse to pass over a portion of the continental U.S. was in February 1979.”

RELATED: See amazing photos from the Hubble Space Telescope.

Only a handful of spots in the entire country will have a good view, and Columbia is one of them.

“Only those in the ‘path of totality’ will have the extremely rare, awe-inspiring experience of witnessing a 100 percent total eclipse,” the website reports.

Columbia is directly in that path, and Midlands tourism officials are already planning a full weekend of events ahead of the eclipse.

Merritt McNeely, the South Carolina State Museum’s Marketing Director, expects the eclipse’s economic impact for the Midlands could be “bigger than football” and could create “the largest economic impact the city has ever seen.”

She said NASA has told the State Museum and other coordinators that the eclipse could attract a million additional people to South Carolina. McNeely and others are hoping to lure the majority of those people to the greater Columbia area.

McNeely said other areas of the state, like Charleston and Greenville, will experience the eclipse. But, she said the duration of darkness will be larger in Columbia.

The website reports that only a few small communities in the Central United States will experience the eclipse for a longer period of time (by roughly five seconds) than Columbia.

Ultimately, it’s a short event that Whitehouse and others have been anticipating for years.

“Excitement level is just ramping up and ramping up as we get closer to the time,” Whitehouse said. “It’s really kind of now, as we cross into the New Year here in the next few weeks, really ramping up to fever pitch.”?

Copyright 2016 WIS.

PAUL BEGLEY (Preacher) reveals prophecy 2017

Sun Transit In Gemini 2017 (June 14, 2017) – Unveil Its Impact On You

In Vedic Astrology, Sun is also referred to as ‘Ravi’ or ‘Surya’. Administering the sign Leo, Sun is exalted in the sign Aries and is debilitated in the sign Libra. Sun is also called as ‘ATMAKARAKA’ ; Atma means ‘soul’ and Karaka means ‘indicator’. So being the indicator of soul, Sun is the giver of life. The planet Sun exemplifies father, status, respect, power, ego, heart and the eyes. The planet Sun gives us spark and immunity to stand firm in the adverse situations. It is the planet Sun which is responsible for our physical built or the personality. Sun gives will power, intellect, wisdom, prosperity, and wealth.

Sun transit in Gemini 2017

On 15th of June 2017 at 05:47 AM, Sun will enter the Gemini zodiac and will be positioned in the same till 16:38 PM on 16th of July, 2017. This transit of Sun in Gemini would have a significant impact on all the 12 zodiac signs. So let us have a glance over the impact of this transit on all the zodiac signs.

Know about the planet of optimism and individuality: Planet SUN.

The below mentioned predictions are based on your moon sign. Calculate yours through: Moon sign Calculator

हिंदी में पढ़ने के लिए यहाँ क्लिक करें


Considering the Aries sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 3rd house. During this transit period, there might be an upswing in your determination. Your aggression at work might not help you in achieving your milestone, so try to be calm and composed. There might be some health issues to your siblings. Moreover, you might get indulged in some virtuous pursuits. There might be some differences in you and your father’s opinions. It would be your sincere efforts that would help you in earning. A start of a new relationship is probable. During this transit period, your love life would improve after some confusions.

REMEDY: Worship your ancestors with utmost devotion.



Contemplating the Taurus sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 2nd house. During this transit period, your earnings would increase and you might receive gains through land or property. You need to be calm and composed, as bitterness in your speech might lead you in hot waters. In this transit period, yours and your spouse’s health might decline. Moreover, you might have some issues within your family. You need to take proper care of your diet and hygiene. Apart from this, you might receive gains by renting out your property.

REMEDY: Worship little girls as goddess and take their blessings.



Analysing the Gemini sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your own sign. This transit would bring about aggression in your behaviour and harshness in your speech. Therefore, you need to be calm and composed, as it might affect your relationship. There might be some tiffs in your marital life, and you might dominate your spouse. During this transit period, your health might decline and fever, headache might occur. Your siblings would support you and they would enjoy their progress in their lives.

REMEDY: Donate jaggery on Sunday.



Assessing the Cancer sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 12th house. During this transit period, you might go abroad or you might plan for the same. You would supercede your opponents and legal cases might fall in your favour. In this transit period, huge expenses is presaged. You should not avoid any of the minor health issues, as it might trouble you. Moreover, health issues to spouse is also probable. Apart from this, you might also invest somewhere in abroad.

REMEDY: Worship Lord Shiva and offer him wheat grains.



Pondering over the Leo sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 11th house. During this transit period, huge gains are probable. You would witness an enhancement in your social status. You would also enjoy the company of your friends and loved ones. In this transit period, your relations with the eminent people of the society would get established and you would receive benefits through them. You might also receive gains through government. Trouble and problems in love matters is also presaged. Moreover, children might feel pretty irritated and may get down as far as their health is concerned.

Remedy: Apply saffron tilak on your forehead.



Observing the Virgo sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 10th house. During this transit period, a higher position at workplace is presaged which would indicate an elevation in your professional status. You might receive gains through foreign collaboration or you might get work in MNC’s in a foreign country. Probability of tiffs in your domestic life is there, and health of your parents might get considerably affected. In this transit period, you might have to work hard and you might give your priority to your work.

REMEDY: Chant Surya Mantra before 8 Am everyday.



Deeming the Libra sign, it can be inferred that Sun will move into your 9th house. During this transit period, there would be a rise in your income and this time period would be favourable for your father. In this transit period, long journeys would prove to be beneficial for you. Moreover, you would experience a rise in your name and fame during this transit period. You would also experience an elevation in your professional status. However, there might be some issues with siblings, but your determination would be pretty high. Apart from this, gains from government or government officials is also presaged.

REMEDY: Offer water to God Sun.


Curious as to how 2017 would turn out to be according to Numerology,click on the link.


Considering the Scorpio sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 8th house. During this transit period, you must take better care of your health. There is a probability that any perineal disease might develop and you need to avoid chillies, spicy and oily food. Harshness in the speech of your spouse might increase, so you need to refrain yourself from getting into arguments. Tiffs in your family is presaged and undesired travelling is also probable. In this transit period, you might experience loss of money and you would go through the ups & downs as far as your career is concerned. Moreover, you need to work hard in order to remain in the vision of your seniors.

REMEDY: Worship Lord Shiva and offer him jaggery.



Contemplating the Sagittarius sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 7th house. During this transit period, you would have gains through your spouse. Your social status would get enhanced and also you would receive gains through the government. In this transit period, you would get the support of your seniors. Ego clashes in your marital life is presaged, and if you are planning for love marriage then you might get success in that after going through big disputes and problems. Moreover, health issues to spouse is probable. This transit period would bring about an elevation in your professional status.

REMEDY: Offer water to God Sun in a copper vessel and mix kumkum in it.



Esteeming the Capricorn sign, it can be said that Sun will move into your 6th house. During this transit period, you would be pretty exuberant and high spirited. You would dominate your enemies and opponents, and they may not even dare to confront you. During this transit period, you may be able to pay your debts or loans. Moreover, you might get affected by one of the perineal diseases. In this time period, you need to drive carefully, as injuries might happen. Also, your expenses would increase, but you would be able to get away with legal cases. You need to abstain yourself from getting indulged in any kind of dispute. You would be successful at your workplace if you would work hard.

REMEDY: Feed ox on Sundays with wheat grains and jaggery.

Free Kundli Matching for Marriage



Taking the Aquarius sign into account, it can be said that Sun will move into your 5th house. There might be some health issues to the children in this transit period. Ego clash and quarrels in your love matters is also presaged. You might think of giving a name to your relationship, but it would be a tough call and you would have to face opposition as well. Your spouse would receive huge gains and also you might think of changing your job. Moreover, health complications might trouble you.

REMEDY: Donate copper on Sundays.



Observing the Pisces sign, it can be deduced that Sun will move into your 4th house. During this transit period, there might be tiffs in your domestic life and also there might be some health issues to your parents. There might be ego clash at your workplace, but you would be able to cope up with all the challenges with your firm determination. Your spouse might gain in position or authority at her workplace. Moreover, you might try to dominate others at your home, and this could create some issues. But on the contrary, this transit period would be a progressive period for you as far as your career is concerned.

REMEDY: Donate wheat on Sunday.


Get your free Birth Chart Analysis, here.

We at AstroSage, hope to have helped you to reveal the mystery of this transit and how it would pan out for you.!!

NATO 2017

​”Sed alia fuere, quae illos magnos fecere, quae nobis nulla sunt: domi industria, foris iustum imperium, animus in consulendo liber, neque delicto neque lubidini obnoxius”

Translated (from Latin into English)

“But there were other things, things that made them great, which we do not possess at all: work at home, in the streets of a just rule, the mind in the way of counsel, a free man, incapable of crime or misconduct, be liable to “